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Set Topology

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Preface
These lecture notes are organized/based on lectures of Set Topology (MTH251) delivered at
CUI, Islamabad.

Sohail Iqbal
Fall 2019

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Metric space
Metric spaces are those spaces where we have a precise notion of distance, that is, there is a
well-defined distance between two objects. These notion of measuring distance includes,
distance between two point of Euclidean space, between points on manifolds, two DNA’s, and
beyond.
The ability to measure distance between two points from a set is often crucial and is a basic
requirement for most of the analysis with wide applications in science and engineering. We
shall see some of the applications, namely, error-correcting codes, DNA sequences, etc.
Main sketch of the course: as we know that in calculus we study functions and their geometric
properties, e.g, the expressions known as graphs. Since topology deals with understanding
geometry we will be investigating properties of functions as well in a general set up where ℝ is
replaces with any set where we can measure distance.

Calculus Set topology

Study topological/geometrical properties of Study topological properties of


functions of the form functions of the form
𝑓: ℝ → ℝ, 𝑔: ℝ → ℝ 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇
 Limit where 𝑆 and 𝑇 are metric
 Continuity spaces/topological spaces.
 Maximum value of functions
 Limit
 Connectedness
 Continuity
 Maximum value of functions
 Connectedness

Of course, other concepts like, derivative and integration can also be considered in a
topology/metric but it will not be our focus in this course.

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Let us start from the definition of the metric.

Definition (Metric or distance function) A metric on a set 𝑋 is a function


𝑑: 𝑋 × 𝑋 → ℝ with the following properties.
1. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) ≥ 0 ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋; equality holds if and only if 𝑥 = 𝑦
2. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑑(𝑦, 𝑥) ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋
3. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑧) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) + 𝑑(𝑦, 𝑧), ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 ∈ 𝑋 (triangle inequality)
We call the pair (𝑋, 𝑑) consisting of a set 𝑋 and the metric 𝑑, a metric space.

Remark: Note that the properties required from a metric are exactly those properties that
we required from a distance function in Euclidean plane.
The third property is called “triangle inequality” due to its
analogy with distances of three sides of a triangles in the plane.
In plane the distance travelled from 𝑥 to 𝑦 and then 𝑦 to 𝑧 is
never shorter than the distance from 𝑥 to 𝑧. This property holds
in general metric space as well.

Whenever the metric function under consideration is understood


then we refer to a metric space as 𝑋 instead of (𝑋, 𝑑).

Example
Let 𝑋 = ℝ , with 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ defined as

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .

Show that 𝑑 is a metric. This 𝑑 is known as taxicab metric or Manhattan


metric or 1-metric. Also sketch a circle of radius 2 in ℝ using taxicab
metric.
Note: The metric is known as taxicab metric due to its similarity to
distance measured when a taxicab moves in a town.

Solution:

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Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ given by
𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦| .
Show that (ℝ , 𝑑) is a metric space.

Solution:

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To show that the usual distance function in ℝ satisfies the three conditions of a metric we are
going to need to two inequalities, namely, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality.
In the following discussion we first discuss these inequalities with their proofs.

Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality


In this section we discuss Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality for ℝ . Please
note that these inequality hold in a much general case but here we are only concerned with the
case of ℝ . First we recall some basic facts about ℝ .
Any two elements of ℝ can added in the following way. If 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 =
(𝑏 , … , 𝑏 ) then addiction of 𝑎 and 𝑏 is defined as

𝑎 + 𝑏 = (𝑎 + 𝑏 , … , 𝑎 + 𝑏 ) .
Similarly we can define subtraction in the following way
𝑎 − 𝑏 = (𝑎 − 𝑏 , … , 𝑎 − 𝑏 ) .
The dot product or scalar product in ℝ is defined as follows. If 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 =
(𝑏 , … , 𝑏 ) then

𝑎. 𝑏 = 𝑎𝑏 .

The norm or length of an element 𝑎 ∈ ℝ is defined as

‖𝑎‖ = 𝑎 = √𝑎. 𝑎 .

From here we can defined the usual distance or Euclidean distance between any two points of
ℝ in the following way

𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝑎 − 𝑏 ) + ⋯ + (𝑎 − 𝑏 ) = ‖𝑎 − 𝑏‖ .

Note that if we given dot product then we can calculate distance between any two point, that is,
there is a metric.

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The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality For any points 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 = (𝑏 , … , 𝑏 )
in ℝ we have
|𝑎. 𝑏| ≤ ‖𝑎‖ ‖ 𝑏‖ .

Proof:

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p

Using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality we can prove the Minkowski inequality.

The Minkowski inquality For any points 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 = (𝑏 , … , 𝑏 ) in ℝ we


have
‖𝑎 + 𝑏 ‖ ≤ ‖𝑎‖ + ‖𝑏‖ .

Proof:

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Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , then show that the following function

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

defines a metric on ℝ . Sketch a circle of radius 2 in ℝ using the above metric. Also compare
this circle with circle of radius 2 obtained using taxicab metric.

Solution:

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Example (The max metric for ℝ𝟐 )
Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ defined as

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = max(|𝑥 − 𝑥 |, |𝑦 − 𝑦 |).

Show that 𝑑 is a metric function. This metric is known as 𝐿 -metric or maximum metric. Also
find what will be a circle of radius 2 and centre (0,0) with respect to 𝐿 -metric.

Solution:

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Example: Find circle of radius 1 and centre (0,0) with respect to the following metrics.
 1-metric, given by
𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .
 2-metric, given by
𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

 𝐿 -metric given by
𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = max(|𝑥 − 𝑥 |, |𝑦 − 𝑦 |).

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Exercise: Show the for 𝑋 = ℝ the following function, for a finite positive
integer 𝑛, satisfy the properties of a metric

𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) = (|𝑥 − 𝑦 | + |𝑥 − 𝑦 | ) , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = (𝑥 , 𝑥 ) , 𝑦 = (𝑦 , 𝑦 ) .


Solution:

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Discrete metric
Every set can be converted to a metric space. One of the metric that can always be defined on
any set is discrete metric defined in the following way
0 𝑥=𝑦
𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) =
1 𝑥≠𝑦
Check whether the above function satisfies the condition of a metric.

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A metric on 𝓒[𝒂, 𝒃]
Consider the set 𝒞[𝑎, 𝑏] of all continuous functions defined on a given closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. For
any two functions from 𝒞[𝑎, 𝑏] we can define a distance between them in the following way

𝑑(𝑓, 𝑔) = |𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑔(𝑥)| 𝑑𝑥 .

Check whether the above function satisfied the condition of a


metric.

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DNA Sequences and a metric spaces
DNA is a molecule made up of millions of atoms.
Within its structure lies the code that determine our
genetic makeup. DNA is composed of nucleotides. A
DNA molecule consists of two chains wound together
to form the familiar double helix, as illustrated in the
figure. The nucleotides in DNA come in four types

 Adenine (A)
 Cytosine (C)
 Guanine (G)
 Thymine (T)
Nucleotides in a DNA chain also pair, but do so with their neighbors on the opposite chain in
the following way

 Adenine pairs with thymine


 Guanine pairs with cytosine
Thus the sequence of nucleotides on one chain determines the sequence on the opposite chain,
and we can represent part or all of a DNA molecule with a sequence of the letters 𝐴, 𝐺, 𝑇, 𝐶.

One of the important problems in DNA research is


“How different are two DNA sequences”
The answer lies in metric spaces.

Let 𝑥 and 𝑦 be two sequences of the letters 𝐴, 𝐶, 𝐺 and 𝑇. We measure the distance between 𝑥
and 𝑦 by determining how many operations on 𝑥 are necessary to turn it into 𝑦. We allow three
type of operations on 𝑥

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1. We can insert any letter into 𝑥

2. We can delete any letter in 𝑥

3. We can replace any letter with a different letter.

For our particular 𝑥 and 𝑦, we can use a sequence 𝑆 of these operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦. Let
1. 𝑖 represent the number of insertions in the sequence
2. 𝑑 the number of deletions
3. 𝑟 the number of replacements.
So the total number of operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦 is 𝑖 + 𝑑 + 𝑟 . But of course there are many
choices of sequence operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦, and therefore we define the distance between
𝑥 and 𝑦 as follows:

Definition: The Levenshtein distance between sequences 𝑥 and 𝑦 is given by


𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) = min{𝑖 + 𝑑 + 𝑟 }.

Where the minimum is taken over all sequences of operations 𝑆 that trun 𝑥 into 𝑦.
Example: Let

X = AGTTCGAATCC
Y = AGCTCAGGAATC
Find the Levenshtein distance between 𝑥 and 𝑦.

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x = :AGTTCGAATCC
Replace T : AGCTCGAATCC
Insert A :A GCTCAGAATCC
Insert G :A GCTCAGGAATCC
Delete C : AGCTCAGGAATC =y
We can check, by examining all possibilities with three or fewer operations, that the fewest
number of insertions, deletions, and replacements to get 𝑥 to 𝑦 is 4, so
𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 4.

Exercise: Show that the Levenshtein distance on the space of DNA’s is a metric function.

Distance between codes


Suppose that we want to send a certain message. We assume that the message has been
encoded in binary code, which is to say that our message consists of a finite sequences of 0s
and 1s, say n of them, which we call a word. We also assume that in transmission some number
of 0s may be turned into 1s and vice versa. We do not allow for lost entries or additional
entries, so the word that arrived also has length n. Note that what we call a word here could
consist of a few words, as we normally think of them, making up a particular message.
Each word of length n can be thought of as a vector of length n, with all entries either 0s or 1s,
We write the set of all these possibilities as 𝑉 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 )| 𝑎 ∈ {0,1} . So 𝑉 is the cross
product of n copies of the set {0,1}. We now put a metric on this set.

Definition: The hamming distance 𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) between two words of length n is the number
of places in which the words differ.

Example: Find the hamming distance between the following two codes

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Exercise: Show that the hamming distance is a metric function on 𝑉 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 )| 𝑎 ∈
{0,1} , where 𝑛 is a positive integer.

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Open sets and closed sets in a metric space
We know the importance of open and closed sets in ℝ and their importance in discussing
different geometric and algebraic properties of real valued functions of one variable. Now we
want to know the generalization of these properties in arbitrary metric spaces. So there will be
an obvious parallelism between the concepts defined in this section and those for line and
planes from calculus of BSM.

Open and closed intervals in ℝ𝟏


Let us first observe open sets in ℝ .
An open interval in ℝ is defined as
(𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥: 𝑏 < 𝑥 < 𝑎}
For example (0,1) consists of all points on the real line
that lies between 0 an 1.

Since ℝ is a metric space so we can also use the metric 𝑑 on ℝ to (0,1) in the following way
(0,1) = {𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑 (𝑥, 0.5) < 0.5}
Similarly, a general open set can be written as
{𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝑟 }.
Similarly a closed set can be defined as
{𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) ≤ 𝑟 }.

Example: Write down the following open and closed intervals using the metric notion.
1. (0,10)
2. [2,6]
3. (𝑎, 𝑏)

4. [𝑎, 𝑏]

In general metric spaces we have the following definition of metric space.

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋 and 𝑟 is a positive number. The open ball
with center 𝑎 and radius 𝑟 is the set
𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) = {𝑥 ∈ 𝑋: 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝑟} .
The corresponding closed ball is

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𝐵 [𝑎, 𝑟] = {𝑥 ∈ 𝑋: 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) ≤ 𝑟} .

Example:
Let 𝑋 = ℝ and for 𝑥 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) 𝑦 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 )

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

Find the following

1. 𝐵 (0,0), 2
2. 𝐵 [(0,0), 2]

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and for 𝑥 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) 𝑦 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 ). Then 1-metric is given by

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .

Find the following

1. 𝐵 (0,0), 2
2. 𝐵 [(0,0), 2]

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Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) be an open ball then for each 𝑥 ∈
𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) ∃ 𝜀 > 0 such that
𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) ⊂ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) .

Proof:

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Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. A subset 𝑂 of a metric space is open set
provided 𝑂 is union of open balls. The family 𝒯 of open sets defined in this way is called
topology of 𝑋 generated by metric 𝑑.
A subset 𝐶 of 𝑋 is closed with respect to 𝑑 provided its complement is open.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. What open sets in the topology of ℝ
generated by 𝑑.

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Theorem: A subset 𝑂 of a metric space 𝑋 is open if and only if for each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑂 there exists an
open ball 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) for some positive radius 𝜀 such that 9
𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) ⊂ 𝑂 .

Proof:

=p

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Theorem: The family 𝒯 of open sets with respect to metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) has the following
property
1. 𝑋 and Φ are open sets.
2. The union of any family of open se ts is open.
3. The intersection of finitely many elements of 𝒯 is again member of 𝒯.

Proof:

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Exercise: Show the following.
The closed sets of a metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) have the following properties.
a) 𝑋 and Φ are closed sets.
b) The intersection of any family of closed sets is closed.
c) The union of any finite family of closed sets is closed.

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Limit point
The concept of limit point is generalization of the concept of
limit.

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝐴 a subset of 𝑋.


A point 𝑝 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point or accumulation point of 𝐴
provided that every open set containing 𝑝 contains a point of 𝐴
distinct form 𝑝 . The set of all limit points of 𝐴 is called derived
set and is denoted by 𝐴 .

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = 1, , , , … . Find limits points of


𝐴.

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Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = [0,1).
1. Show that 0 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.
2. Show that 1 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.
3. Show that 0.5 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.

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Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = {1,2,3}. Find limits points of 𝐴.

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Exercise: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝒙𝟏 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒙𝟐 − 𝒚𝟐 )𝟐 . Consider 𝐴 =
{(𝑥 , 𝑥 ): 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑥 < 1}. Find limit points of 𝐴.

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Theorem: A subset 𝐴 of a metric space(𝑋, 𝑑) is closed if and only if 𝐴 contains all its limit
points.

Proof: Suppose first that 𝐴 is closed.


We want to show that if 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴 then
𝑥 belongs to 𝐴.
Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴. If on contrary, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴 then
𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴. Since 𝐴 is closed so 𝑋 − 𝐴 is open. So there
exist an open set 𝑂 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴. Which
implies 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴. A contradiction so 𝑥 ∈
𝐴.
Conversely assume that 𝐴 contains all its limit points.
We show that 𝐴 is closed.
For this we show that 𝑋 − 𝐴 is open. Let 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴 then
𝑦 is not limit point of 𝐴. So there exist an open set 𝑂 ⊂
𝑋 such that 𝑂 ∩ 𝐴 = Φ, that is, 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴. So we have
𝑦 ∈ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴.
Since 𝑂 is open so there exist 𝜀 > 0 such that
𝑦 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀) ⊂ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝐴
Hence
𝑦 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀) ⊂ 𝐴 .
So 𝐴 is closed.

Sequence

Definition: A sequence in a metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) is a function 𝑓: ℕ → 𝑋.


Examples: Sequence of natural numbers.
Exercise: Write 10 examples of sequences.

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Convergence of sequence
Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and {𝑥 } a sequence of points of 𝑋. Then {𝑥 } converges to
a point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, or 𝑥 is the limit of the sequence, provided that given 𝜖 > 0 there is positive
integer 𝑁 such that
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥) < 𝜖 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁.
If {𝑥 } converges to 𝑥 then we denote it by 𝑥 → 𝑥.

Example: Show that the sequence converges to 0.

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Theorem: A sequence in a metric space cannot converge to more than one limit.
Proof: Let {𝑥 } be a sequence in metric space (𝑋, 𝑑). Suppose on contrary that 𝑥
converges to 𝑎 and 𝑏. Let 𝜖 = 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏).

Since 𝑎 is limit of 𝑥 so there exist 𝑁 such that


𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝜖 for 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .
Similarly, since 𝑏 is limit of 𝑥 so there exist 𝑁 such that
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑏) < 𝜀 for 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .
Now
1
𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) + 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑏) < 𝜖 + 𝜖 = 2𝜖 = 2 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) = 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏).
2

A contradiction. So the limit of a sequence in a metric space is unique.

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝐴 is a subset of 𝑋. Then a point 𝑝 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of
𝐴 if and only if there is a sequence of distinct points of 𝐴 which converges to 𝑝.

Proof: Suppose 𝑝 ∈ 𝐴 is a limit point of A.


We want to find a sequence of distinct points of 𝐴 converging to 𝑝.

For 𝑟 = 1, the open set 𝐴 = 𝐵 (𝑝, 1) contains a point of 𝐴, say 𝑞 ∈ 𝐴.

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For 𝑟 = : since {𝑞 } is closed so 𝑋 − {𝑞 } is open. So 𝐴 = 𝐵 𝑝, ∩ (𝑋 − {𝑞 }) is open. Since 𝑝 is a
limit point, so 𝐴 contains a point of 𝐴, say 𝑞 ∈ 𝐴.

In general for 𝑟 = : since {𝑞 , 𝑞 , … , 𝑞 } is closed so 𝑋 − {𝑞 , 𝑞 , … , 𝑞 } is open. So


𝐴 =𝐵 𝑝, ∩ ( 𝑋 − {𝑞 , 𝑞 , … , 𝑞 }) is open. Since 𝑝 is a limit point of 𝐴 so 𝐴 contains a point of 𝐴,
say 𝑞 ∈ 𝐴.

Continuing this way we get a sequence {𝑞 , 𝑞 , … 𝑞 , … } such that


1
𝑑(𝑞 , 𝑝) < .
𝑛
Now we need to show that {𝑞 } converges to 𝑝. Let 𝜖 > 0 then

𝑑(𝑞 , 𝑝) < < 𝜖, whenever 𝑛 > .

Conversely assume that there is a sequence {𝑥 } of distinct points of 𝐴 converging to 𝑝. We need to


show that 𝑝 is a limit point of 𝐴.

Let 𝑂 be an open set containing 𝑝. And Let 𝜖 > 0 such that 𝐵 (𝑝, 𝜖) ⊂ 𝑂. Since there is a converging
sequence {𝑥 } so for 𝜖 > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that

𝑑(𝑝, 𝑥 ) < 𝜖 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁.

So there exist a point of 𝐴 in 𝑂 other than 𝑝. So 𝑝 is a limit point.

39
Interior, closure, and boundary
Definition: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋. A point 𝑥 in 𝐴 is an interior point of 𝐴, or
𝐴 in a neighbourhood of 𝑥, provided that there is an open set 𝑂 which contains 𝑥 and is
contained in 𝐴. The interior of 𝐴, denoted by "int 𝐴” is the set of all interior points of 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = (0,1).


1. Then 𝑥 = 0.5 is an interior point of 𝐴, since 𝑥 ∈ (0.25,0.75) ⊂ 𝐴.
2. Also the point 𝑦 = 0 is not interior point of 𝐴 since we can’t find an open subset of 𝐴
containing 𝑦.
3. The int 𝐴 = (0,1), since every point 𝑧 ∈ 𝐴 is contained in an open interval 𝐵 (𝑧, 𝑟) ⊂ 𝐴
where 𝑟 = (𝑚𝑖𝑛{𝑑(𝑧, 0), 𝑑(𝑧, 1)}).

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = ℚ. Show that 𝑖𝑛𝑡 ℚ = Φ.

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋. Show that int A is union of all open sets
contained in 𝐴.

Proof:

40
Definition: The closure 𝐴̅ of a subset of a metric space 𝑋 is the union of 𝐴 with its set of limit
points:

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴
Where 𝐴 is the derived set of 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Find 𝐴̅ where 𝐴 = (0,1).


Example:

Theorem: If 𝐴 is a subset of a metric space 𝑋. Then 𝐴̅ is a closed set and is the subset of every
closed set containing 𝐴.

Proof: We know that “A subset 𝐴 of a metric space(𝑋, 𝑑) is closed if and only if 𝐴 contains all its limit
points”. So we want to show that 𝐴̅ contains all its limit points.

Consider 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴̅, we want to show that 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴̅ ( this will show that 𝐴̅ contains
all its limit points). Since 𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 so 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴. So there exist an open set 𝑂
containing 𝑥 but does not contain any point of 𝐴. Now if 𝑂 does not contain any point of 𝐴 then
it can not contain a limit point of 𝐴 either. Since every open set containing a limit point
contains more elements of 𝐴. So 𝑂 contains no elements of 𝐴̅ (so we have found an open set 𝑂
containing 𝑥 but not any element of 𝐴̅). So 𝑥 is not a limit point of 𝐴̅. So 𝐴̅ is closed.

Next we need to show that every closed set containing 𝐴 contains 𝐴̅ (In other words 𝐴̅ is the
smallest closed set containing 𝐴). Let 𝐹 is a closed subset of 𝑋 for which 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹. Now

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 and 𝐹 = 𝐹 ∪ 𝐹
Also 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹 which implies 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹 , so 𝐴̅ ⊂ 𝐹 .

Exercise: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋.


1. 𝐴 is open if and only if 𝐴 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴.
2. 𝐴 is closed if and only if 𝐴̅ = 𝐴.

41
Definition(Boundary point)
Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋.
A point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a boundary point of 𝐴
provided that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ and 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴.
The set of all boundary points of 𝐴 is
called the boundary of 𝐴 and is
denoted by 𝑏𝑑𝑦 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = [𝑎, 𝑏) then boundary of 𝐴 is {𝑎, 𝑏}.

Example: In any metric space 𝑋,


𝑏𝑦𝑑 Φ = Φ
And
𝑏𝑦𝑑 𝑋 = Φ .

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , with 𝑑 metric. Let 𝐴 = {( 𝑥, 𝑦): 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑦 < 1}. Find 𝑏𝑑𝑦 𝐴 .

42
Continuous functions
Consider a function 𝑓: ℝ → ℝ, defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 6 − 𝑥 . The graph of 𝑓 is given below

It can be seen that the graph does not have any breaks, jumps, so the graph is continuous. Hence
we say that the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 is continuous function. In general if graph of a function
𝑓: ℝ → ℝ does not have any breaks or jumps then we say that function 𝑓 is continuous.
Knowing continuity of a function is important in checking the behavior of the function. If function
represents a real life situation then checking the continuity gives a better understanding of the
situation. Unfortunately, checking continuity from graph is not precise and practical. So our next
question is:

Question: How to check continuity of a function 𝑓: ℝ → ℝ?


Before exploring the mathematical definition of continuity let us first consider the reasons of
discontinuity.

43
There are three types of points which are making the above function discontinuous. All of these
points have only one thing common, that is, the image of an interval functional values around
these points can not be confined in a rectangular box, where the size of the box is as small as we
want (see the diagram).

So a function is continuous at a point if for every horizontal bar we can find a pink bar such that
the functional values are confined. So mathematically speaking we can say that a function at a
point 𝑥 = 𝑎 is continuous if for every 𝜖 > 0 there exist a 𝛿 > 0 such that
|𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑓(𝑎)| < 𝜖 whenever |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿

44
Using this definition we can easily see that why the following function is not continuous.

Similarly, we can see why the following function is not continuous.

45
Example: Check continuity of function 𝑓: ℝ → ℝ defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 at point 𝑥 = 1.

Example: Check the continuity of the function


1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 0
𝑓(𝑥) = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 = 0
−1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 < 0

At point 𝑥 = 0, and at 𝑥 = 1.
We can generalize the above definition for any metric spaces in the following way.

46
Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) be metric spaces and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function. Then 𝑓 is
continuous at point 𝑥 = 𝑎 if for every 𝜖 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that
𝑑′(𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎)) < 𝜖 whenevery 𝑑( 𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿 .

Example: Show that𝑓: ℝ → ℝ 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 is continuous function at 𝑥 = 𝑎,


where 𝑎 ∈ ℝ.

Solution: We want to show that for every 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that
|𝑥 − 𝑎 | < 𝜀 whenever |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿 .

Assume that |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 1, which implies that


|𝑥| − |𝑎| ≤ |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 1
⇒ |𝑥| < 1 + |𝑎|
Hence
|𝑥 + 𝑎| ≤ |𝑥| + |𝑎| < 1 + |𝑎| + |𝑎| = 1 + 2(|𝑎|)
So

|𝑥 − 𝑎 | = |𝑥 − 𝑎| ⋅ |𝑥 + 𝑎| < | 𝑥 − 𝑎| 1 + 2(|𝑎|) < 𝜀


This implies

| 𝑥 − 𝑎| 1 + 2(|𝑎|) < 𝜀
𝜀
⇒ |𝑥 − 𝑎| < (1)
1 + 2(|𝑎|)

Comparing (1) and |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 1 we get


|𝑥 − 𝑎 | < 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿

47
𝜀
where 𝑠 = min 1, (| |)
.

Theorem: Let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function from metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) to metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ) and
let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Then function 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎 if and only if for each sequence {𝑥 } in 𝑋
converging to 𝑎, the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎).

Proof: ⟹ Assume that 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎, that is, for every 𝜀 > 0 there exist a 𝛿 > 0 such
that

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿 . (1)

We want to show the following:


“for each sequence {𝑥 } in 𝑋 converging to 𝑎, the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎).”
Consider a sequence {𝑥 } converging to 𝑎, that is, for every 𝜀 > 0 (we take 𝜀 to
differentiate it with 𝜀 used above) there exist 𝑁 such that
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 . (2)
Our next aim is to show that {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎). By taking 𝜀 = 𝛿, we get
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝛿 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .
By (1), we get

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝜀 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝛿

Conversely (in compact form) the logical statement to prove in this converse part is:
′′𝑥 → 𝑎 ⇒ 𝑓(𝑥 ) → 𝑓(𝑎) ⟹ 𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑎
But instead we prove its contrapositive, that is, we prove the following
𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 ⟹ 𝑥 → 𝑎 ⇏ 𝑓(𝑥 ) → 𝑓(𝑎)

48
So we assume 𝑓 is not continuous at 𝑎, that is,

∃ 𝜀 > 0 𝑠𝑢𝑐ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 ∀ 𝛿 > 0 𝑤𝑒 ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑒 ∶ ∃ 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝛿) 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀 (3)

We want to find a sequence, say, {𝑞 } such that 𝑞 → 𝑎 but 𝑓(𝑞 ) ↛ 𝑓(𝑎).


We construct the sequence by repeatedly applying (3) in the following way. The statement
holds for all 𝛿 > 0, so we choose a sequence of 𝛿′𝑠 which helps us in finding sequence.

For 𝛿 = 1, by (3) there exist, say, 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝛿) but 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀

For 𝛿 = , by (3) there exist, say, 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝛿) but 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀

For 𝛿 = , by (3) there exist, say, 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝛿) but 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀

The sequence we get this way is {𝑥 } . The sequence converges to 𝑎 since


1
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) <
𝑛
and for arbitrary 𝜀 > 0 we can find 𝑁 such that
1
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < <𝜀 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .
𝑛
So 𝑥 → 𝑎. Again from (3), we have

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀 ∀𝑛 .

So the distance between the terms of the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} and 𝑓(𝑎) can not be less than 𝜀.
Hence
𝑓(𝑥 ) ↛ 𝑓(𝑎) . □

49
Theorem: Let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function from metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) to metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ) and
let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Then 𝑓 is continuous if and only if for each open set 𝑂 in 𝑌, 𝑓 (𝑂) is open in 𝑋.

Proof:

50
Equivalence of metric spaces
Definition: Metric spaces (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) are metrically equivalent or isometric if there is
a one-to-one function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 from 𝑋 onto 𝑌 such that for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ 𝑋

𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) = 𝑑′ 𝑓(𝑎), 𝑓(𝑏)

The function is called isometry.

Example: Show that identity function on metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) given by 𝐼: 𝑋 → 𝑋, such that

𝐼 (𝑥) = 𝑥
is an isometry.

Example: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑′) is an isometry then the inverse function 𝑓 is also an
isometry.

51
Example: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑′) and 𝑔: (𝑌 𝑑′) → (𝑍, 𝑑′′) be two isometries then show that
𝑔 ∘ 𝑓 is an isometry.

Homeomorphism
Definition: Metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌. 𝑑 ) are topologically equivalent or homeomorphic if
there is a function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 which satisfy the following conditions:
1. 𝑓 is continuous
2. 𝑓 is continuous
3. 𝑓 is bijective

Example: Consider metric spaces 𝑋 = (0,1) and 𝑌 = (0,2) with metrices determined by the
usual metric on the real line. Show that function 𝐹 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by
𝑓(𝑥) = 2𝑥, 𝑥 ∈ (0,1)
is a homeomorphism but not isometry.

Solution:

52
Theorem: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑 ) is an isometry. Show that 𝑓 is continuous.
Proof:

Exercise: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑 ) is an isometry. Show that 𝑓 is a homeomorphism.

Example: Let (𝑎, 𝑏) is an open interval in ℝ. Show that (𝑎, 𝑏) is homeomorphic to (0,1).
Solution ( Hint ): Consider function 𝑓: (𝑎, 𝑏) → (0,1) defined in the following way
𝑥−𝑎
𝑓(𝑥) = , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎, 𝑏)
𝑏−𝑎
It is left as an exercise to show the following:
1. 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous
2. 𝑓(𝑥) is bijective
3. 𝑓 (𝑥) is continuous

53
Exercise: Show that ℝ is homeomorphic to the open interval − , .

Solution ( Hint ): Consider function 𝑓: − , → (−∞, ∞) defined in the following way

𝑓(𝑥) = tan 𝑥 , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ∈ (−∞, ∞)

It is left as an exercise to show the following:


1. 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous
2. 𝑓(𝑥) is bijective
3. 𝑓 (𝑥) is continuous

54
Theorem: Let Γ be the class of all metric spaces. Let  be a relation on Γ defined in the
following way
“𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ Γ, 𝑎~𝑏 if ∃ a homeomorphism 𝑓: 𝑎 → 𝑏”
show that ~ is an equivalence relation.

Proof: To prove the relation ~ is equivalence relation we need to show the following
1. ~ is reflexive, that is, 𝑎~𝑎 for all 𝑎 ∈ Γ
2. ~ is symmetric, that is, if 𝑎~𝑏 then 𝑏~𝑎
3. ~ is transitive, that is, if 𝑎~𝑏 and 𝑏~𝑐 then 𝑎~𝑐
(1) Reflexive
The relation ~ is reflexive since for any metric space 𝑋 ∈ Γ there exist a homeomorphism
𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑏𝑦 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 .
The function 𝑓, being identity, is clearly a homeomorphism.
(2) Symmetric
To show the relation ~ is symmetric we choose arbitrary 𝑋, 𝑌 ∈ Γ such that 𝑋~𝑌. That is
there is a homeomorphism 𝑔: 𝑋 → 𝑌. Since 𝑔 is a homeomorphism so
1. 𝑔 is continuous
2. 𝑔 is bijective
3. 𝑔 is continuous
Now to show 𝑌~𝑋, we consider the following function
𝑔 :𝑌 → 𝑋
such that
1. 𝑔 is continuous
2. (𝑔 ) = 𝑔 is continuous
3. 𝑔 is bijective since 𝑔 is bijective.
(3) Transitive
Let 𝑋~𝑌 and 𝑌~𝑍, that is there exist the following two homeomorphisms
𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑌 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓 : 𝑌 → 𝑍
Such that
1. 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑍 is continuous since composition of continuous functions is
continuous (exercise)
2. (𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 ) = 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 ∶ 𝑍 → 𝑋 is continuous since 𝑓 and 𝑓 are
continuous.

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3. 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 is a bijection since 𝑓 and 𝑓 are bijective.
Hence there is homeomorphism 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑍 so 𝑋 ~𝑍.

56
Different metrics on same set
Roughly speaking a metric consists of a set and a rule for calculating distance. If any of these
two things changes then the metric space changes. So a set 𝑋 with two different metrics, say,
𝑑 and 𝑑 is considered as distinct metric. That is (𝑋, 𝑑 ) and (𝑋, 𝑑 ) are different metric
spaces.
In the next discussion we find conditions under which identity map with different domain and
range metrics is continuous.

Lemma: Let 𝑑 and 𝑑 be two metrics on the set 𝑋 and suppose that there is a positive
number 𝑐 such that 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋. Then the identity function
𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous.

Proof: Given “there is a positive number 𝑐 such that 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋.”

We want to show that the identity function 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous for each 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋.
That is, for 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿

Consider

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) < 𝜀

Which implies
𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) < 𝜀
𝜀
⇒ 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) <
𝑐
So we can take 𝛿 = such that
𝜀
𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑎) < .
𝑐

Theorem: Let 𝑑 and 𝑑 be two metrices for the set 𝑋 and suppose there are positive
numbers 𝑐 and 𝑐′ such that
𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) , 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦)
for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋. Then the identity function on 𝑋 is a homeomorphism between (𝑋, 𝑑 ) and
(𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Proof: Assume that there are positive numbers 𝑐 and 𝑐′ such that
𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) , 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦)
for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋.
We want to show that (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is homeomorphic to (𝑋, 𝑑 ).
Since 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦), for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋 so using above result there is a continuous function

57
𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ).
Similarly 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦), for 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋, implies that there is a continuous function
𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 )
So we have
1. 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous
2. 𝑖 = 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous
3. 𝑖 is bijective being identity.
Hence (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is homeomorphic to (𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Definition: Metrics 𝑑 and 𝑑 for a set 𝑋 which determine the same topology are called
equivalent metrics.

New spaces from old


In this section we will discuss ways of constructing new metric
spaces from old spaces.

Subspace
If (𝑋, 𝑑) is a metric space and 𝑌 ⊂ 𝑋 then what can be said
about 𝑌? Is 𝑌 a metric space?

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑌 a subset of 𝑋. The metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ), where
𝑑 is the restriction of 𝑑 to 𝑌 × 𝑌, is called a subspace of (𝑋, 𝑑).

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. A subspace of 𝑋 is 𝑌 = [0,1] with metric 𝑑 , such
that
𝑑 = 𝑑| .
Some commonly used subspace
1)- The unit n-cube is the set
𝐼 = {𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑖 = 1,2, … , 𝑛}
With subspace metric defined above.

58
2)- The n-dimensional sphere 𝑆 ⊂ ℝ is the set

𝑆 = 𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 =1 .

3)- The n-dimensional unit ball 𝐵 is the set

𝐵 = 𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 ≤1 .

59
For 𝑛 ≥ 2 consider the set
𝐴 = {𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 = 0} .

Cartesian product

Definition: Let {(𝑋 , 𝑑 )} be a finite collection of metric spaces. The product metric space
(𝑋, 𝑑) is the Cartesian product

𝑋 = 𝑋 × 𝑋 × …× 𝑋
Of the set 𝑋 , 𝑋 , … , 𝑋 with the product metric 𝑑 defined by
/

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) .

Example: Euclidean n-dimensional space ℝ , with its usual metric 𝑑 is the product of real line
ℝ taken as coordinate space 𝑛 times
ℝ = Π ℝ.
where the metric on ℝ is defined above.

60
Irreducible closed sets
A closed set that can not be written as disjoint union of two closed sets is called irreducible
closed set.
Dimension of a subset 𝒀 ⊂ (𝑿, 𝒅) :
Let 𝑛 be the length of the longest chain of irreducible closed subsets of 𝑌. Then 𝑛 − 1 is called
the dimension of 𝑌.
Example: Let 𝑌 = {(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧): 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 − 1 = 0} be a plane in ℝ . Since the longest chain of
irreducible closed sets is
𝑝⊂𝐿⊂𝑌
Hence the dimension of 𝑌 is 2.

61
Complete metric spaces
Consider a sequence {𝑥 } in a metric space 𝑋. If 𝑥 converges to 𝑥 then it does not
guarantee that 𝑥 is an element of 𝑋. Consider, for example, sequence in metric
space (0,1). Now we know that converges to 0, but 0 ∉ (0,1). So the limit of the
sequence from (0,1) does not belong to the (0,1).

In this section we are going to discuss a property that will guarantee that limits of Cauhcy’s
convergent sequences belong to the space, such property is called completeness. For sequence is
this purpose we need to know some new definition. named after Baron
Augustin-Louis
Definition: Let(𝑋, 𝑑) is a metric space. A sequence {𝑥 } of points of 𝑋 is a Cauchy Cauchy. He was
sequence provided that for every positive number 𝜀 > 0 there is a positive integer 𝑁 an FRS FRSE and
such that was a French
mathematician,
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) < 𝜀, ∀ 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁. engineer and
physicist who
Example: Show that 𝑥 = is a Cauchy sequence. made pioneering
contributions to
Solution: We want to show that, for 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that several branches
of mathematics,
|𝑥 − 𝑥 | < 𝜀, ∀ 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁. including
Consider mathematical
analysis and
1 1 1 1 continuum
|𝑥 − 𝑥 | = − ≤ + mechanics.
𝑚 𝑛 𝑚 𝑛
Since is convergent to 0 so for > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that

1 𝜀
< 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁
𝑛 2
Similarly there exist 𝑁 such that
1 𝜀
< 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚 ≥ 𝑁
𝑚 2
Hence
1 1 𝜀 𝜀
|𝑥 − 𝑥 | ≤ + < + = 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ max{𝑁 , 𝑁 } .
𝑚 𝑛 2 2
Hence {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence.
Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let {𝑥 } be a convergent sequence in (𝑋, 𝑑) then show
that {𝑥 } is a Cauchy sequence.

62
Proof: Given {𝑥 } is a convergent and is converging to, say, 𝑎. That is, for > 0 there exist 𝑁
such that
𝜀
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < ∀𝑛 ≥ 𝑁
2
To show {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence we consider
𝜀 𝜀
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) + 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < + =𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁
2 2
Which implies
𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) < 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .
Hence {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence. □

The converse of above theorem is not true. A counter example is 𝑥 = in (0,1) which is a
Cauchy’s sequence but not convergent in (0,1). So a space where converse is true is called
complete, precisely we have the following definition.
Definition: A space (𝑋, 𝑑) is complete if every Cauchy sequence in 𝑋 converges to a point in 𝑋.

Completeness of
In the next discussion we will show that set of real numbers ℝ is a complete metric space. First
we show that every Cauchy’s sequence is a bounded sequence. Recall that a sequence of real
numbers {𝑥 } is bounded if there exist a positive real number 𝑀 such that
|𝑥 | ≤ 𝑀 ∀𝑛
Examples (bounded and non-bounded sequences):

63
Lemma: Let {𝑥 } be a Cauchy sequence in ℝ with usual metric. Then {𝑥 } is a bounded
sequence.
Proof:

64
To prove our main result we are going to need the following important property of sequence
and subsequences of real numbers.

The Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem: A bounded sequence of real numbers has a


convergent subsequence.
Theorem: A sequence of real numbers is Cauchy if and only if it is convergent.
Proof:

65
Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a complete metric space. A subspace 𝐴 of 𝑋 is complete if and only if it
is closed.
Proof: Assume that 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 is complete. We want to show that 𝐴 is closed. Equivalently we want
to show that 𝐴 contains all its limit points.
Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 be a limit point of 𝐴. So there exist a sequence {𝑥 } of distinct elements of 𝐴
converging to 𝑥. We know that every convergent sequence is a Cauchy’s sequence. Also 𝐴 is
complete so limit of {𝑥 } belongs to 𝐴. Hence 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴.
Conversely assume that 𝐴 is closed. We want to show that 𝐴 is complete.
Consider a Cauchy’s sequence {𝛼 } in 𝐴. Our aim is show that {𝛼 } is convergent in 𝐴. Since 𝑋
is a complete space so {𝛼 } converges in 𝑋, to say, 𝛼. Hence 𝛼 is limit point of 𝐴. Also 𝐴 is
closed so it contains all it limit point. So 𝛼 ∈ 𝐴. So the sequence {𝛼 } converges to 𝛼 in 𝐴.
Example (Consequence of above theorem): Show that [0,1] ⊂ ℝ is a complete space.

Example: Check whether ℚ is a complete metric space.

Fixed point theorem


Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 a function. Then 𝑓 is contractive with
respect to the metric 𝑑 provided that there is a positive number 𝛼 < 1 such that for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝛼 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦).

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 be a contractive function. Show that 𝑓 is
continuous.
Proof:

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Theorem (The contraction lemma): Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a complete metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 be a
contractive function. Then there is exactly one point 𝑥 in 𝑋 for which 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥.
Proof: Given: 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 is a contractive function and (𝑋, 𝑑) is a complete metric space.
To show: there is exactly one point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥.
Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 be an arbitrary point. Consider the following sequence
𝑥 , 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ) , … , 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ) ,…
Since 𝑓 is a contractive function so {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence. Since {𝑥 } is complete so this
implies {𝑥 } is a convergent sequence converging to, say, 𝑥.
Since 𝑓 is a continuous function so
𝑥 → 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑓(𝑥𝑛 ) → 𝑓(𝑥).
But 𝑓(𝑥 ) = 𝑥 , and limit of 𝑥 and 𝑥 are same, so
𝑥 → 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑥𝑛 → 𝑓(𝑥) .
Since limit of sequence is unique so
𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 .
Uniqueness: Let there is another point 𝑦 such that
𝑓(𝑦) = 𝑦
Then

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑦) ≤ 𝛼𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒

Here 𝛼 < 1 so the only possibility is


𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 0 .

67
Topology

In this section we take the concept of metric to more general setting known as topology.
Definition: A topology on a set 𝑋 is a collection 𝜏 of subsets of 𝑋 having the following properties.

 Φ and 𝑋 are in 𝜏.
 The union of the elements of any subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.
 The intersection of the elements of any finite subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.
A set 𝑋 for which a topology 𝜏 has been specified is called a topological space. Precisely a
topological space is a pair (𝑋, 𝜏) consisting of set 𝑋 and a topology 𝜏 on 𝑋. An element of 𝜏 is
called open set.

So we can say that a topology is an ordered pair (𝑿, 𝝉) satisfying above conditions.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and 𝜏 = 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑠. Then 𝜏 is a topology on


ℝ, called usual topology.

68
Recall
Theorem: The family 𝒯 of open sets with respect to metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) has the following
property
1. 𝑋 and Φ are open sets
2. The union of any family of open sets is open
3. The intersection of finitely many elements of 𝒯 is again member of 𝒯

By above theorem we have

Corollary: Every metric space is a topological space.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑎, 𝑏} . Then 𝜏 is a topology on 𝑋.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑎, 𝑏}, {𝑐} . Then 𝜏 is a not topology on 𝑋.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎, 𝑐}, {𝑎, 𝑏} . Check whether 𝜏 is a topology on 𝑋.

Since the intersection of {𝑎, 𝑐} and {𝑎, 𝑏} does not belong to 𝜏. So one of the conditions of
topological space is not satisfied, stated below:
“The intersection of the elements of any finite subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.”

69
Hence 𝜏 is not a topology on 𝑋.
Definition (Indiscrete and discrete topology): If 𝑋 is any set, the collection of all subsets of 𝑋 is
a topology on 𝑋; it is called the discrete topology. The collection consisting of 𝑋 and Φ only is
also a topology on 𝑋; we shall call it the indiscrete topology, or the trivial topology.
Example (co-finite topology or finite complement topology)
Let 𝑋 be a set; let 𝒯 be the collection of all subsets 𝑈 of 𝑋 such that 𝑈 = 𝑋 − 𝑈 is either finite
or is all of 𝑋. Then 𝒯 is a topology on 𝑋, called the finite complement topology or co-finite
topology.

70
Definition (Finer(large) and coarser(smaller) topology): Suppose that 𝒯 and 𝒯′ are two
topologies on a given set 𝑋. If 𝒯′ ⊃ 𝒯, we say 𝒯′ is finer than 𝒯; if 𝒯′ properly contains 𝒯, we say
that 𝒯′ is strictly finer than 𝒯. We also say that 𝒯 is coarser than 𝒯′, or strictly coarser, in these
two respective situations. We say 𝒯 is comparable with 𝒯′ is either 𝒯 ⊃ 𝒯 or 𝒯 ⊃ 𝒯 .

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑} , 𝒯 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑} , and

𝒯 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}, {𝑑}, {𝑎, 𝑑}, {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑} .

Here 𝜏 is coarser than 𝜏′ or 𝜏′ is finer than 𝜏. [

71
Definition (Basis) If 𝑋 is a set, a basis for a topology on 𝑋 is a collection ℬ of subsets of 𝑋 (called
basis elements) such that
1. For each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, there is at least one basis element 𝐵 containing 𝑥
2. If 𝑥 belongs to the intersection of two basis elements 𝐵 and 𝐵 , then there is a basis
element 𝐵 containing 𝑥 such that 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐵 .
Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and ℬ = 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑠. Then ℬ is basis of usual
topology.
Solution: (discussed earlier)

Example: Let 𝑋 be a set and 𝐵 = {𝑥}: 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 . Show that 𝐵 is a basis (for some topology on 𝑋).

Exercise: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, find a collection of subsets of 𝑋 which does not satisfy the second
condition of basis.

Definition: Let 𝐵 be a basis on a set 𝑋. The topology 𝜏 generated by 𝐵 is obtained by defining


the open sets to the empty set and every set that is equal to a union of basis elements.

Example: Let 𝑋 be a set and 𝐵 = {𝑥}: 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 . What is the topology generated by 𝐵.

Exercise: (discrete topology or power set)

Definition: If ℬ is the collection of all open intervals in the real line,


(𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥| 𝑎 < 𝑥 < 𝑏}
the topology generated by ℬ is called the standard topology or usual topology on the real line.

72
Unless otherwise specifically mentioned we consider ℝ with this standard topology.

Definition: If ℬ′ is the collection of all half-open intervals of the form


[𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥| 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 < 𝑏}
Where 𝑎 < 𝑏, the topology generated by ℬ′ is called the lower limit topology on ℝ. When ℝ is
given the lower limit topology then we denote it by ℝ . Similarly we can define upper limit
topology via the basis
{(𝑎, 𝑏]: 𝑎 < 𝑏}.
Lemma: Let 𝐵 be a basis. Assume that 𝐵 , 𝐵 , … , 𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 and that 𝑥 ∈∩ 𝐵 . Then there exists
𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 such that
𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂∩ 𝐵 .
Proof:

Theorem: The topology 𝜏 generated by a basis is a topology.


Proof:

73
Theorem: Let 𝑋 be a set and 𝐵 be a basis for a topology on 𝑋. Then 𝑈 is open in the topology
generated by 𝐵 if and only if for each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑈 there exists a basis element 𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 such that
𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑈.

Proof:

Lemma: Let 𝑋 be a topological space. Suppose that 𝓒 is a collection of open sets of 𝑋 such that
for each open set 𝑈 of 𝑋 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐴 of 𝓒 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑈. Then
𝓒 is a basis for the topology of 𝑋.
Proof:

74
75
Exercise: Show that the topology of ℝ is strictly finer than standard topology on ℝ.

Subbasis
Main purpose of subbasis is to generate basis.

Definition A subbasis 𝒮 for a topology on 𝑋 is a collection of subsets of 𝑋 whose union equals


𝑋.

The topology generated by the subbasis 𝑺 is defined to be the collection 𝒯 of all union of finite
intersections of elements of 𝒮.
In other words we can say that the basis ℬ of the topology generated by the subbasis 𝒮 is given
by
ℬ = 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝒮 .

Exercise: Let 𝒮 be a subbasis 𝑋. Let 𝒯 be the topology generated by 𝒮. Show that 𝒯 satisfies
the conditions of topology.

Product Topology
Given two topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 there is a standard way of defining a topology on the
Cartesian product 𝑋 × 𝑌, named as product topology.

Definition Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces. The product topology on 𝑋 × 𝑌 is the topology
having as basis the collection ℬ of all sets of the form 𝑈 × 𝑉, where 𝑈 is an open subset of 𝑋
and 𝑉 is an open subset of 𝑌.

76
Let us check if ℬ satisfies all the conditions of basis

Recall: If 𝑋 is a set, a basis for a topology on 𝑋 is a collection ℬ of subsets of 𝑋 (called basis elements)
such that
1. For each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, there is at least one basis element 𝐵 containing 𝑥
2. If 𝑥 belongs to the intersection of two basis elements 𝐵 and 𝐵 , then there is a basis element
𝐵 containing 𝑥 such that 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐵 .

Example:

Note: The collection ℬ is NOT a topology on 𝑋 × 𝑌. In the diagram


there are two elements of ℬ but there union is not an element of ℬ.

Theorem: If ℬ is a basis for the topology of 𝑋 and 𝒞 is a basis for


the topology of 𝑌, then the collection
𝒟 = {𝐵 × 𝐶| 𝐵 ∈ ℬ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶 ∈ 𝒞}
is a basis for the topology of 𝑋 × 𝑌.

Proof:
Recall: Lemma: Let 𝑋 be a topological space. Suppose that 𝒞 is a collection of open sets of 𝑋 such that for each
open set 𝑈 of 𝑋 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐶 of 𝒞 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐶 ⊂ 𝑈. Then 𝒞 is a basis for the
topology of 𝑋.

77
Projections and subbasis of product topology
Definition (Projections): Let 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑋 be defined by the equation
𝜋 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥;
Let 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑌 be defined by the equation
𝜋 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑦.
The maps 𝜋 and 𝜋 are called projections of 𝑋 × 𝑌 onto its first and second factors,
respectively.

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Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and 𝑌 = ℝ. Then the projection
map 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑋 is projection on 𝑥-axis. Similarly the
projection 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑌 is projection on 𝑦-axis.

Inverse projections
Consider the product 𝑋 × 𝑌 of two topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌. Let 𝜋 and 𝜋 be projections as
above. For and open set 𝑈 of 𝑋, the inverse image is given by

𝜋 (𝑈) = 𝑈 × 𝑌.

Similarly for open set 𝑉 in 𝑌 we have

𝜋 (𝑉) = 𝑋 × 𝑉.

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Theorem The collection
𝒮 = {𝜋 (𝑈): 𝑈 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑋} ∪ {𝜋 (𝑉): 𝑉 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑌}
is a subbasis for the product topology on 𝑋 × 𝑌.

Proof

Subspace topology
Given a topological space 𝑋, and 𝑌 a subset of 𝑋. The set 𝑌 inherits itself and topology from 𝑋
known as the subspace topology. Let us define this topology precisely.

Definition: Let 𝑋 be a topological space with topology 𝒯. If 𝑌 is a subset of 𝑋, the collection


𝒯 = {𝑌 ∩ 𝑈: 𝑈 ∈ 𝒯}
is a topology on 𝑌, called the subspace topology. With this topology 𝑌 is called a subspace of 𝑋.

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Exercise: Show that 𝒯 satisfies the conditions of a topology.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}} be a topology on 𝑋. Consider 𝑌 = {𝑏, 𝑐}
then the subspace topology on 𝑌 is given by

Lemma: If ℬ is a basis for the topology of 𝑋 then the collection


ℬ = {𝐵 ∩ 𝑌: 𝐵 ∈ ℬ}
is a basis for the subspace topology on 𝑌.

Recall: Lemma: Let 𝑌 be a topological space. Suppose that ℬ is a collection of open sets of 𝑌 such that for each
open set 𝑈 of 𝑌 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐵 of ℬ such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑈. Then ℬ is a basis for the
topology of 𝑌.

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Proof:

Exercise: Let 𝑌 be a subspace of 𝑋. If 𝑈 is open in 𝑌 and 𝑌 is open in 𝑋, then 𝑈 is open in 𝑋.

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Closed Sets and Limit Points
Definition (Closed set): A subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋 is said to be closed if the set
𝑋 − 𝐴 is open.

Example: The subset 𝐴 = [1,2] of ℝ is closed because the complement is open, the
complement is given by
ℝ − 𝐴 = 𝑅 − [1,2] = (−∞, 1) ∪ (2, ∞) .

Example: In the plane ℝ , the set


{(𝑥, 𝑦): 𝑥 ≥ 0, 𝑦 ≥ 0}
is closed, because its complement is open.
Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}} be a topology on 𝑋. In this topology the
set {𝑎} is both closed and open.

Closure and interior of a set


Definition (Interior): Given a subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋, the interior of 𝐴 is defined
as the union of all open sets contained in 𝐴. The interior of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}}. Find 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏}, and 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑋, 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏, 𝑐}?
Solution: Since 𝜙 is the only open set contained in {𝑏} so that’s why 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏} = 𝜙.
Also 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑋 = 𝑋 since the open set 𝑋 ⊂ 𝑋. Similarly 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏, 𝑐} = {𝑏, 𝑐}.
Theorem: Show that int A is the largest open set contained in A.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with usual topology. Find 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴, where 𝐴 = [0,1].

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Definition (Closure): Given a subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋, the closure of 𝐴 is defined as
the intersections of all closed sets containing 𝐴. The closure of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝐶𝑙 𝐴 or 𝐴̅.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with usual topology. Find 𝐶𝑙 𝐴, where 𝐴 = (0,1) .


The following result directly follows from definition.
Theorem. Let (𝑋, 𝜏) be a topological space and let 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a subset. Show that 𝐴̅ is the
smallest closed set containing 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}}. Find closure of {𝑏}.
Solution: the closed sets are 𝜙, 𝑋, {𝑏, 𝑐}, {𝑎} . The smallest closed set containing {𝑏} is {𝑏, 𝑐}.
Hence {𝑏} = {𝑏, 𝑐}.

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋. Then 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ if and only if every open set 𝑈
containing 𝑥 intersects 𝐴.

Neighborhood of a point
Let 𝑋 be a topological space and 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋. If 𝑈 is an open set containing 𝑥 then we say that 𝑈 is a
neighbourhood of 𝑥.

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Limit point
Let 𝑋 be a topological space and 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a subset of 𝑋. A point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a
limit point of 𝐴 if every open set 𝑈 containing 𝑥 (neighbourhood of 𝑥)
contains more elements of 𝐴, that is
𝑈 ∩ 𝐴 − {𝑥} ≠ Φ .
Set of all limit points of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝐴 , also known as drived set.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and 𝐴 = (0,1]. The point 0 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑} and 𝒯 = {𝑋, 𝜙, {𝑎}, {𝑏}, {𝑎, 𝑏}, {𝑎, 𝑐}, {𝑏, 𝑐}, {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐}}.
Check if 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? No, since 𝑎 ∈ {𝑎} but does not contain more
elements of 𝐴.
Check if 𝑐 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? No, since 𝑐 ∈ {𝑎, 𝑐} but {𝑎, 𝑐} does not contain
more elements of 𝐴.
Check if 𝑑 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? Yes

Example: Let 𝑋 be a set with discrete topology. Let 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a non-empty and 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Show
that 𝑎 is not limit point of 𝐴, that is, 𝐴 or 𝐴′ is empty.

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋; let 𝐴 be the set of all limit points of 𝐴.
Then

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 .

Proof:
Recall: Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋. Then 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ if and only if every
open set 𝑈 containing 𝑥 intersects 𝐴.

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Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝟐 -Space
Definition (Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝑻𝟐 -Space) A topological space 𝑋 is
called a Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝑇 -Space if for each pair 𝑥 , 𝑥 of distinct point of
𝑋, there exist open sets (neighbourhoods) 𝑈, and 𝑉 such that
𝑥 ∈ 𝑈, 𝑥 ∈ 𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑈 ∩ 𝑉 = Φ .

Example: Show that ℝ is a 𝑇 -space.

Example: Show that every discrete topological space is a 𝑇 -space.

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Continuous functions
RECALL
Definition (Continuous functions): A function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 is
said to be continuous if for each open subset 𝑉 of 𝑌, the set
𝑓 (𝑉) is open subset of 𝑋. Definition
Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑋. (Continuous function)
Let 𝑌 = {1,2,3} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑌. Consider a
function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by Let (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) be
metric spaces and 𝑓: 𝑋 →
𝑓(𝑎) = 1, 𝑓(𝑏) = 2, 𝑓(𝑐) = 3 . 𝑌 be a function. Then 𝑓 is
Let us check the continuity of 𝑓. continuous at point 𝑥 = 𝑎
if for every 𝜖 > 0 there
Theorem: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces; let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌. exist 𝛿 > 0 such that
Then the following statements are equivalent.
𝑑′(𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎)) < 𝜖
1. 𝑓 is continuous whenevery 𝑑( 𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿 .
2. For every subset 𝐴 of 𝑋, one has 𝑓(𝐴̅) ⊂ 𝑓(𝐴)
3. For every closed set 𝐵 of 𝑌, the set 𝑓 (𝐵) is closed Also we know
in 𝑋.
Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be two
Proof: topological spaces. A
function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 is
continuous if and only if
𝑓 (𝑂) is open
whenevery 𝑂 is open in 𝑌 .

Example: Show that a constant function between two topological spaces is always
continuous.

Theorem: Show that composition of continuous functions is continuous.

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Homeomorphism
Definition(Homeomorphism): Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces, let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a bijection. If
both the function 𝑓 and the inverse function

𝑓 :𝑌 → 𝑋
are continuous, then 𝑓 is called a homeomorphism.
Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑋. Let 𝑌 = {1,2,3} and 𝜏 be discrete
topology on 𝑌. Consider a function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by
𝑓(𝑎) = 1, 𝑓(𝑏) = 2, 𝑓(𝑐) = 3.
Show that 𝑓 is a homeomorphism.

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