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1-89 topology

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Basic topology concepts

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72 просмотров89 страниц1-89 topology

Basic topology concepts

© All Rights Reserved

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1

Preface

These lecture notes are organized/based on lectures of Set Topology (MTH251) delivered at

CUI, Islamabad.

Sohail Iqbal

Fall 2019

2

Metric space

Metric spaces are those spaces where we have a precise notion of distance, that is, there is a

well-defined distance between two objects. These notion of measuring distance includes,

distance between two point of Euclidean space, between points on manifolds, two DNA’s, and

beyond.

The ability to measure distance between two points from a set is often crucial and is a basic

requirement for most of the analysis with wide applications in science and engineering. We

shall see some of the applications, namely, error-correcting codes, DNA sequences, etc.

Main sketch of the course: as we know that in calculus we study functions and their geometric

properties, e.g, the expressions known as graphs. Since topology deals with understanding

geometry we will be investigating properties of functions as well in a general set up where ℝ is

replaces with any set where we can measure distance.

functions of the form functions of the form

𝑓: ℝ → ℝ, 𝑔: ℝ → ℝ 𝑓: 𝑆 → 𝑇

Limit where 𝑆 and 𝑇 are metric

Continuity spaces/topological spaces.

Maximum value of functions

Limit

Connectedness

Continuity

Maximum value of functions

Connectedness

Of course, other concepts like, derivative and integration can also be considered in a

topology/metric but it will not be our focus in this course.

3

Let us start from the definition of the metric.

𝑑: 𝑋 × 𝑋 → ℝ with the following properties.

1. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) ≥ 0 ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋; equality holds if and only if 𝑥 = 𝑦

2. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑑(𝑦, 𝑥) ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋

3. 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑧) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) + 𝑑(𝑦, 𝑧), ∀ 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 ∈ 𝑋 (triangle inequality)

We call the pair (𝑋, 𝑑) consisting of a set 𝑋 and the metric 𝑑, a metric space.

Remark: Note that the properties required from a metric are exactly those properties that

we required from a distance function in Euclidean plane.

The third property is called “triangle inequality” due to its

analogy with distances of three sides of a triangles in the plane.

In plane the distance travelled from 𝑥 to 𝑦 and then 𝑦 to 𝑧 is

never shorter than the distance from 𝑥 to 𝑧. This property holds

in general metric space as well.

then we refer to a metric space as 𝑋 instead of (𝑋, 𝑑).

Example

Let 𝑋 = ℝ , with 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ defined as

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .

metric or 1-metric. Also sketch a circle of radius 2 in ℝ using taxicab

metric.

Note: The metric is known as taxicab metric due to its similarity to

distance measured when a taxicab moves in a town.

Solution:

4

5

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ given by

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦| .

Show that (ℝ , 𝑑) is a metric space.

Solution:

6

To show that the usual distance function in ℝ satisfies the three conditions of a metric we are

going to need to two inequalities, namely, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality.

In the following discussion we first discuss these inequalities with their proofs.

In this section we discuss Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and Minkowski inequality for ℝ . Please

note that these inequality hold in a much general case but here we are only concerned with the

case of ℝ . First we recall some basic facts about ℝ .

Any two elements of ℝ can added in the following way. If 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 =

(𝑏 , … , 𝑏 ) then addiction of 𝑎 and 𝑏 is defined as

𝑎 + 𝑏 = (𝑎 + 𝑏 , … , 𝑎 + 𝑏 ) .

Similarly we can define subtraction in the following way

𝑎 − 𝑏 = (𝑎 − 𝑏 , … , 𝑎 − 𝑏 ) .

The dot product or scalar product in ℝ is defined as follows. If 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 =

(𝑏 , … , 𝑏 ) then

𝑎. 𝑏 = 𝑎𝑏 .

‖𝑎‖ = 𝑎 = √𝑎. 𝑎 .

From here we can defined the usual distance or Euclidean distance between any two points of

ℝ in the following way

𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝑎 − 𝑏 ) + ⋯ + (𝑎 − 𝑏 ) = ‖𝑎 − 𝑏‖ .

Note that if we given dot product then we can calculate distance between any two point, that is,

there is a metric.

7

The Cauchy-Schwarz inequality For any points 𝑎 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 ) and 𝑏 = (𝑏 , … , 𝑏 )

in ℝ we have

|𝑎. 𝑏| ≤ ‖𝑎‖ ‖ 𝑏‖ .

Proof:

8

p

have

‖𝑎 + 𝑏 ‖ ≤ ‖𝑎‖ + ‖𝑏‖ .

Proof:

9

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , then show that the following function

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

defines a metric on ℝ . Sketch a circle of radius 2 in ℝ using the above metric. Also compare

this circle with circle of radius 2 obtained using taxicab metric.

Solution:

10

11

Example (The max metric for ℝ𝟐 )

Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑: ℝ × ℝ → ℝ defined as

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = max(|𝑥 − 𝑥 |, |𝑦 − 𝑦 |).

Show that 𝑑 is a metric function. This metric is known as 𝐿 -metric or maximum metric. Also

find what will be a circle of radius 2 and centre (0,0) with respect to 𝐿 -metric.

Solution:

12

Example: Find circle of radius 1 and centre (0,0) with respect to the following metrics.

1-metric, given by

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .

2-metric, given by

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

𝐿 -metric given by

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = max(|𝑥 − 𝑥 |, |𝑦 − 𝑦 |).

13

14

Exercise: Show the for 𝑋 = ℝ the following function, for a finite positive

integer 𝑛, satisfy the properties of a metric

Solution:

15

Discrete metric

Every set can be converted to a metric space. One of the metric that can always be defined on

any set is discrete metric defined in the following way

0 𝑥=𝑦

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) =

1 𝑥≠𝑦

Check whether the above function satisfies the condition of a metric.

16

A metric on 𝓒[𝒂, 𝒃]

Consider the set 𝒞[𝑎, 𝑏] of all continuous functions defined on a given closed interval [𝑎, 𝑏]. For

any two functions from 𝒞[𝑎, 𝑏] we can define a distance between them in the following way

metric.

17

DNA Sequences and a metric spaces

DNA is a molecule made up of millions of atoms.

Within its structure lies the code that determine our

genetic makeup. DNA is composed of nucleotides. A

DNA molecule consists of two chains wound together

to form the familiar double helix, as illustrated in the

figure. The nucleotides in DNA come in four types

Adenine (A)

Cytosine (C)

Guanine (G)

Thymine (T)

Nucleotides in a DNA chain also pair, but do so with their neighbors on the opposite chain in

the following way

Guanine pairs with cytosine

Thus the sequence of nucleotides on one chain determines the sequence on the opposite chain,

and we can represent part or all of a DNA molecule with a sequence of the letters 𝐴, 𝐺, 𝑇, 𝐶.

“How different are two DNA sequences”

The answer lies in metric spaces.

Let 𝑥 and 𝑦 be two sequences of the letters 𝐴, 𝐶, 𝐺 and 𝑇. We measure the distance between 𝑥

and 𝑦 by determining how many operations on 𝑥 are necessary to turn it into 𝑦. We allow three

type of operations on 𝑥

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1. We can insert any letter into 𝑥

For our particular 𝑥 and 𝑦, we can use a sequence 𝑆 of these operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦. Let

1. 𝑖 represent the number of insertions in the sequence

2. 𝑑 the number of deletions

3. 𝑟 the number of replacements.

So the total number of operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦 is 𝑖 + 𝑑 + 𝑟 . But of course there are many

choices of sequence operations to turn 𝑥 into 𝑦, and therefore we define the distance between

𝑥 and 𝑦 as follows:

𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) = min{𝑖 + 𝑑 + 𝑟 }.

Where the minimum is taken over all sequences of operations 𝑆 that trun 𝑥 into 𝑦.

Example: Let

X = AGTTCGAATCC

Y = AGCTCAGGAATC

Find the Levenshtein distance between 𝑥 and 𝑦.

19

x = :AGTTCGAATCC

Replace T : AGCTCGAATCC

Insert A :A GCTCAGAATCC

Insert G :A GCTCAGGAATCC

Delete C : AGCTCAGGAATC =y

We can check, by examining all possibilities with three or fewer operations, that the fewest

number of insertions, deletions, and replacements to get 𝑥 to 𝑦 is 4, so

𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 4.

Exercise: Show that the Levenshtein distance on the space of DNA’s is a metric function.

Suppose that we want to send a certain message. We assume that the message has been

encoded in binary code, which is to say that our message consists of a finite sequences of 0s

and 1s, say n of them, which we call a word. We also assume that in transmission some number

of 0s may be turned into 1s and vice versa. We do not allow for lost entries or additional

entries, so the word that arrived also has length n. Note that what we call a word here could

consist of a few words, as we normally think of them, making up a particular message.

Each word of length n can be thought of as a vector of length n, with all entries either 0s or 1s,

We write the set of all these possibilities as 𝑉 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 )| 𝑎 ∈ {0,1} . So 𝑉 is the cross

product of n copies of the set {0,1}. We now put a metric on this set.

Definition: The hamming distance 𝐷 (𝑥, 𝑦) between two words of length n is the number

of places in which the words differ.

Example: Find the hamming distance between the following two codes

20

Exercise: Show that the hamming distance is a metric function on 𝑉 = (𝑎 , … , 𝑎 )| 𝑎 ∈

{0,1} , where 𝑛 is a positive integer.

21

Open sets and closed sets in a metric space

We know the importance of open and closed sets in ℝ and their importance in discussing

different geometric and algebraic properties of real valued functions of one variable. Now we

want to know the generalization of these properties in arbitrary metric spaces. So there will be

an obvious parallelism between the concepts defined in this section and those for line and

planes from calculus of BSM.

Let us first observe open sets in ℝ .

An open interval in ℝ is defined as

(𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥: 𝑏 < 𝑥 < 𝑎}

For example (0,1) consists of all points on the real line

that lies between 0 an 1.

Since ℝ is a metric space so we can also use the metric 𝑑 on ℝ to (0,1) in the following way

(0,1) = {𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑 (𝑥, 0.5) < 0.5}

Similarly, a general open set can be written as

{𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝑟 }.

Similarly a closed set can be defined as

{𝑥 ∈ ℝ : 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) ≤ 𝑟 }.

Example: Write down the following open and closed intervals using the metric notion.

1. (0,10)

2. [2,6]

3. (𝑎, 𝑏)

4. [𝑎, 𝑏]

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋 and 𝑟 is a positive number. The open ball

with center 𝑎 and radius 𝑟 is the set

𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) = {𝑥 ∈ 𝑋: 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝑟} .

The corresponding closed ball is

22

𝐵 [𝑎, 𝑟] = {𝑥 ∈ 𝑋: 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑎) ≤ 𝑟} .

Example:

Let 𝑋 = ℝ and for 𝑥 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) 𝑦 = (𝑥 , 𝑦 )

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) , (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = (𝑥 − 𝑥 ) + (𝑦 − 𝑦 ) .

1. 𝐵 (0,0), 2

2. 𝐵 [(0,0), 2]

𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ), (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) = |𝑥 − 𝑥 | + |𝑦 − 𝑦 | .

1. 𝐵 (0,0), 2

2. 𝐵 [(0,0), 2]

23

24

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) be an open ball then for each 𝑥 ∈

𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) ∃ 𝜀 > 0 such that

𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) ⊂ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝑟) .

Proof:

25

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. A subset 𝑂 of a metric space is open set

provided 𝑂 is union of open balls. The family 𝒯 of open sets defined in this way is called

topology of 𝑋 generated by metric 𝑑.

A subset 𝐶 of 𝑋 is closed with respect to 𝑑 provided its complement is open.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. What open sets in the topology of ℝ

generated by 𝑑.

26

Theorem: A subset 𝑂 of a metric space 𝑋 is open if and only if for each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑂 there exists an

open ball 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) for some positive radius 𝜀 such that 9

𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀 ) ⊂ 𝑂 .

Proof:

=p

27

Theorem: The family 𝒯 of open sets with respect to metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) has the following

property

1. 𝑋 and Φ are open sets.

2. The union of any family of open se ts is open.

3. The intersection of finitely many elements of 𝒯 is again member of 𝒯.

Proof:

28

29

Exercise: Show the following.

The closed sets of a metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) have the following properties.

a) 𝑋 and Φ are closed sets.

b) The intersection of any family of closed sets is closed.

c) The union of any finite family of closed sets is closed.

30

Limit point

The concept of limit point is generalization of the concept of

limit.

A point 𝑝 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point or accumulation point of 𝐴

provided that every open set containing 𝑝 contains a point of 𝐴

distinct form 𝑝 . The set of all limit points of 𝐴 is called derived

set and is denoted by 𝐴 .

𝐴.

31

32

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = [0,1).

1. Show that 0 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.

2. Show that 1 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.

3. Show that 0.5 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴.

33

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = {1,2,3}. Find limits points of 𝐴.

34

Exercise: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝒙𝟏 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒙𝟐 − 𝒚𝟐 )𝟐 . Consider 𝐴 =

{(𝑥 , 𝑥 ): 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑥 < 1}. Find limit points of 𝐴.

35

Theorem: A subset 𝐴 of a metric space(𝑋, 𝑑) is closed if and only if 𝐴 contains all its limit

points.

We want to show that if 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴 then

𝑥 belongs to 𝐴.

Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of 𝐴. If on contrary, 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴 then

𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴. Since 𝐴 is closed so 𝑋 − 𝐴 is open. So there

exist an open set 𝑂 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴. Which

implies 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴. A contradiction so 𝑥 ∈

𝐴.

Conversely assume that 𝐴 contains all its limit points.

We show that 𝐴 is closed.

For this we show that 𝑋 − 𝐴 is open. Let 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴 then

𝑦 is not limit point of 𝐴. So there exist an open set 𝑂 ⊂

𝑋 such that 𝑂 ∩ 𝐴 = Φ, that is, 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴. So we have

𝑦 ∈ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝑋 − 𝐴.

Since 𝑂 is open so there exist 𝜀 > 0 such that

𝑦 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀) ⊂ 𝑂 ⊂ 𝐴

Hence

𝑦 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑥, 𝜀) ⊂ 𝐴 .

So 𝐴 is closed.

Sequence

Examples: Sequence of natural numbers.

Exercise: Write 10 examples of sequences.

36

Convergence of sequence

Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and {𝑥 } a sequence of points of 𝑋. Then {𝑥 } converges to

a point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, or 𝑥 is the limit of the sequence, provided that given 𝜖 > 0 there is positive

integer 𝑁 such that

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥) < 𝜖 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁.

If {𝑥 } converges to 𝑥 then we denote it by 𝑥 → 𝑥.

37

Theorem: A sequence in a metric space cannot converge to more than one limit.

Proof: Let {𝑥 } be a sequence in metric space (𝑋, 𝑑). Suppose on contrary that 𝑥

converges to 𝑎 and 𝑏. Let 𝜖 = 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏).

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝜖 for 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .

Similarly, since 𝑏 is limit of 𝑥 so there exist 𝑁 such that

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑏) < 𝜀 for 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .

Now

1

𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) + 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑏) < 𝜖 + 𝜖 = 2𝜖 = 2 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏) = 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑏).

2

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝐴 is a subset of 𝑋. Then a point 𝑝 ∈ 𝑋 is a limit point of

𝐴 if and only if there is a sequence of distinct points of 𝐴 which converges to 𝑝.

We want to find a sequence of distinct points of 𝐴 converging to 𝑝.

38

For 𝑟 = : since {𝑞 } is closed so 𝑋 − {𝑞 } is open. So 𝐴 = 𝐵 𝑝, ∩ (𝑋 − {𝑞 }) is open. Since 𝑝 is a

limit point, so 𝐴 contains a point of 𝐴, say 𝑞 ∈ 𝐴.

𝐴 =𝐵 𝑝, ∩ ( 𝑋 − {𝑞 , 𝑞 , … , 𝑞 }) is open. Since 𝑝 is a limit point of 𝐴 so 𝐴 contains a point of 𝐴,

say 𝑞 ∈ 𝐴.

1

𝑑(𝑞 , 𝑝) < .

𝑛

Now we need to show that {𝑞 } converges to 𝑝. Let 𝜖 > 0 then

show that 𝑝 is a limit point of 𝐴.

Let 𝑂 be an open set containing 𝑝. And Let 𝜖 > 0 such that 𝐵 (𝑝, 𝜖) ⊂ 𝑂. Since there is a converging

sequence {𝑥 } so for 𝜖 > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that

39

Interior, closure, and boundary

Definition: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋. A point 𝑥 in 𝐴 is an interior point of 𝐴, or

𝐴 in a neighbourhood of 𝑥, provided that there is an open set 𝑂 which contains 𝑥 and is

contained in 𝐴. The interior of 𝐴, denoted by "int 𝐴” is the set of all interior points of 𝐴.

1. Then 𝑥 = 0.5 is an interior point of 𝐴, since 𝑥 ∈ (0.25,0.75) ⊂ 𝐴.

2. Also the point 𝑦 = 0 is not interior point of 𝐴 since we can’t find an open subset of 𝐴

containing 𝑦.

3. The int 𝐴 = (0,1), since every point 𝑧 ∈ 𝐴 is contained in an open interval 𝐵 (𝑧, 𝑟) ⊂ 𝐴

where 𝑟 = (𝑚𝑖𝑛{𝑑(𝑧, 0), 𝑑(𝑧, 1)}).

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋. Show that int A is union of all open sets

contained in 𝐴.

Proof:

40

Definition: The closure 𝐴̅ of a subset of a metric space 𝑋 is the union of 𝐴 with its set of limit

points:

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴

Where 𝐴 is the derived set of 𝐴.

Example:

Theorem: If 𝐴 is a subset of a metric space 𝑋. Then 𝐴̅ is a closed set and is the subset of every

closed set containing 𝐴.

Proof: We know that “A subset 𝐴 of a metric space(𝑋, 𝑑) is closed if and only if 𝐴 contains all its limit

points”. So we want to show that 𝐴̅ contains all its limit points.

Consider 𝑥 ∉ 𝐴̅, we want to show that 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴̅ ( this will show that 𝐴̅ contains

all its limit points). Since 𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 so 𝑥 is not limit point of 𝐴. So there exist an open set 𝑂

containing 𝑥 but does not contain any point of 𝐴. Now if 𝑂 does not contain any point of 𝐴 then

it can not contain a limit point of 𝐴 either. Since every open set containing a limit point

contains more elements of 𝐴. So 𝑂 contains no elements of 𝐴̅ (so we have found an open set 𝑂

containing 𝑥 but not any element of 𝐴̅). So 𝑥 is not a limit point of 𝐴̅. So 𝐴̅ is closed.

Next we need to show that every closed set containing 𝐴 contains 𝐴̅ (In other words 𝐴̅ is the

smallest closed set containing 𝐴). Let 𝐹 is a closed subset of 𝑋 for which 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹. Now

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 and 𝐹 = 𝐹 ∪ 𝐹

Also 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹 which implies 𝐴 ⊂ 𝐹 , so 𝐴̅ ⊂ 𝐹 .

1. 𝐴 is open if and only if 𝐴 = 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴.

2. 𝐴 is closed if and only if 𝐴̅ = 𝐴.

41

Definition(Boundary point)

Let 𝐴 be a subset of a metric space 𝑋.

A point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a boundary point of 𝐴

provided that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ and 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 − 𝐴.

The set of all boundary points of 𝐴 is

called the boundary of 𝐴 and is

denoted by 𝑏𝑑𝑦 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. Let 𝐴 = [𝑎, 𝑏) then boundary of 𝐴 is {𝑎, 𝑏}.

𝑏𝑦𝑑 Φ = Φ

And

𝑏𝑦𝑑 𝑋 = Φ .

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ , with 𝑑 metric. Let 𝐴 = {( 𝑥, 𝑦): 0 < 𝑥 < 1, 0 < 𝑦 < 1}. Find 𝑏𝑑𝑦 𝐴 .

42

Continuous functions

Consider a function 𝑓: ℝ → ℝ, defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 6 − 𝑥 . The graph of 𝑓 is given below

It can be seen that the graph does not have any breaks, jumps, so the graph is continuous. Hence

we say that the function 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 is continuous function. In general if graph of a function

𝑓: ℝ → ℝ does not have any breaks or jumps then we say that function 𝑓 is continuous.

Knowing continuity of a function is important in checking the behavior of the function. If function

represents a real life situation then checking the continuity gives a better understanding of the

situation. Unfortunately, checking continuity from graph is not precise and practical. So our next

question is:

Before exploring the mathematical definition of continuity let us first consider the reasons of

discontinuity.

43

There are three types of points which are making the above function discontinuous. All of these

points have only one thing common, that is, the image of an interval functional values around

these points can not be confined in a rectangular box, where the size of the box is as small as we

want (see the diagram).

So a function is continuous at a point if for every horizontal bar we can find a pink bar such that

the functional values are confined. So mathematically speaking we can say that a function at a

point 𝑥 = 𝑎 is continuous if for every 𝜖 > 0 there exist a 𝛿 > 0 such that

|𝑓(𝑥) − 𝑓(𝑎)| < 𝜖 whenever |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿

44

Using this definition we can easily see that why the following function is not continuous.

45

Example: Check continuity of function 𝑓: ℝ → ℝ defined by 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 at point 𝑥 = 1.

1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 > 0

𝑓(𝑥) = 0, 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 = 0

−1 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 < 0

At point 𝑥 = 0, and at 𝑥 = 1.

We can generalize the above definition for any metric spaces in the following way.

46

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) be metric spaces and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function. Then 𝑓 is

continuous at point 𝑥 = 𝑎 if for every 𝜖 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that

𝑑′(𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎)) < 𝜖 whenevery 𝑑( 𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿 .

where 𝑎 ∈ ℝ.

Solution: We want to show that for every 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that

|𝑥 − 𝑎 | < 𝜀 whenever |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿 .

|𝑥| − |𝑎| ≤ |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 1

⇒ |𝑥| < 1 + |𝑎|

Hence

|𝑥 + 𝑎| ≤ |𝑥| + |𝑎| < 1 + |𝑎| + |𝑎| = 1 + 2(|𝑎|)

So

This implies

| 𝑥 − 𝑎| 1 + 2(|𝑎|) < 𝜀

𝜀

⇒ |𝑥 − 𝑎| < (1)

1 + 2(|𝑎|)

|𝑥 − 𝑎 | < 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 |𝑥 − 𝑎| < 𝛿

47

𝜀

where 𝑠 = min 1, (| |)

.

Theorem: Let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function from metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) to metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ) and

let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Then function 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎 if and only if for each sequence {𝑥 } in 𝑋

converging to 𝑎, the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎).

Proof: ⟹ Assume that 𝑓 is continuous at 𝑎, that is, for every 𝜀 > 0 there exist a 𝛿 > 0 such

that

“for each sequence {𝑥 } in 𝑋 converging to 𝑎, the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎).”

Consider a sequence {𝑥 } converging to 𝑎, that is, for every 𝜀 > 0 (we take 𝜀 to

differentiate it with 𝜀 used above) there exist 𝑁 such that

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 . (2)

Our next aim is to show that {𝑓(𝑥 )} converges to 𝑓(𝑎). By taking 𝜀 = 𝛿, we get

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < 𝛿 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .

By (1), we get

Conversely (in compact form) the logical statement to prove in this converse part is:

′′𝑥 → 𝑎 ⇒ 𝑓(𝑥 ) → 𝑓(𝑎) ⟹ 𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑎

But instead we prove its contrapositive, that is, we prove the following

𝑓 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑎 ⟹ 𝑥 → 𝑎 ⇏ 𝑓(𝑥 ) → 𝑓(𝑎)

48

So we assume 𝑓 is not continuous at 𝑎, that is,

∃ 𝜀 > 0 𝑠𝑢𝑐ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 ∀ 𝛿 > 0 𝑤𝑒 ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑒 ∶ ∃ 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 (𝑎, 𝛿) 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀 (3)

We construct the sequence by repeatedly applying (3) in the following way. The statement

holds for all 𝛿 > 0, so we choose a sequence of 𝛿′𝑠 which helps us in finding sequence.

1

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) <

𝑛

and for arbitrary 𝜀 > 0 we can find 𝑁 such that

1

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < <𝜀 whenever 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .

𝑛

So 𝑥 → 𝑎. Again from (3), we have

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑓(𝑎) ≥ 𝜀 ∀𝑛 .

So the distance between the terms of the sequence {𝑓(𝑥 )} and 𝑓(𝑎) can not be less than 𝜀.

Hence

𝑓(𝑥 ) ↛ 𝑓(𝑎) . □

49

Theorem: Let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a function from metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) to metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ) and

let 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Then 𝑓 is continuous if and only if for each open set 𝑂 in 𝑌, 𝑓 (𝑂) is open in 𝑋.

Proof:

50

Equivalence of metric spaces

Definition: Metric spaces (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) are metrically equivalent or isometric if there is

a one-to-one function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 from 𝑋 onto 𝑌 such that for all 𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ 𝑋

Example: Show that identity function on metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) given by 𝐼: 𝑋 → 𝑋, such that

𝐼 (𝑥) = 𝑥

is an isometry.

Example: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑′) is an isometry then the inverse function 𝑓 is also an

isometry.

51

Example: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑′) and 𝑔: (𝑌 𝑑′) → (𝑍, 𝑑′′) be two isometries then show that

𝑔 ∘ 𝑓 is an isometry.

Homeomorphism

Definition: Metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌. 𝑑 ) are topologically equivalent or homeomorphic if

there is a function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 which satisfy the following conditions:

1. 𝑓 is continuous

2. 𝑓 is continuous

3. 𝑓 is bijective

Example: Consider metric spaces 𝑋 = (0,1) and 𝑌 = (0,2) with metrices determined by the

usual metric on the real line. Show that function 𝐹 ∶ 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by

𝑓(𝑥) = 2𝑥, 𝑥 ∈ (0,1)

is a homeomorphism but not isometry.

Solution:

52

Theorem: Let 𝑓: (𝑋, 𝑑) → (𝑌, 𝑑 ) is an isometry. Show that 𝑓 is continuous.

Proof:

Example: Let (𝑎, 𝑏) is an open interval in ℝ. Show that (𝑎, 𝑏) is homeomorphic to (0,1).

Solution ( Hint ): Consider function 𝑓: (𝑎, 𝑏) → (0,1) defined in the following way

𝑥−𝑎

𝑓(𝑥) = , 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎, 𝑏)

𝑏−𝑎

It is left as an exercise to show the following:

1. 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous

2. 𝑓(𝑥) is bijective

3. 𝑓 (𝑥) is continuous

53

Exercise: Show that ℝ is homeomorphic to the open interval − , .

1. 𝑓(𝑥) is continuous

2. 𝑓(𝑥) is bijective

3. 𝑓 (𝑥) is continuous

54

Theorem: Let Γ be the class of all metric spaces. Let be a relation on Γ defined in the

following way

“𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ Γ, 𝑎~𝑏 if ∃ a homeomorphism 𝑓: 𝑎 → 𝑏”

show that ~ is an equivalence relation.

Proof: To prove the relation ~ is equivalence relation we need to show the following

1. ~ is reflexive, that is, 𝑎~𝑎 for all 𝑎 ∈ Γ

2. ~ is symmetric, that is, if 𝑎~𝑏 then 𝑏~𝑎

3. ~ is transitive, that is, if 𝑎~𝑏 and 𝑏~𝑐 then 𝑎~𝑐

(1) Reflexive

The relation ~ is reflexive since for any metric space 𝑋 ∈ Γ there exist a homeomorphism

𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑏𝑦 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 ∀ 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 .

The function 𝑓, being identity, is clearly a homeomorphism.

(2) Symmetric

To show the relation ~ is symmetric we choose arbitrary 𝑋, 𝑌 ∈ Γ such that 𝑋~𝑌. That is

there is a homeomorphism 𝑔: 𝑋 → 𝑌. Since 𝑔 is a homeomorphism so

1. 𝑔 is continuous

2. 𝑔 is bijective

3. 𝑔 is continuous

Now to show 𝑌~𝑋, we consider the following function

𝑔 :𝑌 → 𝑋

such that

1. 𝑔 is continuous

2. (𝑔 ) = 𝑔 is continuous

3. 𝑔 is bijective since 𝑔 is bijective.

(3) Transitive

Let 𝑋~𝑌 and 𝑌~𝑍, that is there exist the following two homeomorphisms

𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑌 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓 : 𝑌 → 𝑍

Such that

1. 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑍 is continuous since composition of continuous functions is

continuous (exercise)

2. (𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 ) = 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 ∶ 𝑍 → 𝑋 is continuous since 𝑓 and 𝑓 are

continuous.

55

3. 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 is a bijection since 𝑓 and 𝑓 are bijective.

Hence there is homeomorphism 𝑓 ∘ 𝑓 : 𝑋 → 𝑍 so 𝑋 ~𝑍.

56

Different metrics on same set

Roughly speaking a metric consists of a set and a rule for calculating distance. If any of these

two things changes then the metric space changes. So a set 𝑋 with two different metrics, say,

𝑑 and 𝑑 is considered as distinct metric. That is (𝑋, 𝑑 ) and (𝑋, 𝑑 ) are different metric

spaces.

In the next discussion we find conditions under which identity map with different domain and

range metrics is continuous.

Lemma: Let 𝑑 and 𝑑 be two metrics on the set 𝑋 and suppose that there is a positive

number 𝑐 such that 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋. Then the identity function

𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous.

Proof: Given “there is a positive number 𝑐 such that 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋.”

We want to show that the identity function 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous for each 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋.

That is, for 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝛿 > 0 such that

Consider

Which implies

𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) < 𝜀

𝜀

⇒ 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) <

𝑐

So we can take 𝛿 = such that

𝜀

𝑑 𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎) < 𝜀 whenever 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑎) < .

𝑐

Theorem: Let 𝑑 and 𝑑 be two metrices for the set 𝑋 and suppose there are positive

numbers 𝑐 and 𝑐′ such that

𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) , 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦)

for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋. Then the identity function on 𝑋 is a homeomorphism between (𝑋, 𝑑 ) and

(𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Proof: Assume that there are positive numbers 𝑐 and 𝑐′ such that

𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) , 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦)

for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋.

We want to show that (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is homeomorphic to (𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Since 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦), for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋 so using above result there is a continuous function

57

𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Similarly 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦) ≤ 𝑐 𝑑 (𝑥, 𝑦), for 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋, implies that there is a continuous function

𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 )

So we have

1. 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous

2. 𝑖 = 𝑖: (𝑋, 𝑑 ) → (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is continuous

3. 𝑖 is bijective being identity.

Hence (𝑋, 𝑑 ) is homeomorphic to (𝑋, 𝑑 ).

Definition: Metrics 𝑑 and 𝑑 for a set 𝑋 which determine the same topology are called

equivalent metrics.

In this section we will discuss ways of constructing new metric

spaces from old spaces.

Subspace

If (𝑋, 𝑑) is a metric space and 𝑌 ⊂ 𝑋 then what can be said

about 𝑌? Is 𝑌 a metric space?

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑌 a subset of 𝑋. The metric space (𝑌, 𝑑 ), where

𝑑 is the restriction of 𝑑 to 𝑌 × 𝑌, is called a subspace of (𝑋, 𝑑).

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, with 𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = |𝑥 − 𝑦|. A subspace of 𝑋 is 𝑌 = [0,1] with metric 𝑑 , such

that

𝑑 = 𝑑| .

Some commonly used subspace

1)- The unit n-cube is the set

𝐼 = {𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 0 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑖 = 1,2, … , 𝑛}

With subspace metric defined above.

58

2)- The n-dimensional sphere 𝑆 ⊂ ℝ is the set

𝑆 = 𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 =1 .

𝐵 = 𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 ≤1 .

59

For 𝑛 ≥ 2 consider the set

𝐴 = {𝑥 = (𝑥 , … , 𝑥 ) ∈ ℝ : 𝑥 = 0} .

Cartesian product

Definition: Let {(𝑋 , 𝑑 )} be a finite collection of metric spaces. The product metric space

(𝑋, 𝑑) is the Cartesian product

𝑋 = 𝑋 × 𝑋 × …× 𝑋

Of the set 𝑋 , 𝑋 , … , 𝑋 with the product metric 𝑑 defined by

/

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = (𝑑 (𝑥 , 𝑦 ) .

Example: Euclidean n-dimensional space ℝ , with its usual metric 𝑑 is the product of real line

ℝ taken as coordinate space 𝑛 times

ℝ = Π ℝ.

where the metric on ℝ is defined above.

60

Irreducible closed sets

A closed set that can not be written as disjoint union of two closed sets is called irreducible

closed set.

Dimension of a subset 𝒀 ⊂ (𝑿, 𝒅) :

Let 𝑛 be the length of the longest chain of irreducible closed subsets of 𝑌. Then 𝑛 − 1 is called

the dimension of 𝑌.

Example: Let 𝑌 = {(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧): 𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 − 1 = 0} be a plane in ℝ . Since the longest chain of

irreducible closed sets is

𝑝⊂𝐿⊂𝑌

Hence the dimension of 𝑌 is 2.

61

Complete metric spaces

Consider a sequence {𝑥 } in a metric space 𝑋. If 𝑥 converges to 𝑥 then it does not

guarantee that 𝑥 is an element of 𝑋. Consider, for example, sequence in metric

space (0,1). Now we know that converges to 0, but 0 ∉ (0,1). So the limit of the

sequence from (0,1) does not belong to the (0,1).

In this section we are going to discuss a property that will guarantee that limits of Cauhcy’s

convergent sequences belong to the space, such property is called completeness. For sequence is

this purpose we need to know some new definition. named after Baron

Augustin-Louis

Definition: Let(𝑋, 𝑑) is a metric space. A sequence {𝑥 } of points of 𝑋 is a Cauchy Cauchy. He was

sequence provided that for every positive number 𝜀 > 0 there is a positive integer 𝑁 an FRS FRSE and

such that was a French

mathematician,

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) < 𝜀, ∀ 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁. engineer and

physicist who

Example: Show that 𝑥 = is a Cauchy sequence. made pioneering

contributions to

Solution: We want to show that, for 𝜀 > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that several branches

of mathematics,

|𝑥 − 𝑥 | < 𝜀, ∀ 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁. including

Consider mathematical

analysis and

1 1 1 1 continuum

|𝑥 − 𝑥 | = − ≤ + mechanics.

𝑚 𝑛 𝑚 𝑛

Since is convergent to 0 so for > 0 there exist 𝑁 such that

1 𝜀

< 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁

𝑛 2

Similarly there exist 𝑁 such that

1 𝜀

< 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚 ≥ 𝑁

𝑚 2

Hence

1 1 𝜀 𝜀

|𝑥 − 𝑥 | ≤ + < + = 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ max{𝑁 , 𝑁 } .

𝑚 𝑛 2 2

Hence {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence.

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space. Let {𝑥 } be a convergent sequence in (𝑋, 𝑑) then show

that {𝑥 } is a Cauchy sequence.

62

Proof: Given {𝑥 } is a convergent and is converging to, say, 𝑎. That is, for > 0 there exist 𝑁

such that

𝜀

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < ∀𝑛 ≥ 𝑁

2

To show {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence we consider

𝜀 𝜀

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) ≤ 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) + 𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑎) < + =𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁

2 2

Which implies

𝑑(𝑥 , 𝑥 ) < 𝜀 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑚, 𝑛 ≥ 𝑁 .

Hence {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence. □

The converse of above theorem is not true. A counter example is 𝑥 = in (0,1) which is a

Cauchy’s sequence but not convergent in (0,1). So a space where converse is true is called

complete, precisely we have the following definition.

Definition: A space (𝑋, 𝑑) is complete if every Cauchy sequence in 𝑋 converges to a point in 𝑋.

Completeness of

In the next discussion we will show that set of real numbers ℝ is a complete metric space. First

we show that every Cauchy’s sequence is a bounded sequence. Recall that a sequence of real

numbers {𝑥 } is bounded if there exist a positive real number 𝑀 such that

|𝑥 | ≤ 𝑀 ∀𝑛

Examples (bounded and non-bounded sequences):

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Lemma: Let {𝑥 } be a Cauchy sequence in ℝ with usual metric. Then {𝑥 } is a bounded

sequence.

Proof:

64

To prove our main result we are going to need the following important property of sequence

and subsequences of real numbers.

convergent subsequence.

Theorem: A sequence of real numbers is Cauchy if and only if it is convergent.

Proof:

65

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a complete metric space. A subspace 𝐴 of 𝑋 is complete if and only if it

is closed.

Proof: Assume that 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 is complete. We want to show that 𝐴 is closed. Equivalently we want

to show that 𝐴 contains all its limit points.

Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 be a limit point of 𝐴. So there exist a sequence {𝑥 } of distinct elements of 𝐴

converging to 𝑥. We know that every convergent sequence is a Cauchy’s sequence. Also 𝐴 is

complete so limit of {𝑥 } belongs to 𝐴. Hence 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴.

Conversely assume that 𝐴 is closed. We want to show that 𝐴 is complete.

Consider a Cauchy’s sequence {𝛼 } in 𝐴. Our aim is show that {𝛼 } is convergent in 𝐴. Since 𝑋

is a complete space so {𝛼 } converges in 𝑋, to say, 𝛼. Hence 𝛼 is limit point of 𝐴. Also 𝐴 is

closed so it contains all it limit point. So 𝛼 ∈ 𝐴. So the sequence {𝛼 } converges to 𝛼 in 𝐴.

Example (Consequence of above theorem): Show that [0,1] ⊂ ℝ is a complete space.

Definition: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 a function. Then 𝑓 is contractive with

respect to the metric 𝑑 provided that there is a positive number 𝛼 < 1 such that for all 𝑥, 𝑦 ∈ 𝑋

Theorem: Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 be a contractive function. Show that 𝑓 is

continuous.

Proof:

66

Theorem (The contraction lemma): Let (𝑋, 𝑑) be a complete metric space and 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 be a

contractive function. Then there is exactly one point 𝑥 in 𝑋 for which 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥.

Proof: Given: 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑋 is a contractive function and (𝑋, 𝑑) is a complete metric space.

To show: there is exactly one point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 such that 𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥.

Let 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 be an arbitrary point. Consider the following sequence

𝑥 , 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ), 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ) , … , 𝑥 = 𝑓(𝑥 ) ,…

Since 𝑓 is a contractive function so {𝑥 } is a Cauchy’s sequence. Since {𝑥 } is complete so this

implies {𝑥 } is a convergent sequence converging to, say, 𝑥.

Since 𝑓 is a continuous function so

𝑥 → 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑓(𝑥𝑛 ) → 𝑓(𝑥).

But 𝑓(𝑥 ) = 𝑥 , and limit of 𝑥 and 𝑥 are same, so

𝑥 → 𝑥 ⟹ 𝑥𝑛 → 𝑓(𝑥) .

Since limit of sequence is unique so

𝑓(𝑥) = 𝑥 .

Uniqueness: Let there is another point 𝑦 such that

𝑓(𝑦) = 𝑦

Then

𝑑(𝑥, 𝑦) = 0 .

67

Topology

In this section we take the concept of metric to more general setting known as topology.

Definition: A topology on a set 𝑋 is a collection 𝜏 of subsets of 𝑋 having the following properties.

Φ and 𝑋 are in 𝜏.

The union of the elements of any subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.

The intersection of the elements of any finite subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.

A set 𝑋 for which a topology 𝜏 has been specified is called a topological space. Precisely a

topological space is a pair (𝑋, 𝜏) consisting of set 𝑋 and a topology 𝜏 on 𝑋. An element of 𝜏 is

called open set.

So we can say that a topology is an ordered pair (𝑿, 𝝉) satisfying above conditions.

ℝ, called usual topology.

68

Recall

Theorem: The family 𝒯 of open sets with respect to metric space (𝑋, 𝑑) has the following

property

1. 𝑋 and Φ are open sets

2. The union of any family of open sets is open

3. The intersection of finitely many elements of 𝒯 is again member of 𝒯

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑎, 𝑏}, {𝑐} . Then 𝜏 is a not topology on 𝑋.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = 𝑋, Φ, {𝑎, 𝑐}, {𝑎, 𝑏} . Check whether 𝜏 is a topology on 𝑋.

Since the intersection of {𝑎, 𝑐} and {𝑎, 𝑏} does not belong to 𝜏. So one of the conditions of

topological space is not satisfied, stated below:

“The intersection of the elements of any finite subcollection of 𝜏 is in 𝜏.”

69

Hence 𝜏 is not a topology on 𝑋.

Definition (Indiscrete and discrete topology): If 𝑋 is any set, the collection of all subsets of 𝑋 is

a topology on 𝑋; it is called the discrete topology. The collection consisting of 𝑋 and Φ only is

also a topology on 𝑋; we shall call it the indiscrete topology, or the trivial topology.

Example (co-finite topology or finite complement topology)

Let 𝑋 be a set; let 𝒯 be the collection of all subsets 𝑈 of 𝑋 such that 𝑈 = 𝑋 − 𝑈 is either finite

or is all of 𝑋. Then 𝒯 is a topology on 𝑋, called the finite complement topology or co-finite

topology.

70

Definition (Finer(large) and coarser(smaller) topology): Suppose that 𝒯 and 𝒯′ are two

topologies on a given set 𝑋. If 𝒯′ ⊃ 𝒯, we say 𝒯′ is finer than 𝒯; if 𝒯′ properly contains 𝒯, we say

that 𝒯′ is strictly finer than 𝒯. We also say that 𝒯 is coarser than 𝒯′, or strictly coarser, in these

two respective situations. We say 𝒯 is comparable with 𝒯′ is either 𝒯 ⊃ 𝒯 or 𝒯 ⊃ 𝒯 .

71

Definition (Basis) If 𝑋 is a set, a basis for a topology on 𝑋 is a collection ℬ of subsets of 𝑋 (called

basis elements) such that

1. For each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, there is at least one basis element 𝐵 containing 𝑥

2. If 𝑥 belongs to the intersection of two basis elements 𝐵 and 𝐵 , then there is a basis

element 𝐵 containing 𝑥 such that 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐵 .

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, and ℬ = 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑠. Then ℬ is basis of usual

topology.

Solution: (discussed earlier)

Example: Let 𝑋 be a set and 𝐵 = {𝑥}: 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 . Show that 𝐵 is a basis (for some topology on 𝑋).

Exercise: Let 𝑋 = ℝ, find a collection of subsets of 𝑋 which does not satisfy the second

condition of basis.

the open sets to the empty set and every set that is equal to a union of basis elements.

(𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥| 𝑎 < 𝑥 < 𝑏}

the topology generated by ℬ is called the standard topology or usual topology on the real line.

72

Unless otherwise specifically mentioned we consider ℝ with this standard topology.

[𝑎, 𝑏) = {𝑥| 𝑎 ≤ 𝑥 < 𝑏}

Where 𝑎 < 𝑏, the topology generated by ℬ′ is called the lower limit topology on ℝ. When ℝ is

given the lower limit topology then we denote it by ℝ . Similarly we can define upper limit

topology via the basis

{(𝑎, 𝑏]: 𝑎 < 𝑏}.

Lemma: Let 𝐵 be a basis. Assume that 𝐵 , 𝐵 , … , 𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 and that 𝑥 ∈∩ 𝐵 . Then there exists

𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 such that

𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂∩ 𝐵 .

Proof:

Proof:

73

Theorem: Let 𝑋 be a set and 𝐵 be a basis for a topology on 𝑋. Then 𝑈 is open in the topology

generated by 𝐵 if and only if for each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑈 there exists a basis element 𝐵 ∈ 𝐵 such that

𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑈.

Proof:

Lemma: Let 𝑋 be a topological space. Suppose that 𝓒 is a collection of open sets of 𝑋 such that

for each open set 𝑈 of 𝑋 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐴 of 𝓒 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑈. Then

𝓒 is a basis for the topology of 𝑋.

Proof:

74

75

Exercise: Show that the topology of ℝ is strictly finer than standard topology on ℝ.

Subbasis

Main purpose of subbasis is to generate basis.

𝑋.

The topology generated by the subbasis 𝑺 is defined to be the collection 𝒯 of all union of finite

intersections of elements of 𝒮.

In other words we can say that the basis ℬ of the topology generated by the subbasis 𝒮 is given

by

ℬ = 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝒮 .

Exercise: Let 𝒮 be a subbasis 𝑋. Let 𝒯 be the topology generated by 𝒮. Show that 𝒯 satisfies

the conditions of topology.

Product Topology

Given two topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌 there is a standard way of defining a topology on the

Cartesian product 𝑋 × 𝑌, named as product topology.

Definition Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces. The product topology on 𝑋 × 𝑌 is the topology

having as basis the collection ℬ of all sets of the form 𝑈 × 𝑉, where 𝑈 is an open subset of 𝑋

and 𝑉 is an open subset of 𝑌.

76

Let us check if ℬ satisfies all the conditions of basis

Recall: If 𝑋 is a set, a basis for a topology on 𝑋 is a collection ℬ of subsets of 𝑋 (called basis elements)

such that

1. For each 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋, there is at least one basis element 𝐵 containing 𝑥

2. If 𝑥 belongs to the intersection of two basis elements 𝐵 and 𝐵 , then there is a basis element

𝐵 containing 𝑥 such that 𝐵 ⊂ 𝐵 ∩ 𝐵 .

Example:

there are two elements of ℬ but there union is not an element of ℬ.

the topology of 𝑌, then the collection

𝒟 = {𝐵 × 𝐶| 𝐵 ∈ ℬ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶 ∈ 𝒞}

is a basis for the topology of 𝑋 × 𝑌.

Proof:

Recall: Lemma: Let 𝑋 be a topological space. Suppose that 𝒞 is a collection of open sets of 𝑋 such that for each

open set 𝑈 of 𝑋 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐶 of 𝒞 such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐶 ⊂ 𝑈. Then 𝒞 is a basis for the

topology of 𝑋.

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Projections and subbasis of product topology

Definition (Projections): Let 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑋 be defined by the equation

𝜋 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑥;

Let 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑌 be defined by the equation

𝜋 (𝑥, 𝑦) = 𝑦.

The maps 𝜋 and 𝜋 are called projections of 𝑋 × 𝑌 onto its first and second factors,

respectively.

78

Example: Let 𝑋 = ℝ and 𝑌 = ℝ. Then the projection

map 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑋 is projection on 𝑥-axis. Similarly the

projection 𝜋 : 𝑋 × 𝑌 → 𝑌 is projection on 𝑦-axis.

Inverse projections

Consider the product 𝑋 × 𝑌 of two topological spaces 𝑋 and 𝑌. Let 𝜋 and 𝜋 be projections as

above. For and open set 𝑈 of 𝑋, the inverse image is given by

𝜋 (𝑈) = 𝑈 × 𝑌.

𝜋 (𝑉) = 𝑋 × 𝑉.

79

Theorem The collection

𝒮 = {𝜋 (𝑈): 𝑈 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑋} ∪ {𝜋 (𝑉): 𝑉 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑌}

is a subbasis for the product topology on 𝑋 × 𝑌.

Proof

Subspace topology

Given a topological space 𝑋, and 𝑌 a subset of 𝑋. The set 𝑌 inherits itself and topology from 𝑋

known as the subspace topology. Let us define this topology precisely.

𝒯 = {𝑌 ∩ 𝑈: 𝑈 ∈ 𝒯}

is a topology on 𝑌, called the subspace topology. With this topology 𝑌 is called a subspace of 𝑋.

80

Exercise: Show that 𝒯 satisfies the conditions of a topology.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}} be a topology on 𝑋. Consider 𝑌 = {𝑏, 𝑐}

then the subspace topology on 𝑌 is given by

ℬ = {𝐵 ∩ 𝑌: 𝐵 ∈ ℬ}

is a basis for the subspace topology on 𝑌.

Recall: Lemma: Let 𝑌 be a topological space. Suppose that ℬ is a collection of open sets of 𝑌 such that for each

open set 𝑈 of 𝑌 and each 𝑥 in 𝑈, there is an element 𝐵 of ℬ such that 𝑥 ∈ 𝐵 ⊂ 𝑈. Then ℬ is a basis for the

topology of 𝑌.

81

Proof:

82

Closed Sets and Limit Points

Definition (Closed set): A subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋 is said to be closed if the set

𝑋 − 𝐴 is open.

Example: The subset 𝐴 = [1,2] of ℝ is closed because the complement is open, the

complement is given by

ℝ − 𝐴 = 𝑅 − [1,2] = (−∞, 1) ∪ (2, ∞) .

{(𝑥, 𝑦): 𝑥 ≥ 0, 𝑦 ≥ 0}

is closed, because its complement is open.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}} be a topology on 𝑋. In this topology the

set {𝑎} is both closed and open.

Definition (Interior): Given a subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋, the interior of 𝐴 is defined

as the union of all open sets contained in 𝐴. The interior of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}}. Find 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏}, and 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑋, 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏, 𝑐}?

Solution: Since 𝜙 is the only open set contained in {𝑏} so that’s why 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏} = 𝜙.

Also 𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑋 = 𝑋 since the open set 𝑋 ⊂ 𝑋. Similarly 𝑖𝑛𝑡 {𝑏, 𝑐} = {𝑏, 𝑐}.

Theorem: Show that int A is the largest open set contained in A.

83

Definition (Closure): Given a subset 𝐴 of a topological space 𝑋, the closure of 𝐴 is defined as

the intersections of all closed sets containing 𝐴. The closure of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝐶𝑙 𝐴 or 𝐴̅.

The following result directly follows from definition.

Theorem. Let (𝑋, 𝜏) be a topological space and let 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a subset. Show that 𝐴̅ is the

smallest closed set containing 𝐴.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 = {𝑋, Φ, {𝑎}, {𝑏, 𝑐}}. Find closure of {𝑏}.

Solution: the closed sets are 𝜙, 𝑋, {𝑏, 𝑐}, {𝑎} . The smallest closed set containing {𝑏} is {𝑏, 𝑐}.

Hence {𝑏} = {𝑏, 𝑐}.

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋. Then 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ if and only if every open set 𝑈

containing 𝑥 intersects 𝐴.

Neighborhood of a point

Let 𝑋 be a topological space and 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋. If 𝑈 is an open set containing 𝑥 then we say that 𝑈 is a

neighbourhood of 𝑥.

84

Limit point

Let 𝑋 be a topological space and 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a subset of 𝑋. A point 𝑥 ∈ 𝑋 is a

limit point of 𝐴 if every open set 𝑈 containing 𝑥 (neighbourhood of 𝑥)

contains more elements of 𝐴, that is

𝑈 ∩ 𝐴 − {𝑥} ≠ Φ .

Set of all limit points of 𝐴 is denoted by 𝐴 , also known as drived set.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑} and 𝒯 = {𝑋, 𝜙, {𝑎}, {𝑏}, {𝑎, 𝑏}, {𝑎, 𝑐}, {𝑏, 𝑐}, {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐}}.

Check if 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? No, since 𝑎 ∈ {𝑎} but does not contain more

elements of 𝐴.

Check if 𝑐 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? No, since 𝑐 ∈ {𝑎, 𝑐} but {𝑎, 𝑐} does not contain

more elements of 𝐴.

Check if 𝑑 ∈ 𝑋 is limit point of 𝐴 = {𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑}? Yes

Example: Let 𝑋 be a set with discrete topology. Let 𝐴 ⊂ 𝑋 be a non-empty and 𝑎 ∈ 𝑋. Show

that 𝑎 is not limit point of 𝐴, that is, 𝐴 or 𝐴′ is empty.

Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋; let 𝐴 be the set of all limit points of 𝐴.

Then

𝐴̅ = 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴 .

Proof:

Recall: Theorem: Let 𝐴 be a subset of a topological space 𝑋. Then 𝑥 ∈ 𝐴̅ if and only if every

open set 𝑈 containing 𝑥 intersects 𝐴.

85

Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝟐 -Space

Definition (Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝑻𝟐 -Space) A topological space 𝑋 is

called a Hausdorff space / Separated Space / 𝑇 -Space if for each pair 𝑥 , 𝑥 of distinct point of

𝑋, there exist open sets (neighbourhoods) 𝑈, and 𝑉 such that

𝑥 ∈ 𝑈, 𝑥 ∈ 𝑉 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑈 ∩ 𝑉 = Φ .

86

Continuous functions

RECALL

Definition (Continuous functions): A function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 is

said to be continuous if for each open subset 𝑉 of 𝑌, the set

𝑓 (𝑉) is open subset of 𝑋. Definition

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑋. (Continuous function)

Let 𝑌 = {1,2,3} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑌. Consider a

function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by Let (𝑋, 𝑑) and (𝑌, 𝑑 ) be

metric spaces and 𝑓: 𝑋 →

𝑓(𝑎) = 1, 𝑓(𝑏) = 2, 𝑓(𝑐) = 3 . 𝑌 be a function. Then 𝑓 is

Let us check the continuity of 𝑓. continuous at point 𝑥 = 𝑎

if for every 𝜖 > 0 there

Theorem: Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces; let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌. exist 𝛿 > 0 such that

Then the following statements are equivalent.

𝑑′(𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑎)) < 𝜖

1. 𝑓 is continuous whenevery 𝑑( 𝑥, 𝑎) < 𝛿 .

2. For every subset 𝐴 of 𝑋, one has 𝑓(𝐴̅) ⊂ 𝑓(𝐴)

3. For every closed set 𝐵 of 𝑌, the set 𝑓 (𝐵) is closed Also we know

in 𝑋.

Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be two

Proof: topological spaces. A

function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 is

continuous if and only if

𝑓 (𝑂) is open

whenevery 𝑂 is open in 𝑌 .

Example: Show that a constant function between two topological spaces is always

continuous.

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Homeomorphism

Definition(Homeomorphism): Let 𝑋 and 𝑌 be topological spaces, let 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 be a bijection. If

both the function 𝑓 and the inverse function

𝑓 :𝑌 → 𝑋

are continuous, then 𝑓 is called a homeomorphism.

Example: Let 𝑋 = {𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐} and 𝜏 be discrete topology on 𝑋. Let 𝑌 = {1,2,3} and 𝜏 be discrete

topology on 𝑌. Consider a function 𝑓: 𝑋 → 𝑌 defined by

𝑓(𝑎) = 1, 𝑓(𝑏) = 2, 𝑓(𝑐) = 3.

Show that 𝑓 is a homeomorphism.

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