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Chapter

14
Just stare at the machine. There is
nothing wrong with that. Just live
with it for a while. Watch it the way
you watch a line when fishing and
before long, as sure as you live,
you’ll get a little nibble, a little fact
asking in a timid, humble way if
you’re interested in it. That’s the way
the world keeps on happening. Be
interested in it.

Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of


Motorcycle Maintenance
Spur
Gears

Figure 14.1 Spur gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing spur
gears; (b) a collection of spur gears.
Helical
Gears

Figure 14.2 Helical gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing


helical gears; (b) a collection of helical gears.
Bevel
Gears

Figure 14.3 Bevel gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing


bevel gears; (b) a collection of bevel gears.
Worm Gears

Figure 14.4 Worm gear drive. (a) Cylindrical teeth; (b) double
enveloping; (c) a collection of worm gears.
Spur Gear
Geometry

Figure 14.5 Basic spur


gear geometry.
Gear
Teeth

Figure 14.6 Nomenclature of gear teeth.


Standard Tooth
Size

Table 14.1 Preferred diametral


Figure 14.7 Standard diametral pitches for four tooth classes
pitches compared with tooth size.
Power vs. Pinion
Speed

Figure 14.8 Transmitted power


as a function of pinion speed
for a number of diametral
pitches.
Gear Geometry
Formulas

Table 14.2 Formulas for addendum, dedendum, and clearance (pressure


angle, 20°; full-depth involute).
Pitch and Base
Circles

Figure 14.9 Pitch and base


circles for pinion and gear as
well as line of action and
pressure angle.
Involute
Curve

Figure 14.10 Construction of the involute curve.


Construction of the Involute
Curve
1. Divide the base circle into a number of equal distances, thus
constructing A0, A1, A2,...
2. Beginning at A1, construct the straight line A1B1, perpendicular
with 0A1, and likewise beginning at A2 and A3.
3. Along A1B1, lay off the distance A1A0, thus establishing C1. Along
A2B2, lay off twice A1A0, thus establishing C2, etc.
4. Establish the involute curve by using points A0, C1, C2, C3,... Gears
made from the involute curve have at least one pair of teeth in contact
with each other.
Contact
Parameters

Figure 14.11 Illustration of parameters important in defining contact.


Line of
Action

Length of line of action:

Contact ratio:

Figure 14.12 Details of line of


action, showing angles of
approach and recess for both
pinion and gear.
Backlas
h

Figure 14.13 Illustration of Table 14.3 Recommended


backlash in gears. minimum backlash for
coarse-pitched gears.
Meshing
Gears

Figure 14.14 Externally Figure 14.15 Internally


meshing gears. meshing gears.
Gear
Trains

Figure 14.16 Simple


gear train.

Figure 14.17 Compound


gear train.
Example
14.7

Figure 14.18 Gear train


used in Example 14.7.
Planetary Gear
Trains
Important planet gear equations:

Figure 14.19 Illustration of planetary


gear train. (a) With three planets; (b)
with one planet (for analysis only).
Gear
Quality

Figure 14.20 Gear cost as a function of


Table 14.4 Quality index Qv for variou
gear quality. The numbers along the
applications.
vertical lines indicate tolerances.
Form Cutting

Figure 14.21 Form cutting of teeth. (a) A form cutter. Notice that the
tooth profile is defined by the cutter profile. (b) Schematic illustration
of the form cutting process. (c) Form cutting of teeth on a bevel gear.
Pinion-Shaped
Cutter

Figure 14.22 Production of gear teeth with a pinion-shaped cutter. (a)


Schematic illustration of the process; (b) photograph of the process
with gear and cutter motions indicated.
Gear
Hobbing

Figure 14.23 Production of gears through the hobbing process. (a) A


hob, along with a schematic illustration of the process; (b) production
of a worm gear through hobbing.
Allowable Bending
Stress

Figure 14.24 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress


number for steel gears. (a) Through-hardened steels. Note that the
Brinell hardness refers to the case hardness for these gears.
Allowable Bending and Contact
Stress

Table 14.5 Allowable bending and contact stresses for selected gear
materials.
Allowable Bending
Stress

Figure 14.24 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress


number for steel gears. (b) Flame or induction-hardened nitriding
steels. Note that the Brinell hardness refers to the case hardness for
these gears.
Allowable Contact
Stress

Figure 14.25 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable contact stress


number for two grades of through-hardened steel.
Stress Cycle
Factor

Figure 14.26 Stress cycle factor. (a) Bending stress cycle factor YN.
Stress Cycle
Factor

Figure 14.26 Stress cycle factor. (a) pitting resistance cycle factor ZN.
Reliability
Factor

Table 14.6 Reliability factor, KR.


Hardness Ratio
Factor

Figure 14.27 Hardness ratio


factor CH for surface
hardened pinions and
through-hardened gears.
Loads on Gear
Tooth

Figure 14.24 Loads acting on an individual gear tooth.


Loads and Dimensions of Gear
Tooth

Figure 14.29 Loads and length dimensions used in determining tooth


bending stress. (a) Tooth; (b) cantilevered beam.
Bending and Contact Stress
Equations
Lewis Equation

AGMA Bending
Stress
Equation
Hertz
Stress
AGMA Contact Stress
Equation
Lewis Form
Factor

Table 14.7 Lewis form factor for various numbers of teeth (pressure
angle, 20°; full-depth involute).
Spur Gear Geometry
Factors

Figure 14.30 Spur gear geometry factors for pressure angle of 20° and
full-depth involute profile.
Application and Size
Factors

Table 14.8 Application factor as function of driving power source and


driven machine.

Table 14.9 Size factor as a function of diametral pitch or module.


Load Distribution
Factor

where
Pinion Proportion
Factor

Figure 14.31 Pinion


proportion factor Cpf.
Pinion Proportion
Modifier

Figure 14.32 Evaluation of S and S1.


Mesh Alignment
Factor

Figure 14.33 Mesh alignment factor.


Dynamic
Factor

Figure 14.34 Dynamic factor as a function of pitch-line velocity and


transmission accuracy level number.