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Math Worksheet 30-1

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Lesson Notes

a Circle

a) A circle centered at the origin can be represented by the relation x 2 + y2 = r2,

where r is the radius of the circle. Draw each circle:

i) x2 + y2 = 4 ii) x2 + y2 = 49

10 10

-10 10 -10 10

-10 -10

b) A circle centered at the origin with a radius of 1 has the equation x 2 + y2 = 1. This special circle

is called the unit circle. Draw the unit circle and determine if each point exists on the circumference

of the unit circle.

i) (0.6, 0.8)

1

-1 1

ii) (0.5, 0.5)

-1

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Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

c) Using the equation of the unit circle, x2 + y2 = 1, find the unknown coordinate of each point.

Is there more than one unique answer?

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Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

The following diagram is called the unit circle. Commonly used angles are shown as radians,

and their exact-value coordinates are in brackets. Take a few moments to memorize this diagram.

When you are done, use the blank unit circle on the next page to practice drawing the unit

circle from memory.

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

b) Draw the unit circle from memory using a partially completed template.

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Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Example 3 value of each trigonometric ratio.

Finding Primary Trigonometric

Ratios with the Unit Circle

6 4 6

2 3

Example 4 Use the unit circle to find the exact value of each trigonometric ratio.

6 3

2 4 3

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

The unit circle contains values for cos and sin only.

The other four trigonometric ratios can be obtained 1 1

sec = csc =

using the identities on the right. cos sin

Given angles from the first quadrant of the unit circle, sin 1 cos

tan = cot =

find the exact values of sec and csc cos tan sin

a) sec

sec =

2

sec =

3

sec =

4

sec =

6

sec 0 =

b) csc

csc =

2

csc =

3

csc =

4

csc =

6

csc 0 =

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

The unit circle contains values for cos and sin only.

The other four trigonometric ratios can be obtained 1 1

sec = csc =

using the identities on the right. cos sin

Given angles from the first quadrant of the unit circle, sin 1 cos

tan = cot =

find the exact values of tan and cot . cos tan sin

a) tan

tan =

2

tan =

3

tan =

4

tan =

6

tan 0 =

b) cot

cot =

2

cot =

3

cot =

4

cot =

6

cot 0 =

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Use symmetry to fill in quadrants II,

Example 7 III, and IV for each unit circle.

Symmetry of the Unit Circle

a) sec b) csc

2 2

sec = csc =

3 3

sec = csc =

4 4

sec = csc =

6 6

sec 0 = 1 csc 0 =

undefined

c) tan d) cot

2 2

tan = cot =

3 3

tan =1 cot =1

4 4

tan = cot =

6 6

tan 0 = 0 cot 0 =

undefined

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Find the exact value of

Example 8 each trigonometric ratio.

Finding Reciprocal Trigonometric

Ratios with the Unit Circle

2 3 4

6 4 6

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Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Example 9 each trigonometric expression.

Evaluating Complex Expressions

with the Unit Circle

a) b)

c) d)

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Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Find the exact value of

Example 10 each trigonometric expression.

Evaluating Complex Expressions

with the Unit Circle

a) b)

c) d)

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Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Example 11 trigonometric ratio.

Finding the Trigonometric Ratios

of Large Angles with the Unit Circle

a) b)

c) d)

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Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Example 12 Evaluating Trigonometric

a calculator. Note: Every question in this example Ratios with a Calculator

a) b)

c) d) 2

e) f)

g) h)

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Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Example 13 questions related to the unit circle.

Coordinate Relationships

on the Unit Circle

a) What is meant when you are asked to find on the unit circle?

c) How does a half-rotation around the unit circle change the coordinates?

d) How does a quarter-rotation around the unit circle change the coordinates?

e) What are the coordinates of P(3)? Express coordinates to four decimal places.

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Answer each of the following

Example 14 questions related to the unit circle.

Circumference and Arc

Length of the Unit Circle

a) What is the circumference of the unit circle?

b) How is the central angle of the unit circle related to its corresponding arc length?

what is the arc length?

d) What is the arc length from point A to point B on the unit circle?

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Example 15 questions related to the unit circle.

Domain and Range

of the Unit Circle

a) Is sin = 2 possible? Explain, using the unit circle as a reference.

ratios exist outside that range?

cos sin

csc sec

tan

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Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

c) If exists on the unit circle, how can the unit circle be used to find cos ?

How many values for cos are possible?

d) If exists on the unit circle, how can the equation of the unit circle be used to find sin ?

How many values for sin are possible?

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Complete the following questions

Example 16 related to the unit circle.

Unit Circle Proofs

a) Use the Pythagorean Theorem to prove that the equation of the unit circle is x 2 + y2 = 1.

b) Prove that the point where the terminal arm intersects the unit circle, P( ), has

coordinates of (cos , sin ).

c) If the point exists on the terminal arm of a unit circle, find the exact values

of the six trigonometric ratios. State the reference angle and standard position angle to the nearest

hundredth of a degree.

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

(cos , sin ) LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle

Lesson Notes

Example 17

In a video game, the graphic of a butterfly needs to be rotated. To make the

butterfly graphic rotate, the programmer uses the equations:

to transform each pixel of the graphic from its original coordinates, (x, y), to its

new coordinates, (x’, y’). Pixels may have positive or negative coordinates.

a) If a particular pixel with coordinates of (250, 100) is rotated by , what are the new

6

coordinates? Round coordinates to the nearest whole pixel.

b) If a particular pixel has the coordinates (640, 480) after a rotation of , what were the

4

original coordinates? Round coordinates to the nearest whole pixel.

www.math30.ca

Trigonometry

LESSON TWO - The Unit Circle (cos , sin )

Lesson Notes

Example 18

From the observation deck of the Calgary Tower,

A

down to see A

B

down to see point B

B

a) Show that the height of the observation

x

deck is h = .

cot A - cot B h

A B

b) If A

= , B

= , and x = 212.92 m, how high is the observation deck above the ground,

www.math30.ca

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