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2014 World Mathematics Team Championship

Intermediate Level Individual Round (Solutions)

Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

16
a>
4 2 3 3+7
Answers 990 5 16 12
5 5 27 2

Problems 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

7 3
Answers 15 22014 4620 3 24 − 12 3 1 15
2 5

I–1. If a is an integer and a < 2014 < a + 1 , find 1 + 2 + 3 +  + a .

Solution: 990. Because of 44 = 1936 < 2014 < 2025 = 45 , so a < 2014 < a + 1 where a is an
a ( a + 1) 44 × 45
integer implies a = 44. Therefore, , 1 + 2 + 3 +  + a = = = 990.
2 2

 x − 14 xy + y =13
I–2. If  , find x+ y.
 y + 16 xy + x =
17
Solution: 5. Add these two equations and we have x + 2 xy + y + x + y =30 or x+ y =
5 or
x+ y =
−6 .It is obvious that x + y ≥ 0 . Therefore, x+ y =
5.

I–3. As shown in the figure below, ABCD is a square with side length of 4. Suppose
ED = 1 and point M moves along side DC. Find the length of MC when the perimeter of
∆BME is at minimum.
16
Solution: . It is given that B and E are fixed points and, in order to minimize the perimeter of
5
∆BME , M must be placed on CD so that MB+ME is the shortest. Let E′ be the point on the
extension of AD so that it is the symmetric image of point E over the side CD. Let M ′ be the
intersecting point of BE′ and CD. Connect EM ′ and E ′M . See the figure below

Since the sum of two sides of a triangle is always longer than the third side,
MB + ME = MB + ME ′ ≥ BE ′ = M ' B + M ' E' .
Hence, the perimeter of ∆BME is the shortest when M = M ′ .
DM ′ DE′ 4 − CM ′ 1 16
Since DE′ ∥ BC , = or = or CM ′ = .
CM ′ BC CM ′ 4 5

I–4. If y= ax 2 − ax − 8 − 2a > 0 holds when 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 , find the range of values for real
number a.
. It is easy to see that y= ax 2 − ax − 8 − 2a= a ( x 2 − x − 2 ) − 8= a ( x + 1)( x − 2 ) − 8 .
4
Solution: a >
5
Function y = x 2 − x − 2 is an increasing function when x > 2 and x 2 − x − 2 = 0 when x = 2. So,

x 2 − x − 2 > 0 when 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 and a ( x 2 − x − 2 ) − 8 > 0 implies a >


8
. However,
x −x−2
2

8
y = x 2 − x − 2 is an increasing function means y = is a decreasing function when
x −x−2 2

4
4 ≤ x ≤ 6 . Therefore, it takes on maximum value of a > when x = 4.
5

I–5. Suppose ab is a 2–digit number and ba − ab = a0b − ba , find ab .


Solution: 16. ba − ab = a0b − ba can be rewritten as (10b + a ) − (10a + b=) (100a + b ) − (10b + a ) or
b = 6a. Because a and b are non–zero digits, that would mean a = 1 and b = 6. Therefore,
ab = 16 .

I–6. Six people standing in a circle as shown in the figure below. They are playing a game of
passing the ball. Each person who gets the ball will pass to a person who is not standing
“next” to him. For example, B and F are standing “next” to A. In the beginning, A has
the ball. What is the probability that the ball will pass back to A after three passes?
2
Solution: . Construct a tree diagram as follows:
27
A

C D E

E F A F A B A B C

AB C BCD CD E BCD CD E DEF CDE DEF E FA

From this diagram, it is easy to see that there are 27 ways to make these 3 passes but there are
only 2 ways for the ball to come back to A. Therefore, the probability that the ball will pass back
2
to A after three passes is .
27

I–7. As shown in the figure below, point P is on the side CD of square ABCD such that
AP = 4. Let BB′ , CC ′ , and DD′ be, respectively, distances from points B, C, and D to
AP. If BB′ + CC ′ + DD′ = 6 , find the area of square ABCD.

Solution: 12. Connect AC and BP as shown in the figure on the right.


1
From this figure, we see that S △BCP = S △ACP = AP×CC′ and
2
1 1
S ABCD = S △APD +S △ABP +S △BCP = AP(DD′+ BB′+CC′) = ×4×6 =
2 2
12.

I–8. Find the area of quadrilateral ABCD as shown in the figure below.
3 3+7
Solution: . Extend DC so that it intersects at E on the extension of AB. From E, as shown in
2
the figure below, construction perpendicular lines to BC and AD at points G and F, respectively.

Since ∠A = 45° , ∠B = 30° , and ∠D = 60° , so ∠BEG =


60° , ∠DEF =
30° , and ∠AEF =45° .
°
Therefore, ∠CEG= 180 − ∠AEF − ∠DEF − ∠BEG= 45° and ∠GCE= 90° − ∠CEG= 45° .
= GC
Let EG = x . Then BG = 3 x and CE = 2 x . Hence,
( )
BC =BG + GC =1 + 3 x = 3 + 1 or x = 1 .
ED
Solving for x and we have =
CE =
2x 2 and ED = EC + CD = 2 2 and DF
= = 2
2
= EF
and AF = 3DF = 6.
Therefore, the area of ABCD = S ∆BCE + S ∆AED
1 1
= BC ⋅ EG + AD ⋅ EF
2 2
=
1
2
(
1 + 3 ×1 + )
1
2
(
2+ 6 × 6 )
3 3+7
= .
2

I–9. A beetle is crawling following the paths starting from the letter “W” on the upper left
hand corner as shown in the figure below. It stops after the 4th letter. How many paths
can the beetle take to crawl by the four letters “WMTC”?
Solution: 15. Label each letter with a number as shown below so we can differentiate the same letter
placing at different locations.

There are 4 paths that pass M 1: W→M 1 →T 1 →C 1 ,


W→M 1 →T 1 →C 2 ,
W→M 1 →T 2 →C 2 ,
W→M 1 →T 2 →C 3 ,
Similarly, there are 7 paths that pass M 2 and 4 paths that pass M 3. Therefore, there is a total of
4+7+4 = 15 paths that the beetle can to to crawl by the four letters “WMTC”.

I–10. If x +y = 2 and x +y = 4 , find the value for x +y .


2 2 2014 2014

2014
Solution: 2 . Since x+y = 2, ( x +y ) 2 =
x 2 + y 2 +2 xy =
4 or 4+2xy = 4 or x = 0 and y = 0.
When x = 0, x + y =2 implies y = 2 which means x 2014 +y 2014 = 22014 .
When y = 0, x + y =2 implies x = 2 which means x 2014 +y 2014 = 22014 .

I–11. As shown in the figure below, ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle with ∠B =∠C and E is a
point on CB so that ∠B =∠C =∠AEM . If BE = 1, CE = 2, and AC = 4, find AM.
7
Solution: . Since ∠C + ∠CAE = ∠AEB = ∠AEM + ∠MEB and ∠B =∠C =∠AEM , so
2
CE AC 1
∠CAE = ∠BEM . Hence. ∆AEC ∽ ∆EMB or = . Therefore, BM = or
BM BE 2
7
AM = .
2
I–12. Among the natural numbers from 1 to 154, find the sum of those that are relatively
primes with 154.
Solution: 4620. Since 154=2×7×11, only odd numbers that are not multiples of 7 or 11 can be
relatively prime with 154.
There are 77 odd numbers from 1 to 154 and their sum is 1+3+5+…+149+151+153 = (1+153)×77÷2 = 5929.
Among these odd numbers, 11 of them are multiples of 7 and their sum is 7×(1+3+5+…+19+21) = 847.
Among these odd numbers, 7 of them are multiples of 11 and their sum is 7×(1+3+5+…+11+13) = 539.
Among these odd numbers, only 1 of them is a multiple of both 7 and 11 and that number is 7×11 = 77.
Therefore, the sum of those natural numbers that are relatively primes with 154 is:
5929–847–539+77 = 4620.

I–13. Suppose points A, B, and C are on the parabola y = x 2 so that ∆ABC is a right triangle
with AB as its hypotenuse and parallel to the x–axis. If the area of ∆ABC is 2, find the
y–coordinate of point C.

Solution: 3. Let A = (a, a2) and C = (c, c2). Since a < 0 and 0 < c < –a, so B = (–a, a2).
Hence, AC 2 = (c − a ) 2 + (c 2 − a 2 ) 2 , ①
BC 2 = (c + a ) 2 + (c 2 − a 2 ) 2 , ②
and AB 2 = 4a 2 . ③
Now substitute ①, ②, and ③ into AC + BC 2 = AB 2 and we have (a 2 − c 2 ) 2 = a 2 − c 2 .
2

Since a 2 > c 2 , so a2-c2=1,This means the height BC = h = a2–c2 = 1 and the area of right
1 1
triangle ABC is AB ⋅ h =2 or ⋅ | 2a | ⋅( a 2 − c 2 ) =| a |=2 . Therefore, c 2 = a 2 − 1 = 3 .
2 2

I–14. Let ABCD be a rectangle with AB = 18 and AD = 12. Suppose circle M tangents to sides
AB, BC, and CD and circle N tangents to sides AD, DC, and externally tangents to circle
M. Find the radius of circle N.

Solution: 24 − 12 3 . Let R and r be the radii for circles M and N, respectively. It is easy to see that
R = 6 and, according to the problem,
(r + R) = ( R − r ) + ( DC − R − r ) (6 + r ) = ( 6 − r ) + (18 − 6 − r )
2 2 2 2 2 2
or .

48 ± 24 3
0 or =
Therefore, r 2 − 48r + 144 = r = 24 ± 12 3 . Since,=
r 24 − 12 3 .
2

I–15. Write down natural numbers from 1 to 50 in order to form another natural number

M = 123456789101112…47484950.

If M is factored into prime factors, what is the highest power for the factor of 3?
(1 + 50) × 50 51× 50
Solution: 1. Since the sum of digits of M is = = 1275 which is a multiple of 3,
2 2
M must be a multiple of 3 as well. However, 1275 is not a multiple of 9, so M is not a multiple
of 9. Therefore, M has only one factor of 3.

I–16. Consider the triangle ∆ABC as in the figure below. If AB = 10, BC = 16, and ∠A = 2∠C ,
find AC.

3
Solution: 15 . Consider the figure below. Suppose AD bisects ∠BAC. Let AC = x, BD = a, and
5
DC = 16–a. Then ∠BDA=∠DAC+∠C =2∠C =∠BAC..
AB BD AD
Since ∠ABD=∠ABC,△ABD∽△CBA. Hence, = = and
BC AB AC
AB 2 102 25 25 39
=
BD = = .Therefore, CD =BC − BD =16 − = or
BC 16 4 4 4
39
AB ⋅ AD 10 × 4 3
= AC = = 15 .
BD 25 5
4