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# ESCUELA SUPERIOR

## POLITÉCNICA DEL LITORAL

TERMODINÁMICAS DE LOS
FLUÍDOS

## Nombre: Josué David Muthre Freire

Curso: Mecánica de Fluidos I
Paralelo: 5
Profesor: Ing. Cristian Alfonso Salas Vázquez, M. Sc.
Ayudante: Jonathan Méndez Ruiz

Término: 2019 – 1S
1. List and describe the thermodynamics properties of fluids at
least eight of the most important

## Figure 1: Propiedades de los fluidos en la Termodinámica

Figure 2: Tabla de propiedades básicas de los elementos comunes encontrados en la exploración y explotación de pozos
petroleros.
1. Enthalpy

It is an extensive property (depends on the amount of material present) that can be used to obtain
the heat absorbed or released by a chemical reaction. Enthalpy is a function of state.

State function: are the properties determined by the state of the system, regardless of the path
that has been reached. regardless of the path that has been reached.

State of the system: it is defined by its macroscopic properties (composition, energy, temperature,
pressure and volume).

## 2. Specific heat and heat capacity

Specific heat (s): Is the amount of heat needed to raise a degree centigrade one gram of substance

Heat capacity (C): The amount of heat needed to raise a certain degree of substance by one

At constant pressure

At constant volume

3. Internal energy
In addition to the kinetic and potential energies of a system considering it as a whole (movement
of a fluid or the energy due to height), the molecules are also moving. The sum of the kinetic and
potential energy of the molecules is what is called internal energy. In this way the total energy of a
system will be:

Normally in the laboratory a substance that is at rest is considered that the potential and kinetic
energy of the system as a whole are 0, so the total energy of the system is equal to the internal
energy.

4. Entropy

Entropy is one of the most important magnitudes of thermodynamics. Its definition and properties
have importance in statistical mechanics, information theory, etc. However, here we will describe
only its definition and interpretation within the framework of classical thermodynamics.

## For a reversible cycle, the Clausius inequality becomes an equality.

(reversible cycle)

Put in words: the differential increase in entropy between two neighboring states is equal to the
amount of heat that enters reversibly between these states divided by the temperature at which
the heat is exchanged. Since we are talking about reversible processes, it is not necessary to
distinguish between the temperature of the environment T and that of the system T ', since in a
reversible process both must be differentiated at most in an infinitesimal quantity.

5. Molecular weight

The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms of a molecule of a specific
compound. The atomic weight of an element is calculated by finding the weighted average mass of
the mass of all its isotopes. Learn about molecular weight, atomic weight and the atomic mass unit
(UMA).

6. Melting temperature
Temperature necessary for the occurrence of the change of solid state to liquid in a substance,
each substance either pure or does not possess a value of its own melting temperature.

The Melting Temperature is defined as the temperature at which the phase transition from the
solid state to the liquid at normal atmospheric pressure occurs; this temperature corresponds
ideally to the freezing temperature. Since the phase transition of numerous substances extends
over a wide range of temperatures, it is often referred to as the melting range.

7. Saturation Pressure

It is the pressure at which the liquid (water) and the vapor (gas) are in equilibrium. Steam Pressure
In order to understand many phenomena that occur in daily life, you have to know what vapor
pressure is, and it is shown in the following figure:

## Figure 4 Saturation Pressure

8. Density

In physics and chemistry, density (symbol ρ) is a scalar quantity referred to the amount of mass in
a given volume of a substance. The average density is the ratio between the mass of a body and
the volume it occupies.
2. Application of the thermodynamic properties of the fluids in
Mechanical Engineering
There is no process that is executed within the industries, where there are no transfers and energy
transformations, the transformation of electrical energy needs a science such as thermodynamics
to be able to understand all those thermal and heat transfer processes. The thermoelectric
converts the heat generated by diesel fuel into electricity, in all that process is vitally important
the fundamental principles of the laws of thermodynamics, especially to understand what there
must be a balance in energy transfers.

Transcend in the study of thermodynamics to bring industrial processes in the best way, more
optimized, especially in the industrial field where there are boilers, turbines, evaporators,
condensers, cooling towers, combustion processes on a large scale. Knowing how to handle and
apply the laws of thermodynamics, we will improve these processes, which in turn infer in the
improvement of production systems.

The mechanical engineer as a designer, supervisor and evaluator of various projects that involve
being a maintainer, has clear knowledge and application in thermodynamics, especially
considering that already in the workplace is much lost academic sense, and many processes are
they let vitar by the habit to solve the problems, and the academic thing is left of the hand, and in
this particular case the thermodynamics like fundamental axis within the Engineering in general
and still more in the mechanical engineering.

## 3. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES RELATIONS

MAXWELL RELATIONS

The equations which are related to the partial derivatives of the properties P, V, T and S of a
compressible process to each other. They are obtained from four equations of gibbs, exploiting the
accuracy of differential thermodynamic properties.

## Two relationships of gibbs:

du = T ds - P dv

The other Gibbs relationships are based on two new property combinations: the Helmholtz
function a and the Gibbs function g defined as:

a = u - Ts

g = h - Ts

## When you derive you get da = du -T ds - s dT

dg = dh - T ds - s dT
if the previous relationships are simplified, the other Gibbs relationships for simple compressible
systems are obtained:

𝑑𝑎 = −𝑠𝑑𝑇 − 𝑃 𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑔 = −𝑠 𝑑𝑇 + 𝑉 𝑑𝑃
A careful examination of the four Gibbs relationships shows that they have the form of the
equation

With

Since and are properties and consequently, they have exact differentials. In such a way
that we can write:

(217)

(218)

(219)

(220)

These are called Maxwell's relationships. They are of great value in thermodynamics because they
provide a means to determine the enthalpy change that can not be measured directly, from the
measurement of changes in properties, and. Note that the presented Maxwell relationships are
limited to simple compressible systems. However, other similar relationships are described just as
easily for non-simple systems as those that include electrolytic, magnetic, and other effects.
CLAPEYRON EQUATION

Maxwell's relationships are far-reaching for research in thermodynamics and are often used to
deduce useful thermodynamic relationships. The Clapeyron equation is one of those relationships
and allows to determine the change of enthalpy associated with a phase change like evaporation
enthalpy (hfg)

## With the relationship:

That depends only on the temperature and is independent of the specific volume. That is to say
Psat = F (Tsat) therefore the total derivative (dp / d T) sat which is the one that depends on the
saturation curve.

The slope does not depend on the specific volume, therefore it can be treated as a constant during
the integration. Between two states of saturation at the same temperature, in an isothermal
process of liquid phase change - vapor, for example, the integration produces.

## Or (dp / dt) sat = Sfg / Vfg

𝑑𝑝 ℎ𝑓𝑔
(𝑑𝑇) = 𝑇𝑉𝑓𝑔 CLAPEYRON EQUATION

This is an important thermodynamic relation given that it allows to determine the enthalpy of
vaporization hfg at a certain temperature, simply measuring the slope of the saturation curve in a
P-T diagram and the specific volume of the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor at the given
temperature.

The Clapeyron equation is applicable to any phase change process that happens at constant
temperature and pressure. It is expressed in a general way as
𝑑𝑝 ℎ𝑓𝑔
( )=
𝑑𝑇 𝑇𝑉𝑓𝑔
Figure 5Fig. 1.2. Diagrama T-S.
Figure 6Fig 1.1 Diagrama P-T para una
sustancia pura. Fuente: Smith y col

Bello

## 4. Opinion about the most important property in Thermodynamic

The heat in thermodynamics is considered as the energy that flows when two substances that are
at different temperatures come into contact. The heat always flows from the warm body to the
cold body.

By convention the heat that leaves a system has a negative sign; while the heat that enters a
system has a positive sign.

## Heat is not a State Function, it depends on the path traveled.

Bibliografía
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termodinamica-en-la-ingenieria-mecanica.

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fun

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