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1.3 Paper 1 practice: USA’s so Stimson has had a chance to reflect on

what went wrong in the 1930s.
actions with regard to Japan, ●● The purpose is to evaluate the USA’s actions
1930–41 in the 1930s; Stimson may be more objective
The full mark scheme for the final document as his analysis could inform future decision
question on pages 77–78 is given below. Compare making.
your answers to this mark scheme. ●● He is critical of US actions at the time and this
First question, part a – 3 marks suggests an open-minded consideration in
policies he was personally involved with.
According to Stimson in Source A, why should the
USA not directly intervene in the Manchurian crisis? Limitations
●● He does not want the USA to appear “hasty” in ●● Regarding origin, Stimson was so close to the
taking a position. actions of the time that his view may be based
only on his personal perspective.
●● He believes that Japan did not intend to break
international treaties and that the Japanese ●● Regarding purpose, he may be attempting to
government is probably “embarrassed”. put himself in a better light with regard to the
decisions that were made in the context of the
●● He believes that the resolution of the crisis war and post-war period.
rests with Japan.
●● The dramatic language may also suggest
First question, part b – 2 marks exaggeration.
What is the message of Source B with regard to
the USA’s isolationist position? Third question – 6 marks
Compare and contrast the view expressed in
●● There are two opinions in the US – for and Source A and Source C regarding the USA’s
against isolationism. response to the Manchurian crisis?
●● Isolationism, which is shown as a serpent, is
crushing all US opinion and making it difficult Comparisons
for the USA to take any action at all. ●● Both sources mention that the Kellogg-Briand
Pact had been broken and this was condemned
You can find the full meaning of this cartoon by the USA.
on this website:
●● Source A advocates taking no action against
http://hccl.byu.edu/macfarlane/ Japan and this is supported by Source C saying
OGCMA/0625NOTLaocoon_Berryman.pdf that the US gave only “moral condemnation”.

Second question – 4 marks Contrasts

With reference to origin, purpose and content, ●● Source A justifies why no action should be
assess the values and limitations of Source C taken against Japan but Source C condemns
for historians studying the reasons for the USA’s this lack of action.
isolationist position in the 1930s. ●● Source A says the situation can be sorted out
by Japan, whereas Source C says it should
Values have been sorted out by the USA.
●● The origin of this source is valuable as the
author was a key player in the development ●● Source A says that Japan did not intend to be
of US policy towards Japan – indeed, his name an aggressor, but Source C is clearly says that
was given to the policy of non-recognition. Japan was an aggressor.
The date makes it of value as it is in 1947 and

●● Source A says that situation is of concern to Source D The massacres of Nanjing and the
many nations but Source C focuses only on sinking of the USS Panay helped to
the reaction of the USA and implies that the change attitudes.
USA alone is responsible for inaction.
There were growing movements in the
Fourth question – 9 marks US to boycott Japanese goods.
Using the sources and your own knowledge Below are the points that you could bring in from
assess the reasons for the USA’s change of attitude your own knowledge:
towards Japan between 1931 and 1941. ●● Roosevelt could not intervene in the 1930s
These are the points that you could find in the due to Neutrality Acts even though he had
sources to help you answer the question: sympathy with the Chinese position. His
hands were also tied by the isolationists.
Source A In 1931 the USA is anxious to avoid
involvement in international affairs. ●● The actions of Japanese changed US opinion –
as well as the Rape of Nanjing, these included
The USA sees Japan in a favourable
Japanese actions after 1938 and its wish to
create a “a new world order”.
Source B By 1938 there is strong division of
●● In Europe the position regarding the victories
opinion in the USA over what action
of Nazi Germany, and the Tripartite Pact,
to take but the policy of isolationism is
was changing.
making it difficult for the president to
take action. ●● Japanese expansionism was taking place in
South East Asia.
Source C The USA in the 1930s was out to avoid
war – and prepared to do anything to ●● Another factor was the attack on Pearl Harbor
keep out of a war. 7th December, 1941.