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CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 THEORETICAL REVIEW

The review of written and related literature concerning this sector of the economy

is of the immense importance since clothing is an integrate aspect of daily living

like food and shelter. Due to its virtual indispensability, textile has to be either

produced locally or improved to serve the needs of the nation’s growing

population.

In view of the existing literature, a lot have been said by different authors

concerning the whole strategy of location and the significance of industries. The

location of this textile industry is in Funtua Local Government Area is well

planned because Katsina state is central to the production of cotton in Nigeria

being surrounded by (Funtua) and its environs which is a major cotton producing

area (growth center) in the nation.

Schumpeter (1939) asserted that “the English industrial history can be resolved

into the history of a single industry”.

The growth of modern manufacturing industry and all that imply large scale units

of operation, labour saving machinery and regimentation of labour, relates to that


which was experienced in the early revolutionary change in technology oon

economic organization of cotton in Britain.

There is an immense importance of cotton industry in the British Industrial

revolution which helps in reshaping the economy of the nation.

The onset of the textile industry in Nigeria centered on narrow fabric weaving on

hand looms and indigo pit dyeing. Modern textile industries came into existence in

1957 with the establishment of two mills in Kaduna and Lagos State.

Weber (1926), “the location of manufacturing industry is best suited at a point in

which the total ton-kilometer involved in getting raw materials to a place of

production and the finished products to the market is at minimal”. In other words,

he regards transports cost as the primary determinant of industrial location.

Owosekum (1957) said that “the case of industrialization in a developing country

is based on the premise that industrialization helps to increase national income,

promote import substitution and provide productive employment.” In short he is

explaining the forward and backward linkages industries.

In line with what has been said earlier on as a producer of essential mass consumer

goods, it has become the backbone of early industrialization its ability to draw on

an already existing material base made the textile industry even more attractive as

a center peace of national development.


Akinola (1967) stressed clearly the main aim of industrialization is to encourage

the expansion and diversification of the economy of a country in order to improve

balance economic growth and improve the country’s balance of payment. The role

played by textile industry in most developed countries of the world such as Britain,

is clearly seen in the pre-industrial stage, that is, the rise of Britain as an industrial

power in the late eighteen century was linked with the “Lancashire textile

industry”.

Weber (1929), another factor that comes into play in the location of an industry is

nearness to raw material, which is raw material oriented industry. Industries such

as steel industries, food industries, cement industries, textiles industries and so on,

are raw material oriented industries because the cost of getting or transporting raw

materials from the source to the firm is at the minimal.

Richardson (1973), “the establishment of industries has a multiplier effects, as it

has led to the growth of other industries and service, and created more jobs,

thereby reducing unemployment. It has also improved the standard of living, and

thus led to a greater consumption capacities. Furthermore it has led to the

expansion of efficient infrastructure, which has led to the enormous economic

prosperity in the world.


According to Teriba and Kayode (1974), it would be wrong therefore, to state that

the cause of rapid industrialization as the proper strategy of development rest

purely on economic ground. That is for development strategy through

industrialized both socio-cultural and political sphere should be considered and not

just the economic alone.

Hilling (1978), argued that, yet another advantage of the textile industry is that, it

is relatively labour intensive and therefore attractive to the country side where

labour is an abundance and relatively cheap. Textile industries are industries that

are of high labour intensive and therefore require a very large amount of workers.

Bale (1979) in his book; location of manufacturing industry, pointed out that

certain elements are put into consideration before sitting an industry in a place. He

called those elements as “initial input” which are land, labour, entrepreneur as well

as power. He assert that these elements should be available before place should be

chosen as a better and preferred site for a manufacturing industry. In his

explanations, he considered the profit to be informed of money taken after sales.

More ever, the profits of industrialization have spatial differentiation and of course

multivariate. In some economy, it could produce or generate employment to the

populace and in others it could be to produce necessary goods for the people.

Therefore, one should not overlook the impact, and hence improve the standard of

living of which may rather be of important than the monetary profit.


Pokrant (1981) “what if often forgotten is that cotton was a major household and

commercial crop before the colonialist came, serving the needs of domestic

spinning and weaving industry. It supported not only a high level of local textile

consumption but as long as distance trade. Cotton base textile production was a

general feature of the Nigerian village economy. Major pre-colonial cities have

vast quarters entirely settled by specialized textile producers.

The establishment of textile industries in Nigeria had some inherent characteristics

which contribute to its uniqueness of significance.

Textiles industries provide employment opportunities to many Nigerian. It is the

second largest employer of labour in the organized sector of the economy after the

public sector. FGN(1981)

About 3 to 4 million people are engaged in the distributive trades and other

associated profession. In the Nigerian context, the textile industry was a leading

sector with about 20% of employment and 15% of value added in manufacturing.

FGN (1981)

Jamila (2002), “textile raising industries provide significant impact in the

production of clothing, raising personal income, offering employment, generating

revenue to the government and so on. There is no doubt that, textile industries have
both forward and backward linkages that affected the socio-economic status of any

industrial area”.