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Section 2: Heat Transfer

2. Thermal conductivity of homogeneous media

and heterogeneous media

3. Steady state heat conduction in slab and

composite slabs

4. SS heat conduction in cylinder, sphere

5. Transient heat conduction in semi-infinite

objects

6. Transient heat conduction in finite objects

with symmetry conditions and asymmetry

conditions

7. Transient heat conduction of objects in finite

environment

8. Forced convection & heat conduction

9. Free convection

10. Equations of change

11. Heat conduction with phase change

Transport Phenomena

Heat Transfer Modes of heat transfer

There are three modes of heat transfer

1. Conduction

So far we dealt with momentum, 2. Convection (forced & natural)

now we turn to heat transfer

3. Radiation

(energy).

From the first principles, there is no

transfer

difference between the analysis of

momentum transfer and that of 1. Conduction: Heat is transferred due to the

temperature gradient.

heat transfer, which you will see.

2. Convection: Heat is transferred by the motion

of the fluid. If the fluid is forced, we talk of

forced convection. On the other hand, if the

motion of the fluid is induced by the

temperature, we talk of natural convection.

3. Radiation: only occur at high temperature

Heat conduction Heat conduction

transfer. It occurs in all three heat transfer

phases of matter (gas, liquid and

solid). In solids, it is the only

mechanism of heat transfer. Q

T1

conduction is the temperature

gradient, that is whenever a

T0

gradient in temperature exists there

exists a conductive heat flow.

cross-

The heat flow is measured as the amount of

section

energy transferred through any given

plane per unit area per unit time. It is

area A

called heat flux.

z

Conductive heat flux

heat flux: energy/area/time

Property of material

through which the heat is q

conducted:

Thermal conductivity dT

dz

T1 − T0

q = k

δ

Negative sign: Heat is moving the plane A, k

in the direction of negative PLANE A

temperature gradient

dT

q = − k

dT dz

q = − k

dz Fourier’s law This is the fundamental equation

in heat conduction

For isotropic materials,

Heat flux as a vector

kx = ky = kz = k

qz

z the heat flux vector will become:

qy q = − k ∇T

where

y

T q = qx i + qy j + q z k

and

qx

∂ ∂ ∂

∇= i+ j+ k

∂x ∂y ∂z

grad operator

x

Temperature is a scalar, while heat flux

is a vector, of which components

are

dT dT dT

q x = −k x ; q y = −k y ; q z = −k z

dx dy dz

Momentum vs Heat ? Thermal conductivity

the heat is conducted

dT

qy = − ky 2. Units: W/m/K

dy

3. In general, ksolid > kliquid > kgas

Materials Thermal conductivity

property of Hydrogen @ 100K 0.067

material driving force Water @ 293K 0.600

Liquid sodium @373K 83.70

Aluminum 206.0

τ yx = − µ

dy Materials Thermal conductivity

There are three components of the heat flux

Glass @ 298K 1.00

vector, while there are nine components of Brick @ 293K 0.60 - 1.00

the stress tensor. Glass wool @298K 0.07

5. Temperature dependence: Theory of k for monatomic gases

Gas Liquid 1. Kinetic theory of gases

k a. Molecules are rigid sphere

Solid

d mass = m

Temperature

Liquid: no general rule; for example k translational energy

of alcohols, benzene, toluene 1 3

decrease with T, while glycerine, mv 2T = κT

ethylene glycol increase with T 2 2 Boltzmann constant

Solid: also no general rule; for Molar heat capacity at constant

example k of polyethylene, volume is Avogadro’s number

polypropylene, PTFE decrease d 1 2 3

with T, while those of insulation Cv = N mv T = R

dT 2 2

materials increase with T

c. The mean free path is much shorter

6. Pressure dependence: than the length scale of the

fairly independent of pressure temperature gradient

p p

v=0

y

8κT

mean molecular vT =

thermal velocity

πm

1

mean free path λ=

2πd 2 n

1

wall collision Z= nv T

T frequency per 4

unit area

2

a= λ

3

Temperature

T(y+a) profile

the molecules reaching

y+a any plane,

on the average,

T(y)

had their last collision

y at a distance a from that

T(y-a) λ plane

y-a

The heat flux qy across any plane of According to the assumption c:

constant y is obtained from: 2 dT

T y− a = T y − λ

3 dy

1 1 2 dT

q y = Z mv T2 − Z mv T2 T y+ a = T y + λ

2 2 3 dy

y= y− a y= y + a

thus the heat flux qy is:

1 dT

q y = − nκv T λ

2 dy

kinetic energies of dT

q y = −k

molecules that cross dy

in the negative 1 1 κ 3T

direction k = nκv T λ = 2

2 d π 3m

compared with

kinetic energies of

molecules that cross in 2 m κT

µ=

the positive direction 3π 3/ 2 d2

According to the assumption b:

qy =

3

2

(

κZ T y −a − T y + a ) only for dilute monatomic gases at moderate

pressures (usually less than 10 atm);

proportional to square root of temperature

and independent of pressure

2. Chapman-Enskog theory (for gases) Theory of k for polyatomic gases

k = 19891

. × 10 −4

σ 2Ω k due to the additional rotational and

vibrational energies.

collision integral

Semi-empirical formula by Eucken

cal/cm/sec Angstrom 5 R viscosity

k = Cp + µ

4 M

g/cm/sec Angstrom heat capacity at

constant pressure

MT

µ = 2 .6693 × 10 −5 5 R

σ 2Ω µ k= µ

2 M

collision integral

as obtained by the kinetic theory of gases.

Note: Eucken’s formula is only used as a guide.

Experimental data should be used.

Thermal conductivity of mixtures

Heat conduction in

Semi-empirical formula is useful:

heterogeneous media

pure component Of interest to engineers is the heat

mole fraction thermal conductivity transfer to or from a packed

column (reactor).

n

xi k i

k mix = ∑ n

i =1

∑xΦ

j= 1

j ij

−1 / 2 2

1 M µ 1/ 2 M 1/ 4

Φ ij = 1 + i 1 + i j

8 Mj µ j M i

viscosity

T

These formula equations are very effective

similar to those for the calculation thermal

of mixture’s viscosity. conductivity

Hadley’s formula (Kaviany, 1991) Krupiczka (Int. Che.Eng., 7, 122,1967)

k

+0 .280 − 0 .757 log ε − 0 . 057 log s

ke ks kf

k

εf + s (1 − εf ) =

ke kf kf kf

= (1 − α )

kf k

1 − ε (1 − f ) + s ε (1 − f )

kf

2

k k

2 s (1 − ε ) + (1 + 2ε ) s Kunni and Smith (AIChEJ, 6, 71, 1960)

kf kf

+α

k Valid for 0.26 < ε < 0.476

( 2 + ε ) s + (1 − ε )

kf ke 1− ε

=ε+

kf 2 k

φ 2 + 4.63( ε − 0.26)(φ 1 − φ 2 ) + s

3 kf

where

where φ1 and φ2 are monotonic decreasing

f = 0.8 + 0.1ε function of (ks/kf)

and

0 < ε < 0.0827 α = -4.898 ε

logα

0.0827 < ε < 0.298 logα

α = -0.405 -3.154(εε-0.0827)

0.298 < ε < 0.58 α = -1.084 -6.778(εε-0.298)

logα

Zehner and Schlunder (Chem. Ing. Tech.,

42, 933, 1970)

Procedure of transport

phenomena analysis

ke 1 First principles

=1− +

kf ( )

1 − ε

1/ 2

1. Draw a physical diagram as

carefully as possible.

ks

1 − B 2. Identfy all possible energy

2(1 − ε)

1/ 2

kf 1 − B+1 − B−1 transport mechanisms

⋅ ln

ks k

2

ks 2 ks

1 − B 1 + s

B B 1 − B 3. Set a frame of coordinates and

k f kf kf kf draw the direction of all transport

processes identified in step 2.

where

4. Draw a shell in such a way that its

10 / 9

1− ε surfaces are perpendicular to the

B = 1.25

ε transport direction.

5. Carry out the energy shell balance

as below:

Modified version of Zehner-Schlunder

Rate of Rate of Rate of energy Accumulation

was given by Hsu et al. (Int. J. Heat − + =

energy in energy out production of energy

Mass Transfer, 37, 2751, 1994)

This should give a first-order ODE

in terms of heat flux

6. Apply the Fourier law Boundary conditions:

This should give a second order 1. At the bounding surface, the

ODE in terms of temperature. temperature is specified. This is

called boundary condition of the

7. Impose physical contraint on the

boundary of the physical system. first kind (Dirichlet BC)

This gives rise to BCs. 2. At the bounding surface, the heat

Note that the number of boundary flux equals to the flux supplied.

Boundary condition of the second

conditions must match the order of

the differential equation. kind (Neumann BC)

8. Solve the equation for the 3. At the bounding surface, the heat

flux entering the domain equals the

temperature distribution.

heat flux across the thin film

9. Obtain the mean temperature, heat flux. surrounding the object. BC of the

third kind (Robin BC).

1. Chemical reaction 4. At the interface between the two

domains, the temperatures and the

2. Electrical heat heat fluxes of those domains are

3. Viscous dissipation (degradation continuous. BC of the fourth kind.

of mechanical energy)

What to follow Steady state heat

1. Steady state heat conduction in slab conduction in slab

1a. Constant k Steps 1 to 4:

1b. Temperature-dependent k

constant

1c. BC of 1st kind vs BC of 3rd kind cross section

area, A

2. Steady state heat conduction in

composite slab

3. Steady state heat conduction in

cylinder energy in energy out

3a. The influence of shape

3b. Composite cylindrical walls

4. Steady state heat conduction from z z + ∆z thin shell

sphere

5. Fall of temperature in free droplet

6. Heat conduction in cooling fin (BC of

the 3rd kind)

7. Heat conduction with chemical heat

source.

Steps 5 and 6: Energy balance equation First order ODE with respect to heat flux

Fourier’s law dq

steady state − =0

dT dz

q = −k

dz

Aq z

− Aq z + ∆z

+ 0 = 0

production

d dT

k = 0

rate of energy out;

dz dz

units: Joule/sec

k is temperature

k is constant dependent

rate of energy in;

units: Joule/sec

d 2T d dT

k 2 =0 k ( T ) =0

dz dz dz

Step 7: Physical constraint on the Step 9: Heat flux

boundary

Apply the Fourier’s law; remember

Boundary conditions of the first kind. that the heat flux in general is a

function of z. So to calculate the

T(0)=T0 heat flux, where do we evaluate the

heat flux at?

At z=0 or z=L ?

T(L)=TL T( z) − T0 z

=

Fourier law TL − T0 L

z

0 dT ( z)

q ( z) = − k

dz

L

T − TL

Step 8: Temperature distribution q = k 0

L

T( z) − T0 z

=

TL − T0 L

Temperature distribution is linear (only

valid for constant k and slab

geometry).

Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The heat flux is proportional to the Step 6’: Heat balance equation

temperature difference (only valid

d dT d dT

for constant k). k =

dz dz dz

[

k 0 1 + α(T − T0 )

dz

=0]

We see that for the case of constant “k” the

temperature distribution is linear and the heat flux is

proportional to the temperature difference.

Is this conclusion still valid for the case of Step 7’: Boundary conditions

variable thermal conductivity?

same as before, that is:

Let us look at the case when “k” takes

the following functional form: z = 0; T = T0

[

k = k 0 1 + α (T − T0 ) ] z = L; T = TL

Step 8’: Temperature distribution

α<0

α

(T(z) − T0 ) + (T( z) − T0 )

2

k 2 z

=

α

(TL − T0 ) + (TL − T0 )2 L

α>0 2

Thus the temperature distribution across

TL the slab is not linear.

T0

α

(T(z) − T0 ) + (T( z) − T0 )

2

α>0 2

=

z

Step 9’: Heat flux α

(TL − T0 ) + (TL − T0 )2 L

2

T0 α=0 Apply the Fourier’s law

α<0 dT

[

q = − k 0 1 + α(T − T0 ) ] dz

TL k

z=0 z=L

α

(T0 − TL ) − (T0 − TL )

2

2

L

temperature distribution?

independent of z,

α>0 as one would

T0 lower k; thus expect physically

higher gradient

Would this minus sign cause a concern to

you as it could give zero flux?

high k; thus

lower gradient Answer: Of course not, see the constraint

TL on α.

z=0 z=L

Note: If we define an average thermal

conductivity across the slab as:

Heat conduction in slab:

TL TL Gas film resistance

∫ k (T)dT ∫ k [1 + α(T − T )]dT

0 0

α

= k 0 1 − (T0 − TL )

T0 T0

k avg = TL

= TL

2 What has been done so far in steps 1

∫ dT

T0

∫ dT

T0 to 6 is still valid, that is the heat

balance equation is:

the heat flux equation is:

d dT

(T0 − TL ) k =0

dz dz

q = k avg

L

k is temperature

which is an interesting equation. k is constant dependent

need to be addressed?

d 2T d dT

1. Existence of gas film surrounding the slab k 2 =0 k ( T ) =0

furnace. dz dz dz

2. Slab is made of many different materials. Let’s study the constant k first, and

Let’s consider these one by one. then deal with temperature-

dependent k.

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution

T(0) T( z) − T(0) z

T0

=

T( L) − T(0) L

unknown

Note: T(0) and T(L) are yet known, but

we proceed anyway.

T(L)

this is the flux

Step 9: Heat flux through the slab

TL

z q=k

[T ( 0) − T ( L) ]

0

L

L of the gas film, we

With the existence which must be the same as the heat

talk of BC of the third kind. fluxes through the gas film

dT surrounding the slab, that is:

z = 0; h 0 [T0 − T(0)] = − k

dz

q = h 0 [T0 − T (0)] = k

[T(0) − T( L)] = h

z=0

L

L [T( L) − TL ]

dT

z = L; h L [T( L) − TL ] = − k

dz z = L

kf

h= f (Re, Pr )

L

Rearranging the above equation as: We can write the heat flux equation as:

T0 − T (0) T (0) − T ( L) T ( L) − TL k T0 − TL

q= = = q=

1

L

k

1

(1 + Bi 0

−1

+ Bi L

−1

) L

h0 hL

where Bi0 and BiL are nondimensionless and

are defined as follows:

Recall the following identity h0 L hL L

Bi 0 = ; Bi L =

a c e a + c+ e k k

= = =

b d f b+d + f which are called the Biot numbers.

T0 − TL Physical significance of Biot number

q=

1 L 1 Bi =

heat transfer through the film

+ + heat transfer through the object

h0 k hL

1. Bi >>1: Heat transfer through the

written in terms of known parameters and object is limiting.

operating conditions.

2. Bi << 1: Heat transfer through the

fluid film is limiting.

Avoid the confusion How about T(0) and T(L)?

T0 − T (0) T (0) − T ( L) T ( L) − TL

q= = =

1 L

1

Their definitions:

h0 k hL

hL ( fluid film heat transfer coefficient)( length)

Bi = =

k solid thermal conductivity

Nu = = q=

kf fluid thermal conductivity 1 L 1

+ +

h0 k hL

or from an object. 1

Nu is seen in many correlations of heat h0

T(0) = T0 − (T0 − TL )

transfer coefficients; hence it involves 1 L 1

+ +

only film properties. h0 k hL

1

More about this later. hL

T( L) = TL + (T0 − TL )

1 L 1

+ +

h0 k hL

Step 8 and 9: Temperature distribution &

Heat conduction in slab: heat flux

Gas film & k(T) We can write immediately

Steps 1 to 6: T ( 0) − T ( L )

The heat balance equation is:

q = k avg

L

d dT d dT

k =

dz dz dz

k 0 1 + [

α (T − T0)

dz

=0 ] where

α

k avg = k 0 1 − [T(0) − T( L)]

Constraint on α: α(T0 - TL) < 1 2

through the film at both sides of the

dT

z = 0; h 0 [T0 − T(0)] = − k solid object, that is

dz

[T(0) − T( L)] = h

z=0

dT L

L

z = L; h L [T( L) − TL ] = − k

dz z = L

with T(0) being the solid object

temperature at z=0, and T(L) being

that at z=L.

Thus, we get

So far

T0 − TL

q=

1 L 1

+ +

h 0 k avg h L Heat conduction

variables T(0) and T(L). Theory of thermal conductivity for

monatomic gases

Like before, we solve for T(0) and T(L) First principles of solving heat conduction

problems

1

Heat conduction in slab object:

h0

T( 0) = T0 − (T0 − TL ) BC of the first kind

1 L 1

+ +

h 0 k avg h L BC of the third kind

1 Constant thermal conductivity

hL T-dependent thermal conductivity

T(L) = TL + (T0 − TL )

1 L 1

+ +

h 0 k avg h L

Now let us turn to composite objects and

Two nonlinear algebraic equations objects of different geometries than

in terms of T(0) and T(L) as kavg is a slab, cylinder and sphere.

function of T(0) and T(L).

Utilizing results obtained earlier for a

Composite slab objects single slab object, we can write:

Area A T1 − T2 T − T3 T − TN +1

q = h 0 (T0 − T1 ) = k 1 = k2 2 = = k N N = h N +1 (TN +1 − TN + 2 )

L1 L2 LN

T1 T2 T3 T4

or writing in the ratio form, we get

q=

(T0 − T1 ) = T1 − T2 T2 − T3

=

T − TN + 1 (TN + 1 − TN + 2 )

= = N =

1 L1 L2 LN 1

h0 k1 k2 kN h N +1

Thus

q=

(T0 − TN + 2 )

1 N Lj 1

k1 k2 k3 + ∑ +

0 j= 1 j N + 1

h k h

Let deal with constant k, and N layers. by equating the above two equations.

Step 5: no heat generation

Heat conduction in cylinder

Heat balance around the annulus shell

In constrast to slab geometry, the area is

changing along the heat flow direction. ( 2 πrL )q ( r ) − 2 πL ( r + ∆r )q ( r + ∆r ) + 0 = 0

Steps 1 to 4 incoming

∆r area

incoming

flux

R1

outgoing

R2 area

outgoing flux

A compact mathematical form:

means all r in the bracket are

evaluated at r+∆∆r

[(2πr)q ( r )] r=r

− [(2πr )q ( r ) ]

r = r + ∆r

=0 Thus, the final heat balance equation valid

at a point is:

d

Define dr

[rq ( r ) ] = 0 First-order

f ( r ) = 2πr q ( r ) ODE wrt q

dT

q (r) = −k

dr

Divide by ∆r:

into the heat balance equation to get:

f ( r ) r = r − f ( r ) r = r + ∆r d dT

=0 r k =0

∆r

dr

dr

If k is constant If k is a function of

Now making the shell as thin as possible: temperature

f ( r ) r = r − f ( r ) r = r + ∆r df ( r )

lim =− =0

∆r → 0 ∆r dr d dT d dT

r = 0 rk =0

dr dr dr dr

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution

always associated

r=R1; T=T1 with cylindrical

r geometry

r=R2; T=T2 ln

T( r ) − T2 R2

=

T1 − T2 R1

ln

R2

dT

q (r) = −k

dr

k(T1 − T2 )

q(r) =

R

r ⋅ ln 2

Let’s start with boundary R1

conditions of the first kind

Unlike the slab case, this heat flux is not a

Let us deal with the case of constant constant, but rather decreases as the

thermal conductivity first. heat moves away from the center.

This is not entirely unexpected. Compare this heat flow with that for the

slab geometry.

r heat flux area Heat flow =

flux × area Slab Cylinder

small large small the same

A

large small large the same Q = k(T1 − T2 )

2πL

δ Q=

R ( 1

k T − T2 )

2

ln

R1

Although the heat flux changes with

distance r, the heat flow (energy/time)

must be a constant, a requirement of Irrespective of the geometry, the heat flow

steady state. is proportional to

1. thermal conductivity

Heat flow: 2. temperature difference

2πLk

Q = (2πrL)q ( r ) = (T1 − T2 )

R The only difference is the geometrical

ln 2

R1 factor.

constant as expected

When the annulus is very thin, that is no Step 6’: Heat balance equation

curvature

d dT

R2 - R1 << R1

dr

r

1

k [

1 + α (T − T1 ) ]

=0

dr

We would expect that the solution

obtained for the cylindrical geometry

will reduce to that of slab. Step 7’: Same boundary constraints

r = R1 ; T = T1

Proof: r = R2 ; T = T2

It is not difficult to show that:

2πL 2πR1L Area Step 8’: Temperature distribution

= =

R R 2 − R1 Thickness

ln 2 α r

R1 (T − T1 ) + (T − T1 ) 2

ln

R1

2

Q.E.D. =

α

(T2 − T1 ) + (T2 − T1 ) ln R 2

2

2 R1

Now let’s consider the case of non-

constant thermal conductivity.

k = k 1[1 + α( T − T1 ) ]

Step 9’: Heat flux Heat conduction from a sphere

k1 α 2

q( r ) = ( T − T ) − ( T − T )

R 2 2 1

1 2 2

r ⋅ ln

R1

dr

Heat flow

r

2πLk 1 α 2

Q= ( 1 2 ) ( 1 2 )

T − T − T − T

R 2 2

ln

R1

shell

which is independent of r.

Boundary condition

r=R; T = T0

Step 6: Heat balance equation If the heat transfer coefficient is

defined as

d 2 dT

dr r k dr = 0 q = h (T0 - T∞)

fluid thermal

conductivity

Compare this with the solution obtained

Step 7: Physical constraints

from first principles, we get:

r = R; T = T0

h(2R ) hD

r → ∞; T = T∞ = =2

k k

Nusselt number

T ( r ) − T∞ R

=

T0 − T∞ r Thus, from first principles the Nusselt

number of a stagnant medium is 2.

Correlation of the form:

k

q R = (T0 − T∞ ) Nu = 2 + a Re n Pr m

R

therefore, comes as no surprise.

The influence of shape Fall of temperature of a free droplet

surface is:

πR D (C0 - C∞)

I = 4π

Slab Cylinder Sphere

d dT d dT d 2 dT

=0 =0 If H is the latent heat of vaporization,

r k dr = 0

k r k

dr dr dr dr dr the heat gain by the droplet is equal

to the heat required to vaporize the

liquid, that is:

1. The general form for the three shapes is:

4πRk(T∞ − T0 ) = 4πRD(C 0 − C ∞ )

d s dT

dr r k dr = 0

2. Those equations can be cast into the form: HD

dQ

T0 = T∞ − (C 0 − C ∞ )

=0 k

dV

that is the rate of change of energy per

unit volume is zero. Example: Benzene droplet in air.

The drop in temperature is 60C.

Transient heat conduction Thermal diffusivity

1. New parameter: Thermal diffusivity

2. Heat conduction in a semi-infinite Chem

slab object. Eng.

b. Constant surface temperature vs

constant surface heat flux

3. Heat conduction in a finite object.

a. Slab geometry

b. Cylindrical geometry

c. Spherical geometry

4. Heat conduction in a finite object with

asymmetry boundary conditions.

5. Heat conduction in objects within a Air layer

Engine Oil

finite environment.

6. Determination of heat flux from You will feel the heat first with which

temperature measurements. system?

Answer: The proper parameter characterises

The air system will transport heat this transient situation is

quicker than the oil system. THE THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY

It is defined as:

Does this seem odd as the thermal k ability to conduct

conductivity of oil (0.14 W/m/K) is α= ≡

about 5 times larger than that of air ρC p ability to absorb

(0.03 W/m/K)? Answer: No

The larger is this parameter, the faster

is the heat transport.

The heat transfer in this system is We shall see that this parameter will

transient; that is heat travels from evolve naturally during the

the left surface, portion of which is analysis.

conducted through and portion is

absorbed by the material to increase

its latent heat. Now, coming back to our example.

Since oil has a much higher heat Oil system Air system

capacity per unit volume, most of ρ 848 kg/m3 1.1 kg/m3

the heat is retained by the oil and Cp 2130 J/kg/K 928 J/kg/K

hence it retards the movement of k 0.14 W/m/K 0.03 W/m/K

heat front to the right surface.

α 7.75 × 10-8 m2/sec 2.94 × 10-5 m2/sec

Constant temperature at x=0 surface

Heat conduction in a

Heat balance over the shell:

semi-infinite slab object

∂T

Aq x

− Aq x + ∆x

+ 0 = ( A ∆ x) ρ C p

∂t

accummulation

of energy

Ts

time ∆x)-surface

energy out at (x+∆

energy in at x-surface

x

divide by A∆∆x and take

the limit when ∆x → 0 Fourier’s law

Consider two cases:

dT

q (r) = −k

∂q ∂T dr

− = ρC p

Case 1: Constant temperature at x=0 ∂x ∂t

surface

∂ 2 T ∂T

thermal diffusivity α 2 =

Case 2: Constant heat flux at x=0 surface

evolves naturally ∂x ∂t

Initial and boundary conditions Temperature distribution

t = 0; T = T0 T( x, t ) − Ts x special

= erf combination

x = 0; T = Ts T0 − Ts 4αt of x and t

Error function is defined as:

z

2

erf (z) =

2

far away from the surface, ∫

π 0

e − x dx

the temperature is not yet

disturbed by the change in

It has the following properties:

surface temperature

∞) = 1

1. erf(0) = 0; erf(∞

This condition is maintained d 2 z2

2. erf (z ) = e

for t > 0+ dz π

surface temperature is changed 0 0

0.01 0.01128

0.1 0.11246

0.5 0.52049

Solution method: 1.0 0.84270

Combination of variables: The essence of this 1.5 0.96610

method is that the temperature behaves with 2.0 0.99532

respect to x and t in a special way

(MATCHING OF CONDITIONS).

at a given time k

δ=4 α⋅ t =4 ⋅ t

Ts ρC p

T(x,t) heat penetration front The penetration front is proportional to

1 the square root of time,

2. the square root of k

3. the inverse of the square root of ρCp

T0

x

Front travels fast Front travels slow

The heat penetration front can be defined

as the front at which the temperature 1. high conductivity 1. low conductivity

is such that: 2. low volumetric 2. high volumetric

heat capacity heat capacity

T(δ , t ) − Ts δ

= erf = 0.995

T0 − Ts 4αt

The square root dependence of the heat

From the table of error function, front with respect to time is the

erf(2)=0.995; thus characteristics of conduction

(diffusion) type problems.

δ=4 α⋅ t

Heat flux: Answer:

Obtained from the Fourier law The infinite flux at t=0 is due to the

sudden exposure of the surface to a

k (Ts − T0 ) x2

q ( x, t ) = exp − new temperature, that is

παt 4αt

infinite temperature gradient at t=0.

What we can observe from this are:

1. Heat flux decays rapidly with x for If we are interested in the amount of heat

a given time has entered the object up to time t, we

2. Heat flux increases to a maximum find:

and then decays with respect to t

2 Ak (Ts − T0 )

time. Q ( t ) = A ∫ q ( 0, t )dt = t

0 πα

entering the object at x=0: 2 A(Ts − T0 )

Q( t ) = k ⋅ ρC p ⋅ t

k (Ts − T0 ) π

q ( 0, t ) =

παt The amount of heat transfer is proportional to the

square root of

This heat flux is infinite at t=0! Is this

1. The thermal conductivity

acceptable physically?

2. The volumetric heat capacity

If there is a film heat transfer resistance at Case 2: Constant heat flux at x=0

x=0, the solution for the temperature The heat balance equation is still the same

distribution is (Levenspiel, 1984): as before as

T(x , t ) − Ts x the equation describes the pointwise heat

= erf +

T0 − Ts 4αt balance within the domain (i.e. object)

and it is not affected by the way how

x h αt hx h 2 αt

1 − erf + exp + 2 we impose the system.

4 αt k k k

How we impose the system is through the

(that is no film resistance), the second

boundary condition.

term in the RHS is zero, as erf(∞ ∞)=1.

∂T

x = 0; −k = qs

∂x

The solution for the heat flux is:

Heat conduction in a

x

q ( x , t ) = q s 1 − erf finite slab object

4α t

shell

q 4α t x2

T ( x , t ) = T0 + s exp − −

k π 4 α t

qsx x

1 − erf

k 4α t T1

time

temperature at the x=0 surface:

qs 4α t x x=L x=0

T (0, t ) = T0 +

k π

The slab object is symmetrical, so it is

Due to the constant supply of heat flux, only necessary to consider half of

the x=0 temperature increases with the object.

time and follows the square root

dependence. The origin is chosen as the center of the

object as shown.

The heat balance will be exactly the Solution method:

same as before. Why.

Either by

Because the heat balance is a pointwise equation. It is

not affected by the boundary condition as well as 1. Separation of variables method

the size of the domain.

2. Laplace transform

The heat balance equation is:

∂ 2 T ∂T Temperature distribution:

α 2 =

∂x ∂t The Laplace solution is:

assuming a constant thermal diffusivity s

cosh x

T0 (T1 − T0 ) α

T= +

The initial and boundary conditions are: s s s

cosh L

α

t = 0; T = T0 symmetry at

∂T center The inverse is found by the method of

x = 0; =0 residues:

∂x no film resistance. If

x = L; T = T1 T1 − T(x, t ) ( n ) x 2 αt

∞ sin λ

there is the new BC is = 2∑ cos λ n exp − λ n 2

∂T T1 − T0 λn L L

x = L; − k

∂x

[

= h T x = 0 − T1 ] n=1

1

λn = n − π

2

Heat flux into the particle: The solution of the amount of heat

∂T (T1 − T0 ) ∞

αt transfer passing through the x=L

q = −k

∂x

= −2 k

L

∑ exp − λ

n =1

2

n

L2

surface valid for very short time is:

x=L

k(T1 − T0 )

Q=A

Amount of heat transfer: αs 3 / 2

The amount of energy up to time t passing or the inverse is:

through the surface at x=L 2 A(T1 − T0 )

Q= k ⋅ ρC p ⋅ t

2 αt π

1 − exp −λ n 2

t ∞

L

Q( t ) = A ∫ q ( t ) dt = −2 ALρC p (T1 − T0 )∑

n =1 λ2n

0

independent of the size of

This is basically the amount received by the object. Why?

half of the object up to time t

When time is sufficient large, this This solution for short time is exactly

amount is: the same as the solution we

obtained earlier for a semi-infinite

∞) = ALρ

Q(∞ ρCp (T1 - T0) object.

This is physically expected as this is the

sensible heat required to bring the

WHY?

object from T0 to T1.

Answer: Heat conduction in a finite

Because for short time the heat does cylindrical or spherical object

not penetrate far into the object,

and hence the center is not yet felt

by the heat front. The heat balance equation is:

Thus, the object behaves just like a 1 ∂ s ∂T ∂T

semi-infinite object. α x =

s

x ∂x ∂x ∂t

with

1. s = 0 for slab

2. s = 1 for cylinder

3. s = 2 for sphere

We have learnt that the solutions for

the semi-inifinite object are simpler

than the finite object. They are The same set of initial and boundary

recommended for the description of conditions:

the system under study during the

t = 0; T = T0 symmetry at

initial stage of transfer.

∂T center

x = 0; =0

∂x no film resistance. If

x = L; T = T1 there is the new BC is

∂T

x = L; − k

∂x

[

= h T x = 0 − T1 ]

Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The temperature distribution is: The heat flux solution is:

T1 − T(x, t ) 2 k (T1 − T0 )

∞

αt ∞

2 αt

= ∑ a n K n ( x) exp − λ2n 2

T1 − T0 n =1

L q=−

L

∑

n =1

exp −λ n 2

L

1. The parameter an is called The form is exactly the same for all

coefficient. shape. The only difference is the

2. The function Kn(x) is called eigenvalue (characteristic of the

eigenfunction. system, i.e. shape).

3. The parameter λn is called the

eigenvalue. The amount of heat received by the

object is given by:

shape an Kn(x) λn αt

1 − exp − λ2n 2

∞

L

Slab 2

sin(λ n )

cos λ n

x

1

n − π

[ (

Q( t ) = 2(1 + s) ⋅ Vobject ⋅ ρC p )] ⋅ (T1 − T0 )∑

n =1 λ2n

λn L 2

where Vobject is the volume of the object.

Cylinder 2 x

J0 λn

J 0 (•) = 0

λ n J 1 (λ n ) L

−2 sin λ n heat absorbed by the object

λn L

x

∞) = Vobject ρCp (T1 - T0)

Q(∞

L

which is expected physically.

Heat conduction in slab Solution method:

2. Separation of variables

Ts

time Temperature distribution

linear steady state

profile

T0

Ts − T ( x, t ) x

x=0 x=L

= +

−

Ts T0 L

2 ∞ 1 x 2 2 αt

The heat balance equation is: ∑ sin

π n =1 n

n π

L

exp −n π 2

L

∂ 2 T ∂T

α 2 =

∂x ∂t

The initial and boundary conditions are: transient term, will decay to

t = 0; T = T0 zero as time is getting large

x = 0; T = Ts

x = L; T = T0

Heat flux at x=0 and x=L Amount of heat entering and leaving the

object

steady state

heat flux Ak(Ts − T0 )

Q0 = t+

L

(Ts − T0 )ALρC p ∞

6 2 2 αt

k(Ts − T0 ) 2 k(Ts − T0 ) ∞

αt 3

∑n 2

π2 1 − exp − n π L2

q0 =

L

+

L

∑ exp − n π

n =1

2 2

L2

n=1

and

k(Ts − T0 ) 2k(Ts − T0 ) ∞

αt

qL = + ∑ cos(nπ) ⋅ exp −n π 2 2

Ak(Ts − T0 )

L L n =1 L2 QL = t+

L

∞

2 cos(nπ ) 2 2 αt

(Ts − T0 )ALρC p ∑ 1 − exp −n π 2

At steady state, the heat flux entering the n =1 n 2 2

π L

surface x=0 must be the same as that

leaving the surface x=L.

During the trasient operation, the heat Ak(Ts − T0 ) L2

flux entering the x=0 surface is greater Q0 = t +

L 3α

than that leaving at x=L. The

difference is absorbed by the object as Ak(Ts − T0 ) L2

QL = t −

sensible heat. L 6α

Heat conduction in a

finite environment

collection of solid objects in a finite

QL environment.

0 L2/6α

α time

which is the time required

for the heat to penetrate

the medium

This method is known as the time lag

method. time t <0 time t > 0+

Two sub systems to write down heat Solution method:

balance equations:

Laplace transform.

1. Heat conduction in a sphere

2. Heat transfer from the Solution for the fluid temperature

environment into the collection of

sphere. Tf − T0 B ∞

1 2 αt

= + 6B∑ exp −λ n 2

T1 − T0 1 + B 2 2

n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n R

where

Heat balance of a sphere: ratio of the heat

Vf ρ f C pf capacities of the

1 ∂ 2 ∂T ∂T B= two phases

α x = mp C p

x 2 ∂x ∂x ∂t

The eigenvalues are determined from the

Heat balance in the reservoir:

following transcendental equation:

dTf 3 m ∂T B

Vf ρ f C pf = − P k λ cot( λ ) = 1 + λ2

3

dt R ρ P ∂x x =R

Solution for the object average temperature

t = 0; T = T0 ; Tf = T1

∞

T − T0 B 1 αt

∂T = − 6B2 ∑ exp − λ2n 2

x = 0; =0 T1 − T0 1 + B n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n

2 2

R

∂x

x = L; T = Tf

Parameter determination

Heat convection

Tf − T0 B ∞

1 αt

= + 6B∑ exp − λ2n 2

T1 − T0 1 + B 2 2

n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n R

So far, we deal with heat conduction

whereby the driving force is the

temperature gradient

function of only Now we consider the second mode of

heat capacities heat transfer

CONVECTION

experimentally measured

thermal conductivity transfer in this mode is induced by

some form of fluid movement

1. Plot the LHS versus τ = αt/R2 around the object.

2. From experimental data, obtain the 2. There are two types of heat

LHS and then use the above plot to convection:

obtain τ corresponding to a. Forced Convection

experimental t.

b. Free Convection

3. Plot τ versus t, the slope is α/R2.

Forced convection

velocity

temperature

object object

forced stream of air heated air which rises

external force bouyancy effects of

heated fluid

1. Velocity profile, then 1. Velocity and temp.

profiles are connected

2. Temperature profile

Nu = f(Re, Pr) Nu = f(Gr, Pr) Two broad classes of heat convection:

hD uρD C pµ ρgD3∆ρ 1. Internal forced convection

Nu = ; Re = ; Pr = ; Gr =

kf µ kf µ2 2. External forced convection

Internal forced convection with The velocity profile distribution for

constant surface temperature Newtonian fluids is:

r 2

v z ( r ) = v max 1 −

Out by R

conduction

In by convection

Step 5: Energy balance equation

out by

and conduction convection & heat conduction in

conduction at r-surface

(2πr∆z)q r ( r, z) r +

r

Energy (2πr∆r)q z ( r, z) z +

∆r =

In by In

conduction

ρC p v z ( r )( 2πr∆r ) ⋅ ( T − T0 ) z

z ∆z

z+∆

The thin shell and the direction of

energy transport

sensible heat carried by the fluid

and Now taking ∆r and ∆z to zero, we obtain

the following heat balance equation

(2πr∆z)q r ( r, z) r+ ∆r + valid at any point inside the tube

∂T 1 ∂

ρC p v z (r ) =− (rq r ) − ∂q z

Energy (2πr∆r)q z ( r, z) z+ ∆z + ∂z r ∂r ∂z

= Step 6: Apply the Fourier law

Out

ρC p v z ( r )( 2πr∆r ) ⋅ ( T − T0 ) z+ ∆z ∂T ∂T

q r = −k ; q z = −k

∂r ∂z

we get

∂T 1 ∂ ∂T ∂ 2 T

Heat balance equation of the finite shell is: ρC p v z (r ) = k r + 2

∂z r ∂r ∂r ∂z

(rq r ) r + ∆r − (rq r ) r (rq z ) z + ∆z − (rq z ) z Usually

− − −

∆r ∆z

∂T ∂ 2T

T z + ∆z − T z ρC p v z ( r ) >> 2

rρ C p v z ( r ) +0 =0 ∂z ∂z

∆z

Thus, the heat balance equation is:

no heat production

in the tube r 2 ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T

ρC p v max 1 − = k r

R ∂ z r ∂ r ∂ r

steady state

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution

eigenfunction

r=R; T = Tw

coefficient

eigenvalue

r=0; ∂T/∂

∂r=0

T( r , z) − Tw ∞ 2 kz

= ∑ A n K n ( r ) exp

n R 2 ρC v

− λ

T0 − Tw n =1 p max

Mixing cup temperature is defined:

z=0; T=T0

Enthalpy = πR 2 v ρC p (Tm − T0 )

is equal to the inlet temperature. average velocity

2. At the center of the tube, we have the

mixing cup temperature

symmetry condition.

3. At the tube surface, the temperature is

equal to the surface temperature, Tw. How is enthalpy calculated?

vz(r) Heat flux at tube surface

Apply the Fourier law at the tube surface

∂T ( r , z )

q R ( z) = − k

∂r r=R

r k ( T0 − Tw ) ∞ 2 kz

=−

R

∑ A Y

n n

'

(1) exp

n R 2 ρC v

− λ

n =1 p max

dr

This is the heat flux at the tube surface

which is a function of downstream

R distance.

Enthalpy = 2πρC p ∫ rv z ( r )[T( r , z) − T0 ]dr

0

Tm ( z) − Tw ∞ 2 kz qR(z)

T0 − Tw

= ∑ E n exp − λ n 2

R ρ C v

n =1 p max

The necessary constants in solutions are: Approximate mixing cup temperature

Note that all solutions are in the form of

infinite series.

n λn An En Y’n(1)

1 2.70436 +1.4764 0.81905 -0.10443 To obtain the mixing cup temperature at

2 6.67903 -0.8061 0.09753 +1.3429 large distance, we see that all the

3 10.6734 +0.5888 0.03250 -1.5723 terms in the series are very small

4 14.6723 -0.4764 0.01547 +1.7479 compared to the first term

5 18.5149 +0.3591 0.00703 -1.6766

Thus

Tm ( z) − Tw 2 kz

We see that using the first principles, we lim

= E 1 exp − λ 1 2

can obtain

z→ l arg e T0 − Tw R ρC p v max

a cup-mixing temperature of Tm:

2. the cup-mixing temperature

3. the heat flux at tube surface kL 1 1 Tm ( L ) − Tw

= − 2 ln

without resort to any correlations of heat R 2 ρC p v max λ 1 E 1 T0 − Tw

transfer.

Thus, if we want (Tm-Tw)/(T0-Tw) = 0.1, Heat transfer coefficient & Nu number

the length of the tube required is: Recall the heat flux at the surface and the

R 2 v max ρC p cup mixing temperature:

L = 0.29 ∂T ( r , z )

k q R ( z) = − k

∂r r=R

=−

R

∑ A Y

n n

'

(1) exp

n R 2 ρC v

− λ

p max

FρC p n =1

L = 0185

. and

k

Tm ( z) − Tw ∞ 2 kz

An amazing simple result.

T0 − Tw

= ∑ E n exp

n R 2 ρC v

− λ

n =1 p max

1. flow rate There is one quantity that engineers like

to use is the heat transfer coefficient.

2. volumetric heat capacity It is defined as follows:

and inversely proportional to

1. fluid thermal conductivity

q R ( z ) = h ( z ) (Tm − Tw )

Thus the heat transfer coefficient can be This Nusselt number is a function of

evaluated as: distance, and from this we can get the

asymptotic Nusselt number

∞ 2 kz

−2∑ A n Y' n (1) exp − λ n 2 − 2A 1 Y '1 (1)

k n =1 R ρ C v

p max

Nu (∞ ) = = 3.76

h ( z) = E1

D ∞ 2 kz

∑ E n exp − λ n 2

R ρ C v

If we keep two terms, we will obtain how

n =1 p max Nusselt number would decay along the

axis z.

Making use of the definition of the Nusselt

number, we get: kz

Nu ( z) = Nu(∞ )1 + 0.583 exp −37.3 2

∞ R ρ C v

p max

kz

−2∑ A n Y' n (1) exp − λ2n 2

n =1 R ρ C v

p max

Nu ( z) =

∞ 2 kz

∑ E n exp

n R 2 ρC v

− λ

full solution

n =1 p max

Nu solution

3.76

z

Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Before we solve the next problem, we Heat conduction & convection in

recall the solution for the cup-mixing tube with constant wall heat flux

temperature:

Tm ( z) − Tw kz

≈ E 1 exp − λ21 2 In the previous example, we dealt with

T0 − Tw R ρC v

p max

conduction and convection in tube

The LHS is dimensionless, E1 is with constant wall temperature.

dimensionless, λ12 is also Now we deal with constant wall heat flux.

dimensionless; so the group

kz

2

R ρC p v max These wall conditions (either constant

temperature or heat flux) only affect

is also dimensionless. Rearranging this the boundary conditions. So the heat

group as follows: balance equation obtained earlier will

still be applicable here:

kz z µ k

= ⋅ ⋅

2

R ρC p v max R ρ

max

v R µ C p r 2 ∂T 1 ∂ ∂T

ρC p v max 1 − = k r

z

= ⋅

1

R ∂ z r ∂ r ∂ r

R Re⋅ Pr

This shows that the dimensionless groups Re and

Pr are generally appeared in forced

convection problems.

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution

@ z = 0; T = T0 By defining

@ r = 0; ∂r = 0

∂T/∂ T − T0 r kz

θ= ; x= ; ζ=

(q 1 R / k ) R ρC p v max R 2

@ r = R; ∂T/∂

- k∂ ∂r = q1

the heat balance equation and the

boundary conditions will become:

Remember, the constant heat flux q1 is an

∂θ 1 ∂ ∂θ

algebraic quantity. It is negative, if

the fluid is heated, and is positive

(1 − x2 ) = x

∂ζ x ∂ x ∂ x

when the fluid is cooled.

@ ζ = 0; θ=0

@ x = 0; ∂θ/∂

∂x = 0

@ x = 1; ∂θ/∂

∂x = -1

but we are interest in the solution at

distance far away from the entrance.

Entrance solution is not so much of

interest to engineers.

Because of the constant heat flux, the To find the overall heat balance equation,

temperature is expected to rise we start with

linearly, i.e.

θ ∞ ( x , ζ) = C 0 ⋅ ζ + ψ ( x)

(1 − x ) ∂θ

2

=

1 ∂ ∂θ

x

∂ζ x ∂ x ∂ x

that is, the temperature at any point multiply by xdx and integrate

across the tube section increases wrt x from 0 to 1

linearly at the same rate.

1

d ∂θ ∂θ

This long distance solution must satisfies

d ζ ∫0

x 1 − (

x 2

θ dx )

= x

∂x

− x

∂x

the center and wall boundary x =1 x=0

satisfy the entrance condition apply the BCs in x

1

d

@ ζ = 0; θ=0

d ζ ∫0

x 1 − (

x 2

)

θdx = − 1

To make up for this, the solution must,

however, satisfy the overall heat integrate wrt ζ from 0 to ζ

balance equation.

1

∫ x 1(− x 2

)

θ dx = − ζ

0

This is the overall heat balance equation. Summary

It simply states that the heat input Thus, the long distance solution

through the wall is equal to the

sensible heat gained by the fluid. θ ∞ ( x , ζ) = C 0 ⋅ ζ + ψ ( x)

must satisfy the differential heat balance

Written in dimensional terms, that equation

equation is:

1

r 2

(1 − x ) ∂θ

2

=

1 ∂ ∂θ

x

∂ζ x ∂ x ∂ x

∫0 v max 1 − R (T − T0 )2 πrdr = − (2 πRz) ⋅ q 1

the two boundary conditions in x

@ x = 0; ∂θ/∂

∂x = 0

@ x = 1; ∂θ/∂

∂x = -1

and the overall heat balance equation

1

∫ x(1 − x )θdx = −ζ

2

The solution finally is: Heat transfer coefficient: It is defined as:

θ ∞ ( x , ζ ) = −4 ⋅ ζ +

x4

− x2 +

7 (

h T−T R )=q 1

4 24

surface temperature

Step 9: Desired quantities cup-mixing temperature

Surface temperature:

Rearrange:

11

θ ∞ (1, ζ ) = −4 ⋅ ζ −

24 [( ) (

h T − T0 − T R − T0 )]

=

q1

Center temperature: q 1R q 1R

k k

7

θ ∞ ( 0, ζ ) = − 4 ⋅ ζ + that is:

24

k

Cup-mixing temperature: (

h θ∞ − θ 1 = ) R

1

∫ Hence

2

x (1 − x ) θ ∞ dx

θ ∞ (ζ ) = 0

= −4 ⋅ ζ hD 48

1

Nu = = = 4.36

∫ x(1 − x

2

) dx k 11

0

Length required

Free convection

To determine the length required to heat

the fluid to some desired temperature,

we use the solution: What we have dealt with so far:

θ ∞ (ζ ) = − 4 ⋅ ζ 1. Various problems of heat

conduction, steady state as well as

Rewrite the equation in dimensional un-steady state.

quantities, we get:

2. Combined heat conduction and

L=

(T − T )R ρ C v

0 p max heat convection.

4(− q 1 )

Written this in terms of the volumetric

flow rate, F, we have: Now we will deal with a combined heat

L = 0.16

(T − T )ρC F0 p

conduction and free convection

problem.

R (− q 1 ) The problem is two parallel plates with

a fluid confined between them. The

fluid region closer to the hot plate

will rise, while the fluid region close

to the cold plate will descend.

Steps 5 to 7: Heat balance equation &

T2 Momentum balance & physical

constraints

The heat balance equation by conduction

is:

T1

d 2T

k =0

dy 2

The boundary conditions are:

@ y = -b; T = T2

vz(y) @ y = +b; T = T1

y

Two parallel plates

The movement of fluid due to the Put this in the momentum eqn., we get:

temperature difference is determined

by the momentum balance equation: d 2 v z ( y ) dp

µ 2

= + g ρ ( T0 )

dy dz

d 2 v z ( y) dp

µ = + ρg − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )

dy 2 dz

If the pressure gradient is solely due to

In this equation, we will assume the

the weight of the fluid, then:

viscosity is a constant, and the

density to follow Taylor expansion: dp

= − g ρ( T0 )

∂ρ dz

ρ ( T) ≈ ρ ( T0 ) + (T − T0 ) The momentum equation is:

∂T T0

d 2 v z ( y)

where T0 is yet an unspecified temperature. µ = − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )

dy 2

Def. of the coefficient of volume expansion: The physical meaning: The viscous

forces (LHS) are balanced by the

1 ∂ρ buoyancy forces.

= −β

ρ ∂T T0

ρ ( T) ≈ ρ ( T0 ) − β ⋅ ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )

Summary: Step 8: Temperature & velocity

The governing equations are: distribution

The temperature distribution is:

d2T

k 2

=0 ∆T y

dy T ( y ) = Tm − ⋅

2 b

@ y = -b; T = T2

where

@ y = +b; T = T1

T1 + T2

Tm = ; ∆ T = T2 − T1

2

and The velocity distribution:

d 2 v z ( y) ρ ( T0 ) g β b 2 ∆ T

µ = − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 ) v z ( y) = ×

dy 2 12

y

3

y

2

y

@ y = -b; vz =0 − A − + A

b b b

@ y = +b; vz =0

where

6 (T m − T0 )

A =

∆T

Now we require that the net volume

flow is zero, that is:

Equation of change

b You have seen the analysis of a number

∫v z ( y ) dy = 0 of simple heat transfer problems by

−b using the first principles on shell

Solving this equation, we get: elements.

A=0

that is the reference T0 used in the NOW

Taylor series expansion for density

is equal to the mean temperature,

You will learn how to generalize the

Tm.

shel energy balance to obtain the

equation of energy, which describe

The velocity distribution now is: energy transport in homogeneous

fluid or solid.

ρ ( T0 ) g β b 2 ∆ T y y

3

v z ( y) = ⋅

b −

12 b

The advantage of using this equation of

energy is that we do not need to set

up shell balance every time we solve

a problem

This is the first law of thermodynamics.

Equations of energy

z

Kinetic energy: is energy associated with

the fluid motion, i.e. ρv2 on a per unit

volume basis.

(x,y,z) the random translational and internal

motions of the molecules plus the

energy of interaction between the

molecules.

x

The internal energy depends on the local

y temperature and density of the fluid.

of int ernal and kinetic = and kinetic energy − and kinetic energy +

energy in by convection out by convection

addition by − done by system

conduction on surroundings

Now back to the energy equation: Term 2 & 3: Convection

Rate of int ernal Rate of int ernal

Rate of accummulation Rate of int ernal Rate of int ernal and kinetic energy −

and kinetic energy =

of int ernal and kinetic = and kinetic energy − and kinetic energy + in by convection out by convection

energy in by convection out by convection 1 2 ^ 1

(∆y∆z) vx ρ U+

^

ρv − v x ρ U + ρv 2 +

2 x 2 x + ∆x

Net rate of heat Net rate of work

^ 1 2 ^ 1

addition by − done by system ( ∆ x ∆ z) vy ρ U+ ρv − v y ρ U + ρv 2 +

2 y 2

conduction on surroundings y + ∆y

1 2 ^ 1

(∆x∆y) vz ρ U+

^

ρv − v z ρ U + ρv 2

2 z 2 z + ∆z

Net rate of heat

Term 1: Accummulation

by conduction

= (∆y∆z) q x [ x

− qx x + ∆x ]+

Rate of accummulation

∂ ^ 1 2

of int ernal and kinetic = ( ∆ x∆ y∆z) ρ U+ ρv

∂t

[ ] + (∆x∆y)[q

2

energy

^

(∆x∆z) q y y − q y y + ∆y z z − qz z + ∆z ]

where U is the internal energy per unit

where qx, qy, qz are components of the

mass.

heat flux vector

q

Term 5: Work done on the surrounding. The work against the volume forces (gravity)

The rate of doing work against the three

components of the gravity force:

Recall the following basic formula

Rate of work against

gravity force

(

= −ρ(∆x∆y∆z) v x g x + v y g y + v z g z )

dis tan ce in the direction

(Work ) = (Force) ×

the minus sign because

of the force

work is done against

The rate of velocity in the direction gravity

= (Force) ×

doing work of the force

static pressure:

a. Work against the volume forces,

Rate of work against

e.g. gravity.

pressure force

[

= (∆y∆z) (pvx ) x − (pvx ) x + ∆x +

]

b. Work against surface forces, e.g.

pressure & viscous forces

(∆x∆z)(pvy ) y − (pvy ) y + ∆y + (∆x∆y)[(pvz ) z − (pvz ) z + ∆z ]

The work against the viscous forces ∂ ^ 1 2

ρ U + ρv =

The rate of doing work against the ∂t 2

viscous forces is: ∂ ^ 1

vx ρ U+ ρv 2 +

Rate of work against

= ∂x 2

viscous force ∂ ^ 1 2

− v y ρ U + ρv + convection

[

(∆y∆z) (τ xx vx + τ xy vy + τ xz vz ) x − (τ xx vx + τ xy vy + τ xz vz ) x + ∆x ]+ ∂ y

∂ ^

2

1 2

vzρ U+ ρv

∂ z 2

(∆x∆z)(τ yx vx + τ yy vy + τ yz vz ) y − (τ yx vx + τ yy vy + τ yz vz ) y + ∆y +

∂q x ∂q y ∂q z

− + +

∂x ∂y ∂z conduction

[

(∆x∆y) (τ zx vx + τ zy vy + τ zz vz ) z − (τ zx vx + τ zy vy + τ zz vz ) z + ∆z ] (

+ρ v x g x + v y g y + v zg z ) gravity

∂ ∂ ∂

− (p v x ) + pv y + ( )

(p v z ) pressure

Putting all those terms into the shell ∂x ∂y ∂z

energy balance equation, then ∂

dividing by ∆x∆ ∆y∆

∆z, we get the ∂x ( τ xx v x + τ xy v y + τ xz v z)+

following energy balance equation

∂

per unit volume: −

∂y

( )

τ y x v x + τ y y v y + τ y z v z +

viscous

∂ τ v + τ v + τ v

(

∂ z z x x z y y z z z )

Such a massive energy equation can be BUT we could make use of the continuity

written in a compact vector-tensor: equation to obtain another form:

rate of gain of energy

per unit volume Combine the accummulation term &

the convection term, we get:

∂ ^ 1 2 rate of energy input per

ρ U + v = unit volume by convection

∂t 2 ∂ ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ∂ρ

ρ U + v 2 + v • ∇ U + v 2 + U + v 2 + (∇ • ρv) =

∂t 2 2 2 ∂t

^ 1

− ∇ • ρ v U + v 2

2 ( ) ( ) ( [ ])

− ∇ • q + ρ v • g − (∇ • pv) − ∇ • τ • v

rate of energy input per

(

− ∇•q ) unit volume by conduction

+ρ(v • g) rate of work done on fluid Recall the continuity equation:

−(∇ • pv) per unit volume by ∂ρ

gravitational forces ∂t + (∇ • ρ v) = 0

( [ ])

− ∇• τ•v

rate of work done on fluid the above equation will become:

per unit volume by

pressure forces D ^ 1

( ) ( ) ( [ ])

ρ U + v 2 = − ∇ • q + ρ v • g − (∇ • pv) − ∇ • τ • v

Dt 2

rate of work done on fluid

per unit volume by viscous in which we have used the definition of

forces the substantial derivative.

The equation obtained so far is fairly general. D ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂

= + vx + vy + vz

Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Now we recall the mechanical energy Equations written in terms of internal

equation: energy are not directly too useful.

D 1 One prefers equations written in terms of

(

ρ v 2 = p(∇ • v) − (∇ • pv) + ρ v • g

Dt 2

) temperature and heat capacities

( [ ])

− ∇ • τ • v + (τ: ∇ v)

From thermodynamics:

Substracting this mechanical energy

equation from the energy equation: ∂ ^ ∂ ^

^ U ^

U

d U = ^ d V+ dT

∂T

rate of gain of internal ∂V T V

^

= − p + T d V + C v dT

DU ∂T ^

V

ρ = rate of internal energy

Dt input by conduction

The thermal energy equation will become:

(

− ∇•q ) reversible rate of

DT ∂p

( )

^

− p(∇ • v)

internal energy increase

ρ Cv = − ∇ • q − T ^ (∇ • v) − (τ: ∇ v)

per unit volume by Dt ∂T V

compression

− ( τ : ∇ v) If we express q in terms of temperature

irreversible rate of

internal energy

gradient and stress tensors in terms of

increase by viscous velocity gradient, the above equation

will be in terms of temperature &

This is called thermal energy equation. velocity

Special cases: Special case: Ideal gas

For a Newtonian fluid with constant k: For ideal gas, the change of pressure

versus temperature at constant volume

DT ∂p

( )

^

ρCv = k ∇ 2 T − T ^ (∇ • v) + µΦ v ∂p p

Dt ∂T V ^ =

∂T V T

where Φv is the dissipation function, and

it takes the form for rectangular the thermal energy equation is:

coordinates: DT

( )

^

ρCv = k ∇ 2 T − p(∇ • v) + µΦ v

∂ v 2 ∂ v y 2 ∂ v 2 Dt

Φ v = 2 x + +

z

+

∂x ∂y ∂z

2 2 2

∂v y ∂v x ∂v z ∂v y ∂v x ∂v z Special case: Constant pressure fluid

+ + + + + −

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x

From thermodynamics:

2

2 ∂v x ∂ v y ∂v z ^ ^ ^

+ + d U = − pd V + C p dT

3 ∂x ∂y ∂z

and the thermal energy equation is:

DT

( )

^

ρCp = k ∇2T

Dt

neglecting viscous dissipation.

Special case: Constant density fluid

Heat transfer coefficient

We have for this case:

What we have learnt?

DT

( )

^

ρCp = k ∇2T 1. Modes of heat transfer

Dt

2. Thermal conductivity & thermal

diffusivity

Special case: Solids

3. Shell heat balance procedure

∂T

( )

^

ρ Cp = k ∇2T 4. Simple examples

∂t

5. Temperature dist’n ⇒ heat flux

6. Steady state vs transient

7. Shape and size of objects

8. Similarity between heat and

momentum transfer.

9. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC)of

simple problems can be obtained

from first principles.

Definition of heat transfer coefficient The heat transfer coefficient, unlike

thermal conductivity, does vary

bulk fluid, T0 with the situation.

1. Flow in conduit

2. Flow around submerged objects

hot surface, Tw

HTC:

1. Local heat transfer coefficient: vary

along the direction of flow

2. Overall heat transfer coefficient: a

combination of HTCs of processes

in series

hot object

General definition:

Q=hA(Tw - T0)

Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

First definition:

Flow in conduits

Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) = h 2 (πDL)( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )

Tb,1 Tb,2

This definition is based on information

at one point. In general, h1 is

different from h2.

Second definition:

( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) + ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )

Q = h 1 (πDL)

2

T0,1 T0,2

The second definition is based on the

average of the driving force.

There are three definitions: The third definition:

Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) = h 2 (πDL)( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) − ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )

Q = h ln (πDL)

( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) + ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) [

ln ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) / ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) ]

Q = h 1 (πDL)

2 The third definition is based on the log

mean driving force.

( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) − ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )

Q = h ln (πDL)

[

ln ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) / ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) ]

If the temperature of the fluid changes

appreciably, the local heat transfer

Flow around an object

coefficient is preferable:

πDdz) (T0 - Tb )

dQ = hloc (π T∞ T0

The heat transfer coefficient obtained

in the analysis of flow in a tube is

local, i.e.

h = h(z)

πR2) (T0 - T∞ )

Q = hm (4π

dQ = hloc (dA) (T0 - T∞ )

Warning about the use of HTC Order of magnitude of HTC

To use the heat transfer coefficient, HTC varies widely depending on the

make sure that you know exactly: situation.

1. The def. of temperature driving force

2. The def. of heat transfer area Situation h (kcal/m2/hr/K)

Free convection

Gases 3 - 20

Liquids 100 - 600

Heat transfer coefficient is a function of: Boiling water 1000 - 20,000

1. the fluid properties (k, Cp, ρ, µ) Forced convection

2. the system’s geometry Gases 10 - 100

Viscous liquids 50 - 500

3. the flow velocity

Water 500 - 10,000

4. the driving force Condensing vapors 1,000 - 100,000

5. the surface temperature variation

Correlations for HTC in tube For a tube of radius R and length L,

the total heat flow into the fluid is:

L 2π

∂T ( r , θ , z )

As we have seen, HTC is a function of Q= ∫

0

∫0 k ∂r Rdθdz

r=R

h = h(k, Cp, ρ, µ, v, T0, Tb, D, L)

Using the definition of heat transfer

coefficient

There are many parameters in RHS. Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 )

We need a means to reduce the

number of parameters. we get

NON-DIMENSIONALIZATION 1

L 2π

∂T ( r , θ , z )

h1 = ∫ ∫ k

(πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) 0 0 ∂r

Rdθdz

r=R

system, the thermal energy balance

equation is:

DT

ρC p = k∇ 2 T + µΦ v

Dt

In principles, by solving this equation

and substitute the result into the

HTC equation we will obtain h1.

NONDIMENSIONLIZE: The functional dependence

By defining Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)

tV r z T − T0 ,1

t* = ; r * = ; z* = ; T* = was obtained assuming constant

D R L Tb ,1 − T0 ,1 physical properties.

h1D DVρ Cpµ µV 2

Nu 1 = ; Re = ; Pr = ; Br =

k µ k k( Tb ,1 − T0 ,1 )

For large temperature difference, the

the HTC and thermal energy eqns become following functional dependence is

1 2π

expected to allow for temperature

1 ∂T * ( r * , θ , z * ) variation of the viscosity:

2(πL / D) ∫0 ∫0

Nu 1 = − dθdz *

∂r * r * =1

Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D , µ b / µ 0 )

*

DT 1 *2 * Br

*

= ∇ T + Φ *v

Dt Re Pr Re Pr

Nu 1 = Nu 1 (Re, Pr, Br , L / D)

If we neglect the viscous dissipation

Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)

Thus, we see that the process of Some correlations in the literature

nondimensionalization has reduced Highly turbulent flow:

h = h(k, Cp, ρ, µ, v, T0, Tb, D, L) 0 .14

µ

to Nu ln = 0.026 Re 0.8 Pr 1/ 3 b

µ0

Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)

All physical properties are evaluated at

(Tb,1 + Tb,2)/2, except µ0 which is

evaluated at (T0,1 + T0,2)/2.

A significant reduction in the number

of parameter dependence.

Laminar flow

0 .14

Similarly, we have: D

1/ 3

µb

. Re1/ 3 Pr 1/ 3

Nu ln = 186

Nu a = Nu a (Re, Pr, L / D ) L µ0

gives:

Nu loc = Nu loc (Re, Pr, z / D) 1/ 3

D

Nu ln = 1.62 Re1/ 3 Pr 1/ 3

L

which is remarkable result.

Correlations for HTC around a

submerged object & packed bed

The commonly used correlation for a

sphere in an infinite environment:

1/ 2 1/ 3

hmD Dv ∞ ρ f Cpµ

= 2.0 + 0.60

kf µf k f

evaluated at the film temperature.

0 .6 1/ 3

hmD Dv ∞ ρ f Cpµ

= 2.0 + 11

.

kf µf k f

evaluated at the film temperature.

The coefficient of 1.1 (instead of 0.6) and

exponent 0.6 (instead of 0.5) are due to

the density of packing in the fixed bed.

Transport Phenomena