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# Transport Phenomena Contents of heat transfer

## 1. Heat conduction: Fourier law

Section 2: Heat Transfer
2. Thermal conductivity of homogeneous media
and heterogeneous media
3. Steady state heat conduction in slab and
composite slabs
4. SS heat conduction in cylinder, sphere
5. Transient heat conduction in semi-infinite
objects
6. Transient heat conduction in finite objects
with symmetry conditions and asymmetry
conditions
7. Transient heat conduction of objects in finite
environment
8. Forced convection & heat conduction
9. Free convection
10. Equations of change
11. Heat conduction with phase change

Transport Phenomena
Heat Transfer Modes of heat transfer
There are three modes of heat transfer
1. Conduction
So far we dealt with momentum, 2. Convection (forced & natural)
now we turn to heat transfer
3. Radiation
(energy).

## Difference among the modes of heat

From the first principles, there is no
transfer
difference between the analysis of
momentum transfer and that of 1. Conduction: Heat is transferred due to the
temperature gradient.
heat transfer, which you will see.
2. Convection: Heat is transferred by the motion
of the fluid. If the fluid is forced, we talk of
forced convection. On the other hand, if the
motion of the fluid is induced by the
temperature, we talk of natural convection.
3. Radiation: only occur at high temperature

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat conduction Heat conduction

## Simplest among the three modes of heat Direction of

transfer. It occurs in all three heat transfer
phases of matter (gas, liquid and
solid). In solids, it is the only
mechanism of heat transfer. Q

## The driving force for the heat

T1
conduction is the temperature
gradient, that is whenever a
T0
gradient in temperature exists there
exists a conductive heat flow.

cross-
The heat flow is measured as the amount of
section
energy transferred through any given
plane per unit area per unit time. It is
area A
called heat flux.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

z
Conductive heat flux
heat flux: energy/area/time

Property of material
through which the heat is q
conducted:
Thermal conductivity dT
dz
 T1 − T0 
q = k  
 δ 

## Pointwise: Temperature gradient Thermal conductivity at

Negative sign: Heat is moving the plane A, k
in the direction of negative PLANE A
temperature gradient

dT
q = − k
dT dz
q = − k
dz Fourier’s law This is the fundamental equation
in heat conduction

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

For isotropic materials,
Heat flux as a vector
kx = ky = kz = k
qz
z the heat flux vector will become:

qy q = − k ∇T
where
y
T q = qx i + qy j + q z k
and
qx
∂ ∂ ∂
∇= i+ j+ k
∂x ∂y ∂z

grad operator

x
Temperature is a scalar, while heat flux
is a vector, of which components
are
dT dT dT
q x = −k x ; q y = −k y ; q z = −k z
dx dy dz

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Momentum vs Heat ? Thermal conductivity

## 1. Property of material through which

the heat is conducted
dT
qy = − ky 2. Units: W/m/K
dy
3. In general, ksolid > kliquid > kgas
Materials Thermal conductivity
property of Hydrogen @ 100K 0.067
material driving force Water @ 293K 0.600
Liquid sodium @373K 83.70
Aluminum 206.0

## dv x 4. Insulating materials have low k

τ yx = − µ
dy Materials Thermal conductivity
There are three components of the heat flux
Glass @ 298K 1.00
vector, while there are nine components of Brick @ 293K 0.60 - 1.00
the stress tensor. Glass wool @298K 0.07

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

5. Temperature dependence: Theory of k for monatomic gases
Gas Liquid 1. Kinetic theory of gases
k a. Molecules are rigid sphere
Solid
d mass = m

Temperature

## Gas: k increases with temperature b. Exchange of energy upon collision is

Liquid: no general rule; for example k translational energy
of alcohols, benzene, toluene 1 3
decrease with T, while glycerine, mv 2T = κT
ethylene glycol increase with T 2 2 Boltzmann constant
Solid: also no general rule; for Molar heat capacity at constant
example k of polyethylene, volume is Avogadro’s number
polypropylene, PTFE decrease d 1 2 3
with T, while those of insulation Cv = N  mv T  = R
dT  2  2
materials increase with T
c. The mean free path is much shorter
6. Pressure dependence: than the length scale of the
fairly independent of pressure temperature gradient

p p
v=0

## d. Results of kinetics theory of gas

y
8κT
mean molecular vT =
thermal velocity
πm
1
mean free path λ=
2πd 2 n
1
wall collision Z= nv T
T frequency per 4
unit area
2
a= λ
3
Temperature
T(y+a) profile
the molecules reaching
y+a any plane,
on the average,
T(y)
had their last collision
y at a distance a from that
T(y-a) λ plane
y-a

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The heat flux qy across any plane of According to the assumption c:
constant y is obtained from: 2 dT
T y− a = T y − λ
3 dy

1  1  2 dT
q y = Z mv T2  − Z mv T2  T y+ a = T y + λ
2  2  3 dy
y= y− a y= y + a
thus the heat flux qy is:
1 dT
q y = − nκv T λ
2 dy
kinetic energies of dT
q y = −k
molecules that cross dy
in the negative 1 1 κ 3T
direction k = nκv T λ = 2
2 d π 3m
compared with
kinetic energies of
molecules that cross in 2 m κT
µ=
the positive direction 3π 3/ 2 d2
According to the assumption b:

qy =
3
2
(
κZ T y −a − T y + a ) only for dilute monatomic gases at moderate
pressures (usually less than 10 atm);
proportional to square root of temperature
and independent of pressure

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

2. Chapman-Enskog theory (for gases) Theory of k for polyatomic gases

## T/M More complex than monatomic gases

k = 19891
. × 10 −4
σ 2Ω k due to the additional rotational and
vibrational energies.
collision integral
Semi-empirical formula by Eucken
cal/cm/sec Angstrom  5 R viscosity
k =  Cp + µ
 4 M
g/cm/sec Angstrom heat capacity at
constant pressure

## For monatomic gases, Cp = 5R/4M; thus

MT
µ = 2 .6693 × 10 −5 5 R
σ 2Ω µ k= µ
 2 M
collision integral
as obtained by the kinetic theory of gases.
Note: Eucken’s formula is only used as a guide.
Experimental data should be used.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Thermal conductivity of mixtures
Heat conduction in
Semi-empirical formula is useful:
heterogeneous media
pure component Of interest to engineers is the heat
mole fraction thermal conductivity transfer to or from a packed
column (reactor).
n
xi k i
k mix = ∑ n
i =1
∑xΦ
j= 1
j ij

−1 / 2 2
1  M    µ  1/ 2  M  1/ 4 
Φ ij =  1 + i  1 +  i   j  
8 Mj   µ j   M i  
 

## pure component molecular weight q = - ke dT/dr

viscosity
T
These formula equations are very effective
similar to those for the calculation thermal
of mixture’s viscosity. conductivity

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Hadley’s formula (Kaviany, 1991) Krupiczka (Int. Che.Eng., 7, 122,1967)
k 
+0 .280 − 0 .757 log ε − 0 . 057 log  s 
ke  ks   kf 
k 
εf +  s  (1 − εf ) = 
ke  kf  kf  kf 
= (1 − α )
kf k 
1 − ε (1 − f ) +  s  ε (1 − f )
 kf 
2
k  k 
2 s  (1 − ε ) + (1 + 2ε ) s  Kunni and Smith (AIChEJ, 6, 71, 1960)
 kf   kf 

k  Valid for 0.26 < ε < 0.476
( 2 + ε ) s  + (1 − ε )
 kf  ke 1− ε
=ε+
kf 2 k 
φ 2 + 4.63( ε − 0.26)(φ 1 − φ 2 ) +  s 
3 kf 
where
where φ1 and φ2 are monotonic decreasing
f = 0.8 + 0.1ε function of (ks/kf)
and
0 < ε < 0.0827 α = -4.898 ε
logα
0.0827 < ε < 0.298 logα
α = -0.405 -3.154(εε-0.0827)
0.298 < ε < 0.58 α = -1.084 -6.778(εε-0.298)
logα

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Zehner and Schlunder (Chem. Ing. Tech.,
42, 933, 1970)
Procedure of transport
phenomena analysis
ke 1 First principles
=1− +
kf ( )
1 − ε
1/ 2
1. Draw a physical diagram as
carefully as possible.
  ks    
  1 − B    2. Identfy all possible energy
2(1 − ε)
1/ 2
  kf   1  − B+1 − B−1  transport mechanisms
⋅ ln 
 ks   k 
2
 ks  2 ks
1 − B  1 +  s
B B  1 − B  3. Set a frame of coordinates and
 k f    kf   kf  kf  draw the direction of all transport

processes identified in step 2.
where
4. Draw a shell in such a way that its
10 / 9
1− ε surfaces are perpendicular to the
B = 1.25 
 ε  transport direction.
5. Carry out the energy shell balance
as below:
Modified version of Zehner-Schlunder
 Rate of   Rate of   Rate of energy  Accumulation
was given by Hsu et al. (Int. J. Heat   −  +  = 
 energy in  energy out   production   of energy 
Mass Transfer, 37, 2751, 1994)
This should give a first-order ODE
in terms of heat flux

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

6. Apply the Fourier law Boundary conditions:
This should give a second order 1. At the bounding surface, the
ODE in terms of temperature. temperature is specified. This is
called boundary condition of the
7. Impose physical contraint on the
boundary of the physical system. first kind (Dirichlet BC)
This gives rise to BCs. 2. At the bounding surface, the heat
Note that the number of boundary flux equals to the flux supplied.
Boundary condition of the second
conditions must match the order of
the differential equation. kind (Neumann BC)

8. Solve the equation for the 3. At the bounding surface, the heat
flux entering the domain equals the
temperature distribution.
heat flux across the thin film
9. Obtain the mean temperature, heat flux. surrounding the object. BC of the
third kind (Robin BC).

## Energy production: Concept of heat transfer coefficient

1. Chemical reaction 4. At the interface between the two
domains, the temperatures and the
2. Electrical heat heat fluxes of those domains are
3. Viscous dissipation (degradation continuous. BC of the fourth kind.
of mechanical energy)

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

What to follow Steady state heat
1. Steady state heat conduction in slab conduction in slab
1a. Constant k Steps 1 to 4:
1b. Temperature-dependent k
constant
1c. BC of 1st kind vs BC of 3rd kind cross section
area, A
2. Steady state heat conduction in
composite slab
3. Steady state heat conduction in
cylinder energy in energy out
3a. The influence of shape
3b. Composite cylindrical walls
4. Steady state heat conduction from z z + ∆z thin shell
sphere
5. Fall of temperature in free droplet
6. Heat conduction in cooling fin (BC of
the 3rd kind)
7. Heat conduction with chemical heat
source.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Steps 5 and 6: Energy balance equation First order ODE with respect to heat flux

Fourier’s law dq
steady state − =0
dT dz
q = −k
dz
Aq z
− Aq z + ∆z
+ 0 = 0

## no heat Second-order ODE with respect to T

production
d  dT 
k  = 0
rate of energy out;
dz  dz 
units: Joule/sec
k is temperature
k is constant dependent
rate of energy in;
units: Joule/sec

d 2T d  dT 
k 2 =0  k ( T )  =0
dz dz  dz 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 7: Physical constraint on the Step 9: Heat flux
boundary
Apply the Fourier’s law; remember
Boundary conditions of the first kind. that the heat flux in general is a
function of z. So to calculate the
T(0)=T0 heat flux, where do we evaluate the
heat flux at?
At z=0 or z=L ?
T(L)=TL T( z) − T0 z
=
Fourier law TL − T0 L
z
0 dT ( z)
q ( z) = − k
dz
L

 T − TL 
Step 8: Temperature distribution q = k 0 
 L 
T( z) − T0 z
=
TL − T0 L
Temperature distribution is linear (only
valid for constant k and slab
geometry).
Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena
The heat flux is proportional to the Step 6’: Heat balance equation
temperature difference (only valid
d  dT  d  dT 
for constant k). k  = 
dz  dz  dz 
[
k 0 1 + α(T − T0 ) 
dz 
=0]
We see that for the case of constant “k” the
temperature distribution is linear and the heat flux is
proportional to the temperature difference.
Is this conclusion still valid for the case of Step 7’: Boundary conditions
variable thermal conductivity?
same as before, that is:
Let us look at the case when “k” takes
the following functional form: z = 0; T = T0

[
k = k 0 1 + α (T − T0 ) ] z = L; T = TL

## Constraint on α: α(T0 - TL) < 1

Step 8’: Temperature distribution
α<0
α
(T(z) − T0 ) +   (T( z) − T0 )
2

k 2 z
=
α
(TL − T0 ) +   (TL − T0 )2 L
α>0 2
Thus the temperature distribution across
TL the slab is not linear.
T0

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

α
(T(z) − T0 ) +   (T( z) − T0 )
2

α>0 2
=
z
Step 9’: Heat flux α
(TL − T0 ) +   (TL − T0 )2 L
2
T0 α=0 Apply the Fourier’s law
α<0 dT
[
q = − k 0 1 + α(T − T0 ) ] dz
TL k

z=0 z=L
 α
(T0 − TL ) −   (T0 − TL )
 2
2

## Can you explain the shape of the q = k0

L
temperature distribution?

independent of z,
α>0 as one would
T0 lower k; thus expect physically
higher gradient
Would this minus sign cause a concern to
you as it could give zero flux?
high k; thus
lower gradient Answer: Of course not, see the constraint
TL on α.
z=0 z=L

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Note: If we define an average thermal
conductivity across the slab as:
Heat conduction in slab:
TL TL Gas film resistance
∫ k (T)dT ∫ k [1 + α(T − T )]dT
0 0
 α 
= k 0 1 − (T0 − TL )
T0 T0
k avg = TL
= TL
 2  What has been done so far in steps 1
∫ dT
T0
∫ dT
T0 to 6 is still valid, that is the heat
balance equation is:
the heat flux equation is:
d  dT 
(T0 − TL ) k =0
dz  dz 
q = k avg
L
k is temperature
which is an interesting equation. k is constant dependent

## So far so good, but are there anythings that

need to be addressed?
d 2T d  dT 
1. Existence of gas film surrounding the slab k 2 =0  k ( T )  =0
furnace. dz dz  dz 
2. Slab is made of many different materials. Let’s study the constant k first, and
Let’s consider these one by one. then deal with temperature-
dependent k.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution
T(0) T( z) − T(0) z
T0
=
T( L) − T(0) L
unknown
Note: T(0) and T(L) are yet known, but
we proceed anyway.
T(L)
this is the flux
Step 9: Heat flux through the slab
TL
z q=k
[T ( 0) − T ( L) ]
0
L
L of the gas film, we
With the existence which must be the same as the heat
talk of BC of the third kind. fluxes through the gas film
dT surrounding the slab, that is:
z = 0; h 0 [T0 − T(0)] = − k
dz
q = h 0 [T0 − T (0)] = k
[T(0) − T( L)] = h
z=0
L
L [T( L) − TL ]
dT
z = L; h L [T( L) − TL ] = − k
dz z = L

kf
h= f (Re, Pr )
L

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Rearranging the above equation as: We can write the heat flux equation as:
T0 − T (0) T (0) − T ( L) T ( L) − TL k T0 − TL
q= = = q=
 1
 
L
 
 
 k
 1
  (1 + Bi 0
−1
+ Bi L
−1
) L
 h0   hL 
where Bi0 and BiL are nondimensionless and
are defined as follows:
Recall the following identity h0 L hL L
Bi 0 = ; Bi L =
a c e a + c+ e k k
= = =
b d f b+d + f which are called the Biot numbers.

## we get the heat flux equation

T0 − TL Physical significance of Biot number
q=
 1   L  1  Bi =
heat transfer through the film
  +  +  heat transfer through the object
 h0   k   hL 
1. Bi >>1: Heat transfer through the
written in terms of known parameters and object is limiting.
operating conditions.
2. Bi << 1: Heat transfer through the
fluid film is limiting.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Avoid the confusion How about T(0) and T(L)?

## Bi and Nu Recall the following equations:

T0 − T (0) T (0) − T ( L) T ( L) − TL
q= = =
 1 L
   1
Their definitions:      
 h0   k  hL 
hL ( fluid film heat transfer coefficient)( length)
Bi = =
k solid thermal conductivity

## hL ( fluid film heat transfer coefficient)( length) T0 − TL

Nu = = q=
kf fluid thermal conductivity  1   L  1 
  +  + 
 h0   k   hL 

## Bi is seen in the analysis of heat transfer to we get

or from an object.  1
 
Nu is seen in many correlations of heat  h0 
T(0) = T0 − (T0 − TL )
transfer coefficients; hence it involves  1   L  1 
  +  + 
only film properties.  h0   k   hL 

 1
 
More about this later.  hL 
T( L) = TL + (T0 − TL )
 1   L  1 
  +  + 
 h0   k   hL 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 8 and 9: Temperature distribution &
Heat conduction in slab: heat flux
Gas film & k(T) We can write immediately
Steps 1 to 6: T ( 0) − T ( L )
The heat balance equation is:
q = k avg
L
d  dT  d  dT 
 k  = 
dz  dz  dz 
k 0 1 + [
α (T − T0) 
dz 
=0 ] where
 α 
k avg = k 0 1 − [T(0) − T( L)]
Constraint on α: α(T0 - TL) < 1  2 

## Step 7: Boundary conditions This flux must be the same as fluxes

through the film at both sides of the
dT
z = 0; h 0 [T0 − T(0)] = − k solid object, that is
dz
[T(0) − T( L)] = h
z=0

## q = h 0 [T0 − T (0)] = k avg [T( L) − TL ]

dT L
L
z = L; h L [T( L) − TL ] = − k
dz z = L
with T(0) being the solid object
temperature at z=0, and T(L) being
that at z=L.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Thus, we get
So far
T0 − TL
q=
 1  L   1
  +   + 
 h 0   k avg   h L  Heat conduction

## This equation still involves unknown Thermal conductivity, k

variables T(0) and T(L). Theory of thermal conductivity for
monatomic gases

Like before, we solve for T(0) and T(L) First principles of solving heat conduction
problems
 1
  Heat conduction in slab object:
 h0 
T( 0) = T0 − (T0 − TL ) BC of the first kind
 1  L   1 
  +   + 
 h 0   k avg   h L  BC of the third kind
 1 Constant thermal conductivity
 
 hL  T-dependent thermal conductivity
T(L) = TL + (T0 − TL )
 1  L   1
  +   +  
 h 0   k avg   h L 
Now let us turn to composite objects and
Two nonlinear algebraic equations objects of different geometries than
in terms of T(0) and T(L) as kavg is a slab, cylinder and sphere.
function of T(0) and T(L).

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Utilizing results obtained earlier for a
Composite slab objects single slab object, we can write:
Area A T1 − T2 T − T3 T − TN +1
q = h 0 (T0 − T1 ) = k 1 = k2 2 = = k N N = h N +1 (TN +1 − TN + 2 )
L1 L2 LN

T1 T2 T3 T4
or writing in the ratio form, we get

q=
(T0 − T1 ) = T1 − T2 T2 − T3
=
T − TN + 1 (TN + 1 − TN + 2 )
= = N =
 1  L1   L2   LN   1 
         
 h0   k1   k2   kN   h N +1 

Thus

q=
(T0 − TN + 2 )
 1  N  Lj   1 
k1 k2 k3   + ∑   +  
 0  j= 1  j   N + 1 
h k h

## L1 L2 L3 The interfacial temperatures can be found

Let deal with constant k, and N layers. by equating the above two equations.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 5: no heat generation
Heat conduction in cylinder
Heat balance around the annulus shell
In constrast to slab geometry, the area is
changing along the heat flow direction. ( 2 πrL )q ( r ) − 2 πL ( r + ∆r )q ( r + ∆r ) + 0 = 0

Steps 1 to 4 incoming
∆r area

incoming
flux
R1
outgoing
R2 area

outgoing flux
A compact mathematical form:

## [(2πrL )q (r )] r =r − [(2πrL )q ( r )]r =r + ∆r =0

means all r in the bracket are
evaluated at r+∆∆r

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

[(2πr)q ( r )] r=r
− [(2πr )q ( r ) ]
r = r + ∆r
=0 Thus, the final heat balance equation valid
at a point is:
d
Define dr
[rq ( r ) ] = 0 First-order
f ( r ) = 2πr q ( r ) ODE wrt q

## f ( r ) r = r − f ( r ) r = r + ∆r = 0 Apply the Fourier law of heat conduction

dT
q (r) = −k
dr
Divide by ∆r:
into the heat balance equation to get:
f ( r ) r = r − f ( r ) r = r + ∆r d  dT 
=0 r k =0
∆r 
dr  
dr 

If k is constant If k is a function of
Now making the shell as thin as possible: temperature
f ( r ) r = r − f ( r ) r = r + ∆r df ( r )
lim =− =0
∆r → 0 ∆r dr d  dT  d  dT 
r  = 0 rk =0
dr  dr  dr  dr 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution
always associated
r=R1; T=T1 with cylindrical
 r  geometry
r=R2; T=T2 ln 
T( r ) − T2  R2 
=
T1 − T2  R1 
ln 
 R2 

## L Step 9: Heat flux Fourier’s law

dT
q (r) = −k
dr
k(T1 − T2 )
q(r) =
R 
r ⋅ ln 2 
Let’s start with boundary  R1 
conditions of the first kind
Unlike the slab case, this heat flux is not a
Let us deal with the case of constant constant, but rather decreases as the
thermal conductivity first. heat moves away from the center.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

This is not entirely unexpected. Compare this heat flow with that for the
slab geometry.
r heat flux area Heat flow =
flux × area Slab Cylinder
small large small the same
 
 A
large small large the same Q =   k(T1 − T2 ) 
2πL 

 δ Q= 
 R  ( 1
k T − T2 )
2
 ln  
  R1  
Although the heat flux changes with
distance r, the heat flow (energy/time)
must be a constant, a requirement of Irrespective of the geometry, the heat flow
steady state. is proportional to
1. thermal conductivity
Heat flow: 2. temperature difference
2πLk
Q = (2πrL)q ( r ) = (T1 − T2 )
R  The only difference is the geometrical
ln 2 
 R1  factor.

constant as expected

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

When the annulus is very thin, that is no Step 6’: Heat balance equation
curvature
d  dT 
R2 - R1 << R1
dr
r
 1

k [
1 + α (T − T1 ) ]
=0
dr 
We would expect that the solution
obtained for the cylindrical geometry
will reduce to that of slab. Step 7’: Same boundary constraints
r = R1 ; T = T1
Proof: r = R2 ; T = T2
It is not difficult to show that:
2πL 2πR1L Area Step 8’: Temperature distribution
= =
 R  R 2 − R1 Thickness
ln 2   α  r 
 R1  (T − T1 ) +   (T − T1 ) 2
ln  
 R1 
2
Q.E.D. =
 α
(T2 − T1 ) +   (T2 − T1 ) ln R 2 
2

2  R1 
Now let’s consider the case of non-
constant thermal conductivity.
k = k 1[1 + α( T − T1 ) ]

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 9’: Heat flux Heat conduction from a sphere
k1   α 2
q( r ) = ( T − T ) −   ( T − T )
 R 2    2 1 
1 2 2

r ⋅ ln 
 R1 
dr

Heat flow
r
2πLk 1   α 2
Q= ( 1 2 )   ( 1 2 ) 
T − T − T − T
 R 2   2 
ln 
 R1 
shell
which is independent of r.

Boundary condition
r=R; T = T0

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 6: Heat balance equation If the heat transfer coefficient is
defined as
d  2 dT 
dr  r k dr  = 0 q = h (T0 - T∞)
fluid thermal
conductivity
Compare this with the solution obtained
Step 7: Physical constraints
from first principles, we get:
r = R; T = T0
h(2R ) hD
r → ∞; T = T∞ = =2
k k

## Step 8: Temperature distribution known as the

Nusselt number
T ( r ) − T∞ R
=
T0 − T∞ r Thus, from first principles the Nusselt
number of a stagnant medium is 2.

## Step 9: Heat flux

Correlation of the form:
k
q R = (T0 − T∞ ) Nu = 2 + a Re n Pr m
R
therefore, comes as no surprise.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The influence of shape Fall of temperature of a free droplet

## on heat balance Rate of mass transfer from the liquid

surface is:
πR D (C0 - C∞)
I = 4π
Slab Cylinder Sphere
d  dT  d  dT  d  2 dT 
=0 =0 If H is the latent heat of vaporization,
 r k dr  = 0
k  r k
dr  dr  dr dr  dr the heat gain by the droplet is equal
to the heat required to vaporize the
liquid, that is:
1. The general form for the three shapes is:
4πRk(T∞ − T0 ) = 4πRD(C 0 − C ∞ )
d  s dT 
dr  r k dr  = 0

## s is called the shape factor. Therefore, the drop in temperature is:

2. Those equations can be cast into the form: HD
dQ
T0 = T∞ − (C 0 − C ∞ )
=0 k
dV
that is the rate of change of energy per
unit volume is zero. Example: Benzene droplet in air.
The drop in temperature is 60C.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Transient heat conduction Thermal diffusivity
1. New parameter: Thermal diffusivity
2. Heat conduction in a semi-infinite Chem
slab object. Eng.

## a. Penetration heat front

b. Constant surface temperature vs
constant surface heat flux
3. Heat conduction in a finite object.
a. Slab geometry
b. Cylindrical geometry
c. Spherical geometry
4. Heat conduction in a finite object with
asymmetry boundary conditions.
5. Heat conduction in objects within a Air layer
Engine Oil
finite environment.
6. Determination of heat flux from You will feel the heat first with which
temperature measurements. system?

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Answer: The proper parameter characterises
The air system will transport heat this transient situation is
quicker than the oil system. THE THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY
It is defined as:
Does this seem odd as the thermal k ability to conduct
conductivity of oil (0.14 W/m/K) is α= ≡
about 5 times larger than that of air ρC p ability to absorb
(0.03 W/m/K)? Answer: No
The larger is this parameter, the faster
is the heat transport.
The heat transfer in this system is We shall see that this parameter will
transient; that is heat travels from evolve naturally during the
the left surface, portion of which is analysis.
conducted through and portion is
absorbed by the material to increase
its latent heat. Now, coming back to our example.
Since oil has a much higher heat Oil system Air system
capacity per unit volume, most of ρ 848 kg/m3 1.1 kg/m3
the heat is retained by the oil and Cp 2130 J/kg/K 928 J/kg/K
hence it retards the movement of k 0.14 W/m/K 0.03 W/m/K
heat front to the right surface.
α 7.75 × 10-8 m2/sec 2.94 × 10-5 m2/sec

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Constant temperature at x=0 surface
Heat conduction in a
Heat balance over the shell:
semi-infinite slab object
∂T
Aq x
− Aq x + ∆x
+ 0 = ( A ∆ x) ρ C p
∂t

accummulation
of energy
Ts
time ∆x)-surface
energy out at (x+∆
energy in at x-surface

x
divide by A∆∆x and take
the limit when ∆x → 0 Fourier’s law
Consider two cases:
dT
q (r) = −k
∂q ∂T dr
− = ρC p
Case 1: Constant temperature at x=0 ∂x ∂t
surface
∂ 2 T ∂T
thermal diffusivity α 2 =
Case 2: Constant heat flux at x=0 surface
evolves naturally ∂x ∂t

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Initial and boundary conditions Temperature distribution
t = 0; T = T0 T( x, t ) − Ts  x  special
= erf   combination
x = 0; T = Ts T0 − Ts  4αt  of x and t

## x → ∞; T = T0 where erf is the error function.

Error function is defined as:
z
2
erf (z) =
2
far away from the surface, ∫
π 0
e − x dx
the temperature is not yet
disturbed by the change in
It has the following properties:
surface temperature
∞) = 1
1. erf(0) = 0; erf(∞
This condition is maintained d 2 z2
2. erf (z ) = e
for t > 0+ dz π

## condition of the object before the x erf(x)

surface temperature is changed 0 0
0.01 0.01128
0.1 0.11246
0.5 0.52049
Solution method: 1.0 0.84270
Combination of variables: The essence of this 1.5 0.96610
method is that the temperature behaves with 2.0 0.99532
respect to x and t in a special way
(MATCHING OF CONDITIONS).

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

at a given time k
δ=4 α⋅ t =4 ⋅ t
Ts ρC p
T(x,t) heat penetration front The penetration front is proportional to
1 the square root of time,
2. the square root of k
3. the inverse of the square root of ρCp
T0
x
Front travels fast Front travels slow
The heat penetration front can be defined
as the front at which the temperature 1. high conductivity 1. low conductivity
is such that: 2. low volumetric 2. high volumetric
heat capacity heat capacity
T(δ , t ) − Ts  δ 
= erf   = 0.995
T0 − Ts  4αt 
The square root dependence of the heat
From the table of error function, front with respect to time is the
erf(2)=0.995; thus characteristics of conduction
(diffusion) type problems.
δ=4 α⋅ t

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat flux: Answer:
Obtained from the Fourier law The infinite flux at t=0 is due to the
sudden exposure of the surface to a
k (Ts − T0 )  x2 
q ( x, t ) = exp −  new temperature, that is
παt  4αt 
infinite temperature gradient at t=0.
What we can observe from this are:
1. Heat flux decays rapidly with x for If we are interested in the amount of heat
a given time has entered the object up to time t, we
2. Heat flux increases to a maximum find:
and then decays with respect to t
2 Ak (Ts − T0 )
time. Q ( t ) = A ∫ q ( 0, t )dt = t
0 πα

## Of interest to engineers is the heat flux or

entering the object at x=0: 2 A(Ts − T0 )
Q( t ) = k ⋅ ρC p ⋅ t
k (Ts − T0 ) π
q ( 0, t ) =
παt The amount of heat transfer is proportional to the
square root of
This heat flux is infinite at t=0! Is this
1. The thermal conductivity
acceptable physically?
2. The volumetric heat capacity

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

If there is a film heat transfer resistance at Case 2: Constant heat flux at x=0
x=0, the solution for the temperature The heat balance equation is still the same
distribution is (Levenspiel, 1984): as before as
T(x , t ) − Ts  x  the equation describes the pointwise heat
= erf  +
T0 − Ts  4αt  balance within the domain (i.e. object)
 and it is not affected by the way how
 x h αt    hx h 2 αt 
1 − erf  +   exp + 2  we impose the system.
  4 αt k    k k 

## When heat transfer coefficient h is infinite

How we impose the system is through the
(that is no film resistance), the second
boundary condition.
term in the RHS is zero, as erf(∞ ∞)=1.

∂T
x = 0; −k = qs
∂x

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The solution for the heat flux is:
Heat conduction in a
  x 
q ( x , t ) = q s 1 − erf   finite slab object
  4α t 

## and for the temperature is: center

shell
q 4α t  x2 
T ( x , t ) = T0 + s exp  −  −
k π  4 α t 
qsx   x 
1 − erf   
k   4α t  T1
time

## The quantity of interest is the rise in

temperature at the x=0 surface:
qs 4α t x x=L x=0
T (0, t ) = T0 +
k π
The slab object is symmetrical, so it is
Due to the constant supply of heat flux, only necessary to consider half of
the x=0 temperature increases with the object.
time and follows the square root
dependence. The origin is chosen as the center of the
object as shown.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The heat balance will be exactly the Solution method:
same as before. Why.
Either by
Because the heat balance is a pointwise equation. It is
not affected by the boundary condition as well as 1. Separation of variables method
the size of the domain.
2. Laplace transform
The heat balance equation is:
∂ 2 T ∂T Temperature distribution:
α 2 =
∂x ∂t The Laplace solution is:
assuming a constant thermal diffusivity  s
cosh x 
T0 (T1 − T0 )  α
T= +
The initial and boundary conditions are: s s  s
cosh L 
 α 
t = 0; T = T0 symmetry at
∂T center The inverse is found by the method of
x = 0; =0 residues:
∂x no film resistance. If
x = L; T = T1 T1 − T(x, t ) ( n )  x   2 αt 
∞ sin λ
there is the new BC is = 2∑ cos λ n  exp − λ n 2 
∂T T1 − T0 λn  L  L 
x = L; − k
∂x
[
= h T x = 0 − T1 ] n=1

 1
λn = n − π
 2

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat flux into the particle: The solution of the amount of heat
∂T (T1 − T0 ) ∞
 αt  transfer passing through the x=L
q = −k
∂x
= −2 k
L
∑ exp − λ
n =1
2
n 
L2 
surface valid for very short time is:
x=L

k(T1 − T0 )
Q=A
Amount of heat transfer: αs 3 / 2
The amount of energy up to time t passing or the inverse is:
through the surface at x=L 2 A(T1 − T0 )
Q= k ⋅ ρC p ⋅ t
 2 αt  π
1 − exp −λ n 2 
t ∞
 L 
Q( t ) = A ∫ q ( t ) dt = −2 ALρC p (T1 − T0 )∑
n =1 λ2n
0
independent of the size of
This is basically the amount received by the object. Why?
half of the object up to time t

When time is sufficient large, this This solution for short time is exactly
amount is: the same as the solution we
obtained earlier for a semi-infinite
∞) = ALρ
Q(∞ ρCp (T1 - T0) object.
This is physically expected as this is the
sensible heat required to bring the
WHY?
object from T0 to T1.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Answer: Heat conduction in a finite
Because for short time the heat does cylindrical or spherical object
not penetrate far into the object,
and hence the center is not yet felt
by the heat front. The heat balance equation is:
Thus, the object behaves just like a 1 ∂  s ∂T  ∂T
semi-infinite object. α x =
s
x ∂x  ∂x  ∂t
with
1. s = 0 for slab
2. s = 1 for cylinder
3. s = 2 for sphere
We have learnt that the solutions for
the semi-inifinite object are simpler
than the finite object. They are The same set of initial and boundary
recommended for the description of conditions:
the system under study during the
t = 0; T = T0 symmetry at
initial stage of transfer.
∂T center
x = 0; =0
∂x no film resistance. If
x = L; T = T1 there is the new BC is
∂T
x = L; − k
∂x
[
= h T x = 0 − T1 ]
Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena
The temperature distribution is: The heat flux solution is:
T1 − T(x, t ) 2 k (T1 − T0 )

 αt  ∞
 2 αt 
= ∑ a n K n ( x) exp − λ2n 2 
T1 − T0 n =1
 L  q=−
L

n =1
exp −λ n 2 
 L 
1. The parameter an is called The form is exactly the same for all
coefficient. shape. The only difference is the
2. The function Kn(x) is called eigenvalue (characteristic of the
eigenfunction. system, i.e. shape).
3. The parameter λn is called the
eigenvalue. The amount of heat received by the
object is given by:
shape an Kn(x) λn  αt 
1 − exp − λ2n 2 

 L 
Slab 2
sin(λ n ) 
cos λ n
x

 1
n − π
[ (
Q( t ) = 2(1 + s) ⋅ Vobject ⋅ ρC p )] ⋅ (T1 − T0 )∑
n =1 λ2n
λn  L  2
where Vobject is the volume of the object.
Cylinder 2  x
J0 λn 
J 0 (•) = 0
λ n J 1 (λ n )  L

## Sphere cos(λ n )  x nπ For sufficiently large time, the total amount of

−2 sin λ n  heat absorbed by the object
λn  L
x
∞) = Vobject ρCp (T1 - T0)
Q(∞
L
which is expected physically.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat conduction in slab Solution method:

## with asymmetry condition 1. Laplace transform or

2. Separation of variables

Ts
time Temperature distribution
linear steady state
profile

T0
Ts − T ( x, t ) x
x=0 x=L
= +

Ts T0 L
2 ∞ 1  x  2 2 αt 
The heat balance equation is: ∑ sin
π n =1 n 
 n π 
L
exp  −n π 2 
 L 
∂ 2 T ∂T
α 2 =
∂x ∂t
The initial and boundary conditions are: transient term, will decay to
t = 0; T = T0 zero as time is getting large

x = 0; T = Ts
x = L; T = T0

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat flux at x=0 and x=L Amount of heat entering and leaving the
object
steady state
heat flux Ak(Ts − T0 )
Q0 = t+
L
(Ts − T0 )ALρC p ∞
6   2 2 αt  
k(Ts − T0 ) 2 k(Ts − T0 ) ∞
 αt  3
∑n 2
π2 1 − exp − n π L2  
 
q0 =
L
+
L
∑ exp − n π
n =1
2 2

L2 
n=1

and
k(Ts − T0 ) 2k(Ts − T0 ) ∞
 αt 
qL = + ∑ cos(nπ) ⋅ exp −n π 2 2
 Ak(Ts − T0 )
L L n =1 L2  QL = t+
L

2 cos(nπ )   2 2 αt  
(Ts − T0 )ALρC p ∑ 1 − exp −n π 2  

At steady state, the heat flux entering the n =1 n 2 2
π  L 
surface x=0 must be the same as that
leaving the surface x=L.

## When time is sufficiently large

During the trasient operation, the heat Ak(Ts − T0 )  L2 
flux entering the x=0 surface is greater Q0 = t + 
L  3α 
than that leaving at x=L. The
difference is absorbed by the object as Ak(Ts − T0 )  L2 
QL = t − 
sensible heat. L  6α 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Heat conduction in a
finite environment

## Question: Cooling or heating time of a

collection of solid objects in a finite
QL environment.

0 L2/6α
α time

## This is called the lag time,

which is the time required
for the heat to penetrate
the medium
This method is known as the time lag
method. time t <0 time t > 0+

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Two sub systems to write down heat Solution method:
balance equations:
Laplace transform.
1. Heat conduction in a sphere
2. Heat transfer from the Solution for the fluid temperature
environment into the collection of
sphere. Tf − T0 B ∞
1  2 αt 
= + 6B∑ exp  −λ n 2 
T1 − T0 1 + B 2 2
n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n  R 

where
Heat balance of a sphere: ratio of the heat
Vf ρ f C pf capacities of the
1 ∂  2 ∂T  ∂T B= two phases
α x = mp C p
x 2 ∂x  ∂x  ∂t
The eigenvalues are determined from the
Heat balance in the reservoir:
following transcendental equation:
dTf  3  m  ∂T  B
Vf ρ f C pf = −  P  k λ cot( λ ) = 1 +   λ2
 3
dt  R  ρ P  ∂x x =R

## The initial and boundary conditions are:

Solution for the object average temperature
t = 0; T = T0 ; Tf = T1

T − T0 B 1  αt 
∂T = − 6B2 ∑ exp − λ2n 2 
x = 0; =0 T1 − T0 1 + B n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n
2 2
 R 
∂x
x = L; T = Tf

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Parameter determination
Heat convection
Tf − T0 B ∞
1  αt 
= + 6B∑ exp − λ2n 2 
T1 − T0 1 + B 2 2
n = 1 9 (1 + B) + B λ n  R 
So far, we deal with heat conduction
whereby the driving force is the
temperature gradient
function of only Now we consider the second mode of
heat capacities heat transfer
CONVECTION
experimentally measured

## contain dynamic parameters: 1. As the name suggests, the heat

thermal conductivity transfer in this mode is induced by
some form of fluid movement
1. Plot the LHS versus τ = αt/R2 around the object.
2. From experimental data, obtain the 2. There are two types of heat
LHS and then use the above plot to convection:
obtain τ corresponding to a. Forced Convection
experimental t.
b. Free Convection
3. Plot τ versus t, the slope is α/R2.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Forced convection
velocity
temperature

object object

## Forced convection by Free convection by

forced stream of air heated air which rises

## Flow pattern: by Flow pattern: by the

external force bouyancy effects of
heated fluid
1. Velocity profile, then 1. Velocity and temp.
profiles are connected
2. Temperature profile
Nu = f(Re, Pr) Nu = f(Gr, Pr) Two broad classes of heat convection:
hD uρD C pµ ρgD3∆ρ 1. Internal forced convection
Nu = ; Re = ; Pr = ; Gr =
kf µ kf µ2 2. External forced convection

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Internal forced convection with The velocity profile distribution for
constant surface temperature Newtonian fluids is:
  r  2
v z ( r ) = v max 1 −   
Out by   R  
conduction

In by convection
Step 5: Energy balance equation
out by
and conduction convection & heat conduction in
conduction at r-surface

 (2πr∆z)q r ( r, z) r +

r 
 Energy  (2πr∆r)q z ( r, z) z +
∆r   =
In by  In  
conduction
ρC p v z ( r )( 2πr∆r ) ⋅ ( T − T0 ) z
z ∆z
z+∆ 

The thin shell and the direction of
energy transport
sensible heat carried by the fluid

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

and Now taking ∆r and ∆z to zero, we obtain
the following heat balance equation
 (2πr∆z)q r ( r, z) r+ ∆r + valid at any point inside the tube

∂T 1 ∂
 ρC p v z (r ) =− (rq r ) − ∂q z
 Energy  (2πr∆r)q z ( r, z) z+ ∆z + ∂z r ∂r ∂z
 = Step 6: Apply the Fourier law
 Out  
ρC p v z ( r )( 2πr∆r ) ⋅ ( T − T0 ) z+ ∆z ∂T ∂T
q r = −k ; q z = −k
 ∂r ∂z

we get
∂T 1 ∂  ∂T  ∂ 2 T 
Heat balance equation of the finite shell is: ρC p v z (r ) = k r + 2 
∂z  r ∂r  ∂r  ∂z 
(rq r ) r + ∆r − (rq r ) r (rq z ) z + ∆z − (rq z ) z Usually
− − −
∆r ∆z
∂T ∂ 2T
T z + ∆z − T z ρC p v z ( r ) >> 2
rρ C p v z ( r ) +0 =0 ∂z ∂z
∆z
Thus, the heat balance equation is:
no heat production
in the tube   r  2  ∂T  1 ∂  ∂T  
ρC p v max 1 −    = k r 
  R   ∂ z  r ∂ r  ∂ r 
steady state

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution
eigenfunction
r=R; T = Tw
coefficient
eigenvalue
r=0; ∂T/∂
∂r=0

T( r , z) − Tw ∞  2 kz 
= ∑ A n K n ( r ) exp
 n R 2 ρC v 
− λ
T0 − Tw n =1  p max 

## Step 9: Quantities of interest

Mixing cup temperature is defined:
z=0; T=T0

## 1. At the entrance, the fluid temperature ( )

Enthalpy = πR 2 v ρC p (Tm − T0 )
is equal to the inlet temperature. average velocity
2. At the center of the tube, we have the
mixing cup temperature
symmetry condition.
3. At the tube surface, the temperature is
equal to the surface temperature, Tw. How is enthalpy calculated?

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

vz(r) Heat flux at tube surface
Apply the Fourier law at the tube surface
∂T ( r , z )
q R ( z) = − k
∂r r=R

r k ( T0 − Tw ) ∞  2 kz 
=−
R
∑ A Y
n n
'
(1) exp
 n R 2 ρC v 

− λ
n =1 p max 
dr
This is the heat flux at the tube surface
which is a function of downstream
R distance.
Enthalpy = 2πρC p ∫ rv z ( r )[T( r , z) − T0 ]dr
0

## Mixing cup temperature:

Tm ( z) − Tw ∞  2 kz  qR(z)
T0 − Tw
= ∑ E n exp − λ n 2
 R ρ C v

n =1 p max 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The necessary constants in solutions are: Approximate mixing cup temperature
Note that all solutions are in the form of
infinite series.
n λn An En Y’n(1)
1 2.70436 +1.4764 0.81905 -0.10443 To obtain the mixing cup temperature at
2 6.67903 -0.8061 0.09753 +1.3429 large distance, we see that all the
3 10.6734 +0.5888 0.03250 -1.5723 terms in the series are very small
4 14.6723 -0.4764 0.01547 +1.7479 compared to the first term
5 18.5149 +0.3591 0.00703 -1.6766

Thus
Tm ( z) − Tw  2 kz 
We see that using the first principles, we lim 
= E 1 exp − λ 1 2 
can obtain
z→ l arg e T0 − Tw  R ρC p v max 

## 1. the temperature distribution Solving for the length required to achieve

a cup-mixing temperature of Tm:
2. the cup-mixing temperature
3. the heat flux at tube surface kL 1  1 Tm ( L ) − Tw 
= − 2 ln  
without resort to any correlations of heat R 2 ρC p v max λ 1  E 1 T0 − Tw 
transfer.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Thus, if we want (Tm-Tw)/(T0-Tw) = 0.1, Heat transfer coefficient & Nu number
the length of the tube required is: Recall the heat flux at the surface and the
R 2 v max ρC p cup mixing temperature:
L = 0.29 ∂T ( r , z )
k q R ( z) = − k
∂r r=R

## or written in terms of flow rate F: k ( T0 − Tw ) ∞  2 kz 

=−
R
∑ A Y
n n
'
(1) exp
 n R 2 ρC v 

− λ
p max 
FρC p n =1

L = 0185
. and
k
Tm ( z) − Tw ∞  2 kz 
An amazing simple result.
T0 − Tw
= ∑ E n exp
 n R 2 ρC v 

− λ
n =1 p max 

## The length of the tube is proportional to:

1. flow rate There is one quantity that engineers like
to use is the heat transfer coefficient.
2. volumetric heat capacity It is defined as follows:
and inversely proportional to
1. fluid thermal conductivity

q R ( z ) = h ( z ) (Tm − Tw )

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Thus the heat transfer coefficient can be This Nusselt number is a function of
evaluated as: distance, and from this we can get the
asymptotic Nusselt number
∞  2 kz 
−2∑ A n Y' n (1) exp − λ n 2  − 2A 1 Y '1 (1)
k n =1  R ρ C v
p max 
Nu (∞ ) = = 3.76
h ( z) = E1
D ∞  2 kz 
∑ E n exp − λ n 2
 R ρ C v
 If we keep two terms, we will obtain how
n =1 p max  Nusselt number would decay along the
axis z.
Making use of the definition of the Nusselt
number, we get:   kz 
Nu ( z) = Nu(∞ )1 + 0.583 exp −37.3 2  
∞     R ρ C v
p max  
kz
−2∑ A n Y' n (1) exp − λ2n 2 
n =1  R ρ C v
p max 
Nu ( z) =
∞  2 kz 
∑ E n exp
 n R 2 ρC v 

− λ
full solution
n =1 p max 

## which must be computed numerically. two-term

Nu solution

3.76

z
Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena
Before we solve the next problem, we Heat conduction & convection in
recall the solution for the cup-mixing tube with constant wall heat flux
temperature:
Tm ( z) − Tw  kz 
≈ E 1 exp − λ21 2  In the previous example, we dealt with
T0 − Tw  R ρC v
p max 
conduction and convection in tube
The LHS is dimensionless, E1 is with constant wall temperature.
dimensionless, λ12 is also Now we deal with constant wall heat flux.
dimensionless; so the group
kz
2
R ρC p v max These wall conditions (either constant
temperature or heat flux) only affect
is also dimensionless. Rearranging this the boundary conditions. So the heat
group as follows: balance equation obtained earlier will
still be applicable here:
kz  z  µ   k 
=   ⋅  ⋅ 
2
R ρC p v max  R  ρ
 max  
v R µ C p    r  2  ∂T  1 ∂  ∂T  
ρC p v max 1 −    = k r 
 z
= ⋅
1
  R   ∂ z  r ∂ r  ∂ r 
 R  Re⋅ Pr
This shows that the dimensionless groups Re and
Pr are generally appeared in forced
convection problems.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Step 7: Physical constraints Step 8: Temperature distribution
@ z = 0; T = T0 By defining
@ r = 0; ∂r = 0
∂T/∂ T − T0 r kz
θ= ; x= ; ζ=
(q 1 R / k ) R ρC p v max R 2
@ r = R; ∂T/∂
- k∂ ∂r = q1
the heat balance equation and the
boundary conditions will become:
Remember, the constant heat flux q1 is an
∂θ 1 ∂  ∂θ 
algebraic quantity. It is negative, if
the fluid is heated, and is positive
(1 − x2 ) = x 
∂ζ x ∂ x  ∂ x 
when the fluid is cooled.
@ ζ = 0; θ=0
@ x = 0; ∂θ/∂
∂x = 0
@ x = 1; ∂θ/∂
∂x = -1

## Exact solution to this problem is possible,

but we are interest in the solution at
distance far away from the entrance.
Entrance solution is not so much of
interest to engineers.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Because of the constant heat flux, the To find the overall heat balance equation,
temperature is expected to rise we start with
linearly, i.e.
θ ∞ ( x , ζ) = C 0 ⋅ ζ + ψ ( x)
(1 − x ) ∂θ
2
=
1 ∂  ∂θ 
x 
∂ζ x ∂ x  ∂ x 

that is, the temperature at any point multiply by xdx and integrate
across the tube section increases wrt x from 0 to 1
linearly at the same rate.

1
d  ∂θ   ∂θ 
This long distance solution must satisfies
d ζ ∫0
x 1 − (
x 2
θ dx )
= x 
 ∂x 
− x 
 ∂x 
the center and wall boundary x =1 x=0

## conditions, as expected. But it will not

satisfy the entrance condition apply the BCs in x
1
d
@ ζ = 0; θ=0
d ζ ∫0
x 1 − (
x 2
)
θdx = − 1
To make up for this, the solution must,
however, satisfy the overall heat integrate wrt ζ from 0 to ζ
balance equation.
1

∫ x 1(− x 2
)
θ dx = − ζ
0

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

This is the overall heat balance equation. Summary
It simply states that the heat input Thus, the long distance solution
through the wall is equal to the
sensible heat gained by the fluid. θ ∞ ( x , ζ) = C 0 ⋅ ζ + ψ ( x)
must satisfy the differential heat balance
Written in dimensional terms, that equation
equation is:
1
  r 2
(1 − x ) ∂θ
2
=
1 ∂  ∂θ 
x 
∂ζ x ∂ x  ∂ x 
∫0 v max 1 −  R  (T − T0 )2 πrdr = − (2 πRz) ⋅ q 1
  the two boundary conditions in x
@ x = 0; ∂θ/∂
∂x = 0
@ x = 1; ∂θ/∂
∂x = -1
and the overall heat balance equation
1

∫ x(1 − x )θdx = −ζ
2

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The solution finally is: Heat transfer coefficient: It is defined as:

θ ∞ ( x , ζ ) = −4 ⋅ ζ +
x4
− x2 +
7 (
h T−T R )=q 1
4 24
surface temperature
Step 9: Desired quantities cup-mixing temperature
Surface temperature:
Rearrange:
11
θ ∞ (1, ζ ) = −4 ⋅ ζ −
24 [( ) (
h T − T0 − T R − T0 )]
=
q1
Center temperature:  q 1R   q 1R 
   
 k   k 
7
θ ∞ ( 0, ζ ) = − 4 ⋅ ζ + that is:
24
k
Cup-mixing temperature: (
h θ∞ − θ 1 = ) R
1

∫ Hence
2
x (1 − x ) θ ∞ dx
θ ∞ (ζ ) = 0
= −4 ⋅ ζ hD 48
1
Nu = = = 4.36
∫ x(1 − x
2
) dx k 11
0

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Length required
Free convection
To determine the length required to heat
the fluid to some desired temperature,
we use the solution: What we have dealt with so far:
θ ∞ (ζ ) = − 4 ⋅ ζ 1. Various problems of heat
conduction, steady state as well as
Rewrite the equation in dimensional un-steady state.
quantities, we get:
2. Combined heat conduction and

L=
(T − T )R ρ C v
0 p max heat convection.
4(− q 1 )
Written this in terms of the volumetric
flow rate, F, we have: Now we will deal with a combined heat

L = 0.16
(T − T )ρC F0 p
conduction and free convection
problem.
R (− q 1 ) The problem is two parallel plates with
a fluid confined between them. The
fluid region closer to the hot plate
will rise, while the fluid region close
to the cold plate will descend.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Steps 5 to 7: Heat balance equation &
T2 Momentum balance & physical
constraints
The heat balance equation by conduction
is:
T1
d 2T
k =0
dy 2
The boundary conditions are:
@ y = -b; T = T2
vz(y) @ y = +b; T = T1

y
Two parallel plates

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The movement of fluid due to the Put this in the momentum eqn., we get:
temperature difference is determined
by the momentum balance equation: d 2 v z ( y ) dp
µ 2
= + g ρ ( T0 )
dy dz
d 2 v z ( y) dp
µ = + ρg − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )
dy 2 dz
If the pressure gradient is solely due to
In this equation, we will assume the
the weight of the fluid, then:
viscosity is a constant, and the
density to follow Taylor expansion: dp
= − g ρ( T0 )
∂ρ dz
ρ ( T) ≈ ρ ( T0 ) + (T − T0 ) The momentum equation is:
∂T T0

d 2 v z ( y)
where T0 is yet an unspecified temperature. µ = − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )
dy 2

Def. of the coefficient of volume expansion: The physical meaning: The viscous
forces (LHS) are balanced by the
1 ∂ρ buoyancy forces.
= −β
ρ ∂T T0

## the above Taylor series will become:

ρ ( T) ≈ ρ ( T0 ) − β ⋅ ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 )

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Summary: Step 8: Temperature & velocity
The governing equations are: distribution
The temperature distribution is:
d2T
k 2
=0 ∆T  y
dy T ( y ) = Tm − ⋅ 
2  b
@ y = -b; T = T2
where
@ y = +b; T = T1
T1 + T2
Tm = ; ∆ T = T2 − T1
2
and The velocity distribution:
d 2 v z ( y)  ρ ( T0 ) g β b 2 ∆ T 
µ = − β ⋅ g ρ ( T0 ) ⋅ (T − T0 ) v z ( y) =  ×
dy 2  12 
 y
3
 y
2
 y 
@ y = -b; vz =0   − A  −   + A
  b  b  b 
@ y = +b; vz =0
where
6 (T m − T0 )
A =
∆T

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Now we require that the net volume
flow is zero, that is:
Equation of change
b You have seen the analysis of a number
∫v z ( y ) dy = 0 of simple heat transfer problems by
−b using the first principles on shell
Solving this equation, we get: elements.

A=0
that is the reference T0 used in the NOW
Taylor series expansion for density
is equal to the mean temperature,
You will learn how to generalize the
Tm.
shel energy balance to obtain the
equation of energy, which describe
The velocity distribution now is: energy transport in homogeneous
fluid or solid.
 ρ ( T0 ) g β b 2 ∆ T    y   y
3

v z ( y) =  ⋅  
  b  −  
 12    b  
The advantage of using this equation of
energy is that we do not need to set
up shell balance every time we solve
a problem

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

This is the first law of thermodynamics.
Equations of energy
z
Kinetic energy: is energy associated with
the fluid motion, i.e. ρv2 on a per unit
volume basis.

## Internal energy: is energy associated with

(x,y,z) the random translational and internal
motions of the molecules plus the
energy of interaction between the
molecules.
x
The internal energy depends on the local
y temperature and density of the fluid.

##  Rate of accummulation  Rate of int ernal   Rate of int ernal 

     
 of int ernal and kinetic  =  and kinetic energy −  and kinetic energy +
     
 energy   in by convection   out by convection 

##  Net rate of heat  Net rate of work

   
 addition by  −  done by system 
   
 conduction   on surroundings 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Now back to the energy equation: Term 2 & 3: Convection
 Rate of int ernal   Rate of int ernal 
   
 Rate of accummulation  Rate of int ernal   Rate of int ernal   and kinetic energy −
  and kinetic energy =
         
 of int ernal and kinetic  =  and kinetic energy −  and kinetic energy +  in by convection   out by convection 
     
 energy   in by convection   out by convection   1 2  ^ 1 
(∆y∆z) vx  ρ U+ 
^
ρv  − v x  ρ U + ρv 2  +
 2 x  2  x + ∆x 
 Net rate of heat  Net rate of work
      ^ 1 2  ^ 1  
 addition by  −  done by system  ( ∆ x ∆ z) vy  ρ U+ ρv  − v y  ρ U + ρv 2  +
    2 y  2 
 conduction   on surroundings   y + ∆y 
 1 2  ^ 1 
(∆x∆y) vz  ρ U+ 
^
ρv  − v z  ρ U + ρv 2 
 2 z  2  z + ∆z 

## Let do this term-by-term. Term 4: Conduction

 Net rate of heat
Term 1: Accummulation 
 by conduction 
 = (∆y∆z) q x [ x
− qx x + ∆x ]+
 Rate of accummulation
  ∂  ^ 1 2
 of int ernal and kinetic  = ( ∆ x∆ y∆z)  ρ U+ ρv 
∂t  

[ ] + (∆x∆y)[q
  2
 energy
^

(∆x∆z) q y y − q y y + ∆y z z − qz z + ∆z ]
where U is the internal energy per unit
where qx, qy, qz are components of the
mass.
heat flux vector
q

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Term 5: Work done on the surrounding. The work against the volume forces (gravity)
The rate of doing work against the three
components of the gravity force:
Recall the following basic formula
 Rate of work against

 gravity force 
(
 = −ρ(∆x∆y∆z) v x g x + v y g y + v z g z )
 dis tan ce in the direction
(Work ) = (Force) ×  
the minus sign because
 of the force 
work is done against
 The rate of   velocity in the direction gravity
  = (Force) ×  
 doing work  of the force 

## Consists of two parts: The rate of doing work against the

static pressure:
a. Work against the volume forces,
 Rate of work against
e.g. gravity. 
 pressure force
[
 = (∆y∆z) (pvx ) x − (pvx ) x + ∆x +

]
b. Work against surface forces, e.g.
pressure & viscous forces
(∆x∆z)(pvy ) y − (pvy ) y + ∆y  + (∆x∆y)[(pvz ) z − (pvz ) z + ∆z ]

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

The work against the viscous forces ∂  ^ 1 2 
 ρ U + ρv  =
The rate of doing work against the ∂t  2 
viscous forces is:  ∂   ^ 1  
  vx ρ U+ ρv 2   + 
 
 Rate of work against 
 =  ∂x  2 
 viscous force   ∂   ^ 1 2  

−  v y  ρ U + ρv   +  convection
[
(∆y∆z) (τ xx vx + τ xy vy + τ xz vz ) x − (τ xx vx + τ xy vy + τ xz vz ) x + ∆x ]+  ∂ y 
 ∂   ^
2  

1 2  
 vzρ U+ ρv   
 ∂ z   2   
(∆x∆z)(τ yx vx + τ yy vy + τ yz vz ) y − (τ yx vx + τ yy vy + τ yz vz ) y + ∆y  +
 ∂q x ∂q y ∂q z 
− + + 
 ∂x ∂y ∂z  conduction
[
(∆x∆y) (τ zx vx + τ zy vy + τ zz vz ) z − (τ zx vx + τ zy vy + τ zz vz ) z + ∆z ] (
+ρ v x g x + v y g y + v zg z ) gravity
 ∂ ∂ ∂ 
− (p v x ) + pv y + ( )
(p v z ) pressure
Putting all those terms into the shell  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
energy balance equation, then  ∂ 
dividing by ∆x∆ ∆y∆
∆z, we get the  ∂x ( τ xx v x + τ xy v y + τ xz v z)+ 
following energy balance equation  

per unit volume: − 
∂y
( )
τ y x v x + τ y y v y + τ y z v z + 
viscous
 
 ∂ τ v + τ v + τ v
(
 ∂ z z x x z y y z z z ) 


## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Such a massive energy equation can be BUT we could make use of the continuity
written in a compact vector-tensor: equation to obtain another form:
rate of gain of energy
per unit volume Combine the accummulation term &
the convection term, we get:
∂  ^ 1 2 rate of energy input per
ρ U + v  = unit volume by convection
∂t  2  ∂  ^ 1    ^ 1     ^ 1   ∂ρ 
ρ  U + v 2  +  v • ∇ U + v 2    +  U + v 2   + (∇ • ρv) =
  ∂t  2    2    2   ∂t 
 ^ 1 
− ∇ • ρ v U + v 2  
  2  ( ) ( ) ( [ ])
− ∇ • q + ρ v • g − (∇ • pv) − ∇ • τ • v
rate of energy input per
(
− ∇•q ) unit volume by conduction
+ρ(v • g) rate of work done on fluid Recall the continuity equation:
−(∇ • pv) per unit volume by  ∂ρ 
gravitational forces  ∂t + (∇ • ρ v) = 0
( [ ])
− ∇• τ•v
rate of work done on fluid the above equation will become:
per unit volume by
pressure forces  D  ^ 1 
( ) ( ) ( [ ])
ρ  U + v 2   = − ∇ • q + ρ v • g − (∇ • pv) − ∇ • τ • v
 Dt  2 
rate of work done on fluid
per unit volume by viscous in which we have used the definition of
forces the substantial derivative.
The equation obtained so far is fairly general. D ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + vx + vy + vz
Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Now we recall the mechanical energy Equations written in terms of internal
equation: energy are not directly too useful.
 D  1  One prefers equations written in terms of
(
ρ  v 2   = p(∇ • v) − (∇ • pv) + ρ v • g
 Dt  2  
) temperature and heat capacities
( [ ])
− ∇ • τ • v + (τ: ∇ v)
From thermodynamics:
Substracting this mechanical energy
equation from the energy equation: ∂ ^  ∂ ^ 
^ U ^
 U
d U =  ^  d V+ dT
   ∂T 
rate of gain of internal ∂V T   V
^

## ^ energy per unit volume   ∂p   ^ ^

= − p + T  d V + C v dT
DU   ∂T  ^ 
V 
ρ = rate of internal energy
Dt input by conduction
The thermal energy equation will become:
(
− ∇•q ) reversible rate of
DT  ∂p 
( )
^

− p(∇ • v)
internal energy increase
ρ Cv = − ∇ • q − T  ^ (∇ • v) − (τ: ∇ v)
per unit volume by Dt  ∂T  V
compression
− ( τ : ∇ v) If we express q in terms of temperature
irreversible rate of
internal energy
gradient and stress tensors in terms of
increase by viscous velocity gradient, the above equation
will be in terms of temperature &
This is called thermal energy equation. velocity

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Special cases: Special case: Ideal gas
For a Newtonian fluid with constant k: For ideal gas, the change of pressure
versus temperature at constant volume
DT  ∂p 
( )
^
ρCv = k ∇ 2 T − T  ^ (∇ • v) + µΦ v  ∂p  p
Dt  ∂T  V  ^ =
 ∂T V T
where Φv is the dissipation function, and
it takes the form for rectangular the thermal energy equation is:
coordinates: DT
( )
^
ρCv = k ∇ 2 T − p(∇ • v) + µΦ v
 ∂ v  2  ∂ v y  2  ∂ v  2  Dt
Φ v = 2  x  +   +
z
 +
 ∂x   ∂y   ∂z  

2 2 2
 ∂v y ∂v x   ∂v z ∂v y   ∂v x ∂v z  Special case: Constant pressure fluid
 +  + +  + +  −
 ∂x ∂y   ∂y ∂z   ∂z ∂x 
From thermodynamics:
2
2  ∂v x ∂ v y ∂v z  ^ ^ ^
 + +  d U = − pd V + C p dT
3  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
and the thermal energy equation is:
DT
( )
^
ρCp = k ∇2T
Dt
neglecting viscous dissipation.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Special case: Constant density fluid
Heat transfer coefficient
We have for this case:
What we have learnt?
DT
( )
^
ρCp = k ∇2T 1. Modes of heat transfer
Dt
2. Thermal conductivity & thermal
diffusivity
Special case: Solids
3. Shell heat balance procedure
∂T
( )
^
ρ Cp = k ∇2T 4. Simple examples
∂t
5. Temperature dist’n ⇒ heat flux
6. Steady state vs transient
7. Shape and size of objects
8. Similarity between heat and
momentum transfer.
9. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC)of
simple problems can be obtained
from first principles.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Definition of heat transfer coefficient The heat transfer coefficient, unlike
thermal conductivity, does vary
bulk fluid, T0 with the situation.

## stagnant film Two situations where HTC is defined

1. Flow in conduit
2. Flow around submerged objects

hot surface, Tw

HTC:
1. Local heat transfer coefficient: vary
along the direction of flow
2. Overall heat transfer coefficient: a
combination of HTCs of processes
in series

hot object
General definition:
Q=hA(Tw - T0)
Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena
First definition:
Flow in conduits
Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) = h 2 (πDL)( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )
Tb,1 Tb,2
This definition is based on information
at one point. In general, h1 is
different from h2.
Second definition:
 ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) + ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) 
Q = h 1 (πDL) 
 2 
T0,1 T0,2
The second definition is based on the
average of the driving force.
There are three definitions: The third definition:
Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) = h 2 (πDL)( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )  ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) − ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) 
Q = h ln (πDL) 
 ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) + ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 )  [
 ln ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) / ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) ] 
Q = h 1 (πDL) 
 2  The third definition is based on the log
mean driving force.
 ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) − ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) 
Q = h ln (πDL) 
[
 ln ( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) / ( T0 , 2 − Tb , 2 ) ] 

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

If the temperature of the fluid changes
appreciably, the local heat transfer
Flow around an object
coefficient is preferable:
πDdz) (T0 - Tb )
dQ = hloc (π T∞ T0
The heat transfer coefficient obtained
in the analysis of flow in a tube is
local, i.e.
h = h(z)

πR2) (T0 - T∞ )
Q = hm (4π

## Definition of the local HTC

dQ = hloc (dA) (T0 - T∞ )

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Warning about the use of HTC Order of magnitude of HTC

To use the heat transfer coefficient, HTC varies widely depending on the
make sure that you know exactly: situation.
1. The def. of temperature driving force
2. The def. of heat transfer area Situation h (kcal/m2/hr/K)
Free convection
Gases 3 - 20
Liquids 100 - 600
Heat transfer coefficient is a function of: Boiling water 1000 - 20,000
1. the fluid properties (k, Cp, ρ, µ) Forced convection
2. the system’s geometry Gases 10 - 100
Viscous liquids 50 - 500
3. the flow velocity
Water 500 - 10,000
4. the driving force Condensing vapors 1,000 - 100,000
5. the surface temperature variation

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Correlations for HTC in tube For a tube of radius R and length L,
the total heat flow into the fluid is:
L 2π
 ∂T ( r , θ , z ) 
As we have seen, HTC is a function of Q= ∫
0
∫0  k ∂r  Rdθdz
r=R
h = h(k, Cp, ρ, µ, v, T0, Tb, D, L)
Using the definition of heat transfer
coefficient
There are many parameters in RHS. Q = h 1 (πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 )
We need a means to reduce the
number of parameters. we get
NON-DIMENSIONALIZATION 1
L 2π
 ∂T ( r , θ , z ) 
h1 = ∫ ∫ k
(πDL)( T0 ,1 − Tb ,1 ) 0 0  ∂r

Rdθdz
r=R

## For a constant physical properties

system, the thermal energy balance
equation is:
DT
ρC p = k∇ 2 T + µΦ v
Dt
In principles, by solving this equation
and substitute the result into the
HTC equation we will obtain h1.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

NONDIMENSIONLIZE: The functional dependence
By defining Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)
tV r z T − T0 ,1
t* = ; r * = ; z* = ; T* = was obtained assuming constant
D R L Tb ,1 − T0 ,1 physical properties.
h1D DVρ Cpµ µV 2
Nu 1 = ; Re = ; Pr = ; Br =
k µ k k( Tb ,1 − T0 ,1 )
For large temperature difference, the
the HTC and thermal energy eqns become following functional dependence is
1 2π
expected to allow for temperature
1  ∂T * ( r * , θ , z * )  variation of the viscosity:
2(πL / D) ∫0 ∫0 
Nu 1 = −  dθdz *
∂r *  r * =1
Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D , µ b / µ 0 )
*
DT 1 *2 * Br
*
= ∇ T + Φ *v
Dt Re Pr Re Pr

## THUS, we see that

Nu 1 = Nu 1 (Re, Pr, Br , L / D)
If we neglect the viscous dissipation
Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Thus, we see that the process of Some correlations in the literature
nondimensionalization has reduced Highly turbulent flow:
h = h(k, Cp, ρ, µ, v, T0, Tb, D, L) 0 .14
µ 
to Nu ln = 0.026 Re 0.8 Pr 1/ 3  b 
 µ0 
Nu1 = Nu1 (Re, Pr, L / D)
All physical properties are evaluated at
(Tb,1 + Tb,2)/2, except µ0 which is
evaluated at (T0,1 + T0,2)/2.
A significant reduction in the number
of parameter dependence.
Laminar flow
0 .14
Similarly, we have:  D
1/ 3
 µb 
. Re1/ 3 Pr 1/ 3  
Nu ln = 186  
Nu a = Nu a (Re, Pr, L / D )  L  µ0 

## Nu ln = Nu ln (Re, Pr, L / D ) Theoretical analysis by Leveque (1928)

gives:
Nu loc = Nu loc (Re, Pr, z / D) 1/ 3
 D
Nu ln = 1.62 Re1/ 3 Pr 1/ 3  
 L
which is remarkable result.

## Transport Phenomena Transport Phenomena

Correlations for HTC around a
submerged object & packed bed
The commonly used correlation for a
sphere in an infinite environment:
1/ 2 1/ 3
hmD  Dv ∞ ρ f   Cpµ 
= 2.0 + 0.60   
kf  µf   k f

## where all physical properties are

evaluated at the film temperature.

## The correlation for a packed bed is:

0 .6 1/ 3
hmD  Dv ∞ ρ f   Cpµ 
= 2.0 + 11
.   
kf  µf   k f

## where all physical properties are

evaluated at the film temperature.
The coefficient of 1.1 (instead of 0.6) and
exponent 0.6 (instead of 0.5) are due to
the density of packing in the fixed bed.

Transport Phenomena

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