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Union College

Sta. Cruz, Laguna



Sumitted by:

Harlene S. Bontigao
BSBA - Marketing Management

Submitted to:

Engr. Alexander E. Carandang


Summer Class 2019

The exploration of the study was derived from the researcher's experience and
involvement in the AHC which experienced gargantuan fatalities of recruited
employees since 2018. The moratorium on recruitment process disadvantaged the
department's conditions as some employees were marooned for months. The
researcher wondered how profound the staff turnover might have had the influence
on the quality of services being delivered to the customers. In most cases conducting
recruitment process is expensive. It requires adequate time to ensure that resources
are satisfactorily positioned, while retaining the existing workforce is tricky noting the
cultural challenges and trepidation.
As from 2018, there was noteworthy raise in the number of people leaving the
department to other sphere of government including the private sector. For these
reasons the researcher desired to demeanor a study called, "The high manpower
turnover of lawyers at Attorney Harlene Chambers".
The study utilized the quantitative methods, which were descriptive in nature.
Permission was obtained from HOD before the study began. Participants were
contacted using various communication channels. Consent were forwarded by the
researcher before the survey began. Data was obtained through self-administered
questionnaires, analyzed using statistical methods and graphs. Issues of
confidentiality were disclosed to parties beforehand.

Based on the data analysis, the participants articulated the following


 Job Dissatisfaction
 Lack of Direction
 Poor Communication & Vision
 Poor Job Alignment
 Lack of Development and Advancement
 Poor Supervisor’s Expectation

Although, there is no standard framework for understanding the overall employee

turnover experiences as they diverge from law firm to another, discussion,
conclusion and recommendations were made for the department to consider.


Staff turnover is the in and out movement of employees in an organization,

namely, the beginning or end of an employment contract. The author further stated
that staff turnover can also take place within the organization when employees are
moved between departments, units or sections, promoted, demoted or transferred.
Mathis and Jackson (2003) classified turnover as voluntary versus involuntary
turnover. According to the authors, voluntary turnover can be caused by many
factors, including career opportunities, remuneration, supervision, geography and
personal reasons. Voluntary turnover also appears to increase in size with the size of
the organization. Involuntary turnover is triggered by employees not complying with
organizational policies and work rules, thus not meeting the expected performance
Attorney Harlene revealed that the AH's Chambers has a high turnover of staff
that is poached by other entities that can offer better pay to practicing legal
personnel. "After five years of practical experiences as lawyers, the private sector
comes to poach our staff, because of the much better financial rewards and perks
offered by the private sector and parastatals but they do not invest in training them,"
laments Molokomme. "But the good thing is they are not lost to the economy as they
contribute to the profession even in the private sector," she adds.

One of AHC priorities is "to create decent work" The department has been
exemplified by poor democratic practices internally which did not endorse
operational efficiency; restrain personal development and dedication of staff. These
abnormalities trooped employees to seek local and national employment

Lawyers play a central role in ensuring that the organization delivers on its
mandates, if lawyers leave, meeting the organizational needs may have negative on
the quality of service provided to beneficiaries. Last year, there were fatalities of
lawyers from various levels departing the department and by the end of 2013 there
were profound losses of lawyers. The creation of decent working conditions was non
existence, deficiencies in Lawyers had depressing effect on the provision of services,
hindrance in concluding the new recruitment strategies, caused immense feeling of
being overworked.

When lawyers leave AHC, it represents loss of skilled counsels, reduction in

knowledge, decreased staff morale and increased workloads.

The mounting resignations pressure often impact negatively on the systems of

legal Service within the department and to its service providers. The change
initiatives were imposed on lawyers, unaccustomed to somehow tempted lawyers to
leave, resulting in resistance, unhealthy working conditions, uncertainty and
unsatisfactory performance. Nobody understood the direction to be taken, lawyers
are mislaid, hidden agendas and clashes are part of confusion. The lack of
motivation and dissatisfaction with the job-scope create tension among lawyers.

The resignation of lawyers voluntarily creates a gap, which causes understaffing,

Overburdening remaining staff, deterioration in quality of service resulting in
downbeat syndrome. Meagre leadership lands in strategies that are not properly
communicated and lack of environmental dialog lead to imperceptible stage. Most
supervisors experience high trepidation levels and they are unable to provide clear
guidelines resulting in stressed workforce. Unpleasant workplace causes major
apprehension, work-week unbearable, inevitable thought of Mondays creeping
closer, followed workers home over the weekend and ruin their relaxation time with
their families. Some employees were admitted to hospitals, felt more risks at work,
while others took vacation leave to unwind indefinitely.

Some employees decided to search for employment opportunities elsewhere

instead of being bottled inside AHC walls that did not offer advantageous and
welcoming environment. AHC's changing environment has been deteriorating and
lacked integration of resources namely financial, human and physical.
Lack of communication and poor consultative structures manifests into increased
Supervisor-subordinate conflicts, psychological stress, anxiety and depression (Poor
change efforts and leadership). Lawyers felt terror and inability of top management
to guide them in the needed direction deterred Supervisors from communicating with
their subordinates. Some Supervisors who relied on the laissez faire style avoided
taking decisions and the responsibilities associated with their position.

Often when there was communication, it lacked adequate information, substance

that explained and supported the management commitment. This lead to lawyer's

Most Lawyers did not comprehend their programme structures as they kept on
changing frequently. This resulted in tension associated with being overworked yet
Lawyers were expected to report rottenly. Several lawyers were found in the
shopping centers during office hours, while others watching movies, some busy on
social network during working hours or listening to music in computer. Lawyers came
late at work, telephones calls were left unattended and those who were privileged
with offices ignored the telephones, but when you pass by, they were having
conversations with their colleagues indolently or sleeping sloppily. Meetings
proliferated, often without purpose with too little happening.

Lawyers felt that their self-esteem is wounded, feared that their skills and abilities
are devalued. Programme achievements reported are based on supervisor's feelings
and this resulted in less satisfying work and more boring or monotonous jobs. Fads
and/or quick fixes were adopted to confront major issues. This resulted in low level of
skills usage and lack of creativity. Combining four different division into one entity is
not an easy task since these department`s poses different cultural norms and
standards of operations.


In the researcher's experience within the department, the researcher observed

unremitting losses of recruited employees. Staff turnover resulted in a series of
negative effects. To cite just a few: loss of motivation and lack of desire to work. The
gap generated between exit of one employee and not recruiting or replacing workers
caused deterioration in quality of legal services rendered and overload in remaining
employees. For these reasons the researcher desired to demeanor a study called, "A
Study of High Staff Turnover of lawyers at the Attorney Harlene's Chambers.


The objectives of the study were:

 To ascertain the staff turnover level at AHC.
 To determine factors leading to high staff turnover; and
 To recommend solutions to retain workforce.


On the basis of the above objectives, the researcher main hypotheses are;
 The nature of their work is not challenging.
 Low salaries compared to open market causes labour turnover.


The main purpose of this research was to gather information that will aid AHC
management to comprehend features of high staff turnover experienced by the
department. The end results may permit the department to be in an improved
position to develop staff retention strategies aimed at plummeting turnover matters.


The following limitations were identified by the researcher:-

 Former employees may not be willing to share their experiences and therefore
 Willing to participate;

 Former employees may have changed their telephone numbers and numbers
on their files may no longer applicable, thus limiting necessary data outcomes;

 Due to budget, access and time constraints, the study will utilize
questionnaires as means of gathering data, hence limiting usage of other
research methods that could have added value to the study.


The study will focus on the quantitative research methods (i.e. questionnaires).
One of the distinguishing factors of survey research methods is the dominant need to
collect raw data from large groups of lawyers. Survey research will play an important
role in providing the necessary information for guiding a department `s development
strategy. Surveys are normally carried out for descriptive purposes to provide
information about the distribution of a wide range of lawyer's characteristics and of
relationship between such characteristics. The data will be analyzed according to
gender, division classifications and other variable incorporated into the survey.


This research is to be conducted at four divisions in Attorney Harlene's

Chambers-Gaborone. The population will be therefore divided into discrete groups
namely; Legislative Drafting, Civil Litigation, Directorate of Public Prosecution (DPP)
and International and Commercial(IC) Division. Data will then be collected within the
selected Divisions. Thus, all lawyers (174 lawyers) in Attorney General's Chambers
-Gaborone formed the population and the sample itself comprised of 50 lawyers.

The targeted population of this research is the middle managers of the afore-
mentioned Divisions i.e. from C4- D1.
1. Drafting Division - 15
2. DPP - 9
3. Civil Division - 11
4. IC Division – 15
The sampling techniques most suited for this research, and which will be used
throughout most of the research is Cluster (where a sample of areas is chosen and a
sample of respondents within those areas selected).
The service termination detail report was obtained from the AHC for 1st January
2018 to 31st December 2018 for the population. Population is an identifiable total
group or aggregation of elements that are of interest to the researcher and pertinent
to the specified information problem (Hair, et al., 2000). Population is a group of
people under investigation (Coldwell and Herbst, 2004).
In a cluster sample, the specific population is grouped into aggregate (clusters)
based on their proximity to each other (Coldwell and Herbst, 2004: 80). Cluster
analysis is a multivariate interdependence technique whose primary objective is to
classify objects into relatively homogeneous groups based on the set of variables
considered (Hair, et al., 2000:
The researcher attempted to obtain a sample that would justify the findings of the
study, give responses that would best answer the research question.

Sampling considerations

Larger sample sizes are more accurate representations of the whole.

The sample size chosen is a balance between obtaining a statistically valid
representation, and the time, energy, money, labour, equipment and access available
A sampling strategy made with the minimum of bias is the most statistically valid.
Most approaches assume that the parent population has a normal distribution
where most items or individuals clustered close to the mean, with few extremes.
A 95% probability or confidence level is usually assumed, for example 95% of
items or individuals will be within plus or minus two standard deviations from the
This also means that up to five per cent may lie outside of this - sampling, no
matter how good can only ever be claimed to be a very close estimate.


A questionnaire will be developed with questions based on the objectives and

hypotheses sections above. The questionnaire will consist of open and close-ended
questions that the respondents may answer at their own discretion. It will be
distributed to a sample of the employees across all four divisions. Questionnaires will
be hand-delivered to the respondents and recollected within a week of submission.
The use of the questionnaires is of paramount importance as large amounts of
information can be collected from a large number of people in a short period of time
and in a relatively cost effective way, can usually be quickly and easily quantified by
either a researcher or through the use of a software package and Can be analyzed
more 'scientifically' and objectively than other forms of research.
On the other hand the use of questionnaires got some limitations such as lacking
validity, There is no way to tell how truthful a respondent is being and
Phenomenologist state that quantitative research is simply an artificial creation by
the researcher, as it is asking only a limited amount of information without
A Microsoft excel will be used as the main data analysis tools. Raw data from
questionnaires will be presented in tables, while processed data will be displayed by
pie-charts and bar charts.
A research report that combines understanding of the relevant theory and
previous research with the results of the empirical research will be written after
careful examination of literature. The findings from this literature will be put next to
against the research hypotheses in order to put them to the test/prove them.

The research design methods including the target population for the study,
focuses on the questionnaires as means of gathering primary data from the
participants who met the inclusion criterion. Ethical consideration will form integral
part of research to increase the level of participation. Objectives including the
purpose of the study will be communicated with the respondents to ensure maximum
results. Data will be validated by utilizing managers within AHC who have
knowledge/background research. The supervisor will form part of this validation
process to ensure that the questionnaires design meet the research objectives and
form the keystone to increase the reliability of findings.


Data presentation involves 3 sub-processes of data reduction, data display, and

drawing and verifying conclusions. The data was gathered through the use of
administered questionnaires from a sample of 50 state counsels who were selected
through cluster sampling. Data was presented by tables, pie-charts and bar charts.


The questionnaires were hand delivered; the research has a 100% response
rate as all the questionnaires that were given out were returned. Table 1 above
shows that out of the 50 participants, 44% were male and females were 56%.
Therefore the majority of the participants in this study were females.

Gender Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative frequency

Male 22 44 22

Female 28 54 50
Table 1: Participants in the research

In addition to this, 6% of the respondents were in C4/C3 salary scale, 2% were in

the C2/1 salary scale, 54% were in the D4/3 scale and 38% were above the salary
scale of D2, as stipulated by table 2 below.

Salary Scale Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative frequency

C4/3 3 6 3
C2/1 3 2 6
D4/3 25 54 31
D2 and above 19 38 50
Table 2: Salary

Figure 3: Men resign more than female counterparts

Figure 3 above shows that 36% of the respondents agree and 30% strongly
agree that men resign more than their female counterparts.4 % strongly disagree
and none disagree. Only 30% of the respondents were neutral. That attest indeed
resignation is the domain of males, though the majority of the respondents were

Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative %

Strongly disagree 33 66 33

Disagree 3 6 36

Neutral 12 24 48

Agree 1 2 49

Strongly agree 1 2 50

Figure 4: The government is doing enough to retain skilled Lawyers.

As Table 4 shows, 66% of the respondents' strongly disagree that the
government is doing enough to retain skilled human resource, 6% disagrees and
24% are neutral. The remaining 2% strongly agrees. Consequently the majority
believe the government is not doing enough to retain skilled lawyers.

Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative %

Strongly disagree 1 2 1

Disagree 1 2 2

Neutral 3 6 5

Agree 14 28 19

Strongly agree 31 62 50

Figure 5: Retention strategy can help to reduce labor turnover

As retention strategy is seen as one of the means to retain labour, 62% of the
respondents strongly agree that retention strategy can help to reduce labour
turnover. 28% agrees, 6% are neutral and 2% neutral and 2% strongly disagrees

Figure 6: How do you rank the nature of your work

The above analysis indicates that 44% of the respondents rank their work being
difficult, 46% of the respondents as moderates whilst 4% agrees say is simple and
6% agrees that is very simple.
Figure 7: Do you prefer private law firm to be a government lawyer?

Figure 7 above shows that 42% of the respondents prefer private law firm over
being a Government employee. 58% preferred government employment to private
law firm and the questionnaire required them to state why they prefer Government
employment. Their responses were; Government has security, more resource, is less
stress as people work as a team, there are stipulated working hours, conducive
environment for learning and pursuing further studies and that private law firms
requires experienced and skilled lawyers.
As far as labour turnover is concerned there are various reasons why employees
leave the organizations. They are; money pay, better prospects, more security, more
opportunity to develop skills, better working conditions, poor relationship with
superior, poor relationship with colleagues change of environment.

Supervisor Communication
44% believe that the supervisors are good when it comes communication, while
20% think they are very good,14% is excellent and 14 % were average and 8%
assume that some supervisor are poor in communication.

Planning and Organizing

44% believe that the supervisors are good when it comes planning, while 18%
think they are very good,14% is excellent and 16 % were average and 8% shows
that supervisors are poor in planning and organizing.

Directing and Coordinating

32% believe that the supervisors are good when it comes directing and
coordinating, while 22% think they are excellent, and 18 % were average, 16% is
very good and 12% shows that supervisors are poor in directing and coordinating.

Job/Technical Knowledge
40% believe that the supervisors are very good when it comes on the job
technical expertise, while 30% think they are excellent, and 12 % were average, 12%
is good and 8% shows that supervisors are poor in job/technical knowledge.
Interpersonal Relationship
34% believe that the supervisors are good in interpersonal relationship, while
24% think they are very good,, and 18 % were excellent, 14% is average and 10%
shows that supervisors are poor interpersonal relationship.
Better Prospects
70% believe better prospects is a very important factor, 28% think it is important,
12% were impartial, 3% assume it is of little importance and none disagrees nor
strongly disagree.

Money Pay
The desire for more money is an obvious enticement, and was found in previous
studies, some of which were cited in the literature review. 64 % of the respondents
view money pay as a very important factor, whereas 18% as important and 18%
were moderate.

More Security
Employees who perceive a low degree of job security in their present jobs may
be motivated to seek employment in organizations where they believe a greater
degree of security exits. As a result, 50% feel security is very important, 26%
important, 24% moderate. None felt it is neither very little important nor not important
at all.
More Opportunity to develop skill.
Many of the study participants believe that leaving for greener pastures will offer
them greater opportunity to develop their skills as 56% feel it is very important, 44%
consider it important, None felt it is neither very little important nor not important at

Better working conditions

Majority believe better working conditions is an important factor. 56% feels is
very important to have better working conditions 44% think it is important and None
felt it is neither very little important nor not important at all.

Good relationship with supervisors

Poor relationship supervisors is also another contributing factor that may lead to
employee turnover. 16% think it is very little important and little important
correspondingly. 24% were important, 22% think it is moderate and only 38% think it
is very important to have good relationship with your supervisor.


From the research I have noted under the presentation of data that there is a
need to develop some retention strategy as lawyers at AHC feels that government is
not doing enough to retain skilled lawyers as the kind of the work they do they view it
difficult hence the need of more experienced state counsels to guide junior counsels.
Moreover most lawyers responded to the questionnaire showed that they like
working for government provided they are retention strategies to match the private
sector they are willing to stay as it offers job security.

It is evident that majority view money as the most contributing factor of turnover
as the desire for more money lead more lawyers to leave AHC in search for greener
pastures, in similar vein they feel that in government they are not given chance to
develop their skills as they specialize in their division they don’t rotate in the four
division that form AHC that is ICD, LDD,DPP and CLD.

Even though the study was carried in a female dominate areas those who
responded showed that is it a common practice that mostly men do resign more than
their female counterparts consequently increasing the turnover of the lawyers at
AHC. Men were seen as risk takers as they normally resign to run their own private
law firms to offer the same services to the general public.

The study revealed that most supervisors a good and have some leadership
skills when it comes to directing their supervisees same applies to planning,
organizing and coordinating. even though they are some who showed that their
supervisor lack the competencies of leading them is a small percentage. Lawyers
value technical expertise of their supervisor as one of the most important factor that
can lead to high turnover so it is of paramount importance that most supervisor
possess the skills. This expertise can be drafting of Acts, bills and handling of certain

Supervisor communication is also a most important factor that can lead to high
turnover. Supervisors should communicate effectively more so that they form part of
the management where decisions are made and they should be able to cascade to
their junior counsels what is agreed upon and also engage them to take their
suggestions to management.

Discussion of Key Findings

Based on the analysis of data received in the previous chapter, the following
conclusions in the last question of the questionnaire were reached regarding the
participants experiences and will be discussed further below;

1. Job Dissatisfaction
2. Lack of Direction
3. Poor Communication & Vision
4. Poor job alignment
5. Lack of Development & Advancement
6. Poor Supervisor`s Expectation


The researcher identified that the workforce at AHC experienced their work
environment as non-conducive to performing their roles sufficiently. The employer's
task was to ensure that there was valuable atmosphere and made necessary
arrangements for ensuring absence of risks in connection with the service delivery.
According to the research conducted by (Howard, 2008), poor work environment
impacts on the employee physical and psychological health which in turn contributes
to the job dissatisfaction. Toni (2007) articulated that another causes of turnover are
not only on the job and its characteristics but on the work environment of the
employee. The author further claimed that a good working environment attracts staff
and if staff feels that the environment has been created to support them, they feel
valued and motivated. Some participants were quoted saying:
Employees only do enough work to secure their jobs with no extra effort and
consistently disagrees with management, resist change initiatives and do not support
their co-workers period (Muteswa and Orlepp, 2011: 16). It is clear that these
individuals experienced a lot of frustration and were working under trying conditions
due to lack of proper working equipment. So when managers were looking for these
individuals, there was great infuriation because employees were moving up and
down trying to accommodate the employer's needs, yet their needs were
disregarded. There was unnecessary workload that was hindered by the scarcity of
staff. Ultimately managers were unable to administer and persuade their
subordinates to bequeath quality services.

Even the line supervisors were incapable of delineating the tribulations suitably
and recommend what would and would not work. Some workers manifested the
intention via decreased performance or increased absenteeism (Makhbul, et al.,
2011). As a consequence AHC will experience a difficulty in managing job`s
responsibility and opportunity, this failure may lead to intention to quit. Shahzad, et
al., (2011) stated employees having low levels of job satisfaction are expected to
leave within a year. So employees did not dissipate any minute. According to
(Makhbul, et al., 2011), employees generally work harder and perform better when
they are satisfied with their jobs, however if the job satisfaction is low, it will deter the
individuals work commitment and increase the intention to withdraw oneself either
from the job or organization. This was strongly felt by the executives by end of 2011.
The moratorium linked to the recruitment process to fill vacancies in time, killed the
business motivational levels due to staff shortages, overworked and the web of
conflicting strategic priorities.

Once data was analyzed and presented, it was imperative to test the hypotheses
and they were tested as follows;

Hypothesis 1: low salaries compared to open market causes labour turnover

In the above analysis of under money pay depicts that 64 % of the respondents
view money pay as a very important factor, whereas 18% as important and 18%
were moderate. Therefore as the desire for more money is an obvious enticement,
and as was found in previous studies, some of which were cited in the literature
review the above hypothesis that making more money is the strongest main cause of
labour turnover.

Hypothesis 2: the nature of their job is not challenging

Figure 5 illustrates that majority of analysis indicates that 44% of the

respondents rank their work being difficult, 46% of the respondents as moderates
whilst 4% agrees say is simple and 6% agrees that is very simple. Thus the above
hypothesis is negatively proved.

My assumption is that it seems there is high attrition at middle management

which is a target for the open market and by that the work becomes difficult for junior.
Junior officers therefore depart due to the heavy workload resulting in them being
overstretched and easily burnt –out. The departure has also significantly reduced the
skills base of the AHC particularly in the specialized areas of the law where expertise
couple with many years of experience is vital.


The underprivileged working conditions strained the workforce to search for new
employment opportunities elsewhere. As a result, they had low levels of motivation
that were associated with frustration, anxiety and antagonism to continue to work for
AHC. Management unwilling to articulate AHC`s direction healthy and align the
business processes was a warning of indecision. The inattentiveness prevented the
efforts and destroyed the employee spirits and allegiance in the process.

Reinstating its sphere as government department is of utmost importance to

ensure that service delivery renewal is undertaken to abolish the discomforting
chronicles experienced by employees and build governments reality.


Staff Retention

Voluntary turnover incurs significant costs both in terms of direct costs

(replacement, recruitment and selection) and also in terms of indirect costs (low
morale, pressure on remaining staff, product/service quality and organizational
memory) (Morrell, et al., 2004).

The high staff turnover had the following negative impact on service delivery:
1. Low employee morale remaining staff;
2. Scarcity of staff at different levels;
3. Reduced performance levels;
4. Lack of communication; and
5. Strategic drift leaving employees burdened with conflicting

I therefore recommend the following guidelines for management of turnover, as

set out in (Booysens, 1999: 375):

1. Before attempting to lower its turnover rate, the AHC should first decide what it
considers an acceptable turnover rate for that organization. This would depend
on available staff numbers, the availability of opportunities outside, the level of
turnover that is actually desirable in order to avoid stagnation and the cost of
replacing each employee who leaves;

2. It should determine why lawyers left the organization. Data should be collected
and computerized, elicited through exit interviews carried out by an outsider. The
data should be examined carefully to see if any patterns emerge. Management
must then select measures which will have the greatest effect on lowering the
rate, bearing such patterns in mind;
3. When recruiting, care should be taken not to paint an unrealistically good picture
of the organization. The prospective employee should know from the start what it
will really be like to work in the organization. A reasonable fit between
organizational goals and employee expectations is then possible;

4. During the selection and interviewing process, special care must be taken to get
an accurate picture of the potential employee. Employees usually do not think of
leaving during their first six months. It is nevertheless important to see that their
orientation has ensured that they are clear about what is expected of them, that
they are able to use a variety of skills and that positive feedback will be given for
the job well done;

5. Provide good communication and co-ordination between units/departments by

holding regular weekly meetings. During working hours with unit, staff to discuss
changes in departmental policy, unit administration matters and listen to
employee's suggestions and try to put their ideas into practice;

6. Provide ample facilities for staff development and career advancement by

promoting professional employees from within the organization;

7. Improve the performance evaluation system in order to reward good performance

and assist employees whose performance is not very good. Maintain a spirit of
cooperation, teamwork and the supervisors must be considerate and responsible;

8. Try to make the employee's jobs as challenging and interesting as possible by

eliminating non duties as far as possible to lessen the amount of work pressure
for staff members. The ability to motivate employees is the key attribute to
effective management; and

9. Another effective approach to reduce the number of conflicts arising from staffing
and scheduling is to use participative management. Participative management
means including staff in decision-making. The managers should allow staff
members as a group to plan their own schedules. Staff members have some
creative ideas and when their ideas are implemented, staff members will be far
more committed to them and co-operative in keeping the unit adequately staffed
than they were under imposed routines.

The Outcome for Implementing the Guidelines are:

The above-mentioned interventions will result in the following:

• Improvement in staff levels and morale;
• Efficient team building among staff members.

Job Stress Management

The following strategies as suggested by (Wise, 1995: 511) can be implemented to

reduce on the-
job stress:
• Employees' assistance programmes should be developed for reducing stress
employees and supervisors;

• Formal discussion groups and consultants are additional ways to help staff
verbalize anxiety; seek help and advice from colleagues. Expert consultants in
psychology or stress management can be brought in to assist the staff in identifying
causes, solutions and effective strategies to reduce stress. An unbiased observer
can provide direction for the group.