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11/29/2018

Energy and Momentum


(Lecture in Physics for Engineering)

Reynold V. Luna
Physics Instructor, College of Science

GRASPS
Goal –
Role –
Audience –
Situation –
Product/ Performance –
Standard Content –

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Motivation
• What causes object to
change its state?
• What affects motion?

Overview of Dynamical Quantities


Conservation
Quantity Symbol Classification SI Unit Dimension
Law
No Conservation newton (N):
Force ⃗ Vector [ML]/[T2]
Law 1N = 1 kg·m/s2
Law of
Momentum ⃗ Vector Conservation of kg·m/s or N·s [ML]/[T]
Momentum
Law of joule (J):
Energy Scalar Conservation of 1 J = 1 N·m [ML2]/[T2]
Energy 1 J = 1 kg·m2/s2

where: M = mass; L = length; T = time

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Work, W
It is a scalar quantity done by force parallel to the displacement
covered by the object.
Work done by constant force:

= ⃗∙ ⃗= cos
where: = constant force in newton (N)
= displacement in meter (m)

= angle between and
SI unit is joule (J): 1 J = 1 N·m

Energy
Energy is a scalar quantity, a conserved extensive property of a
physical system, which cannot be observed directly but can be
calculated from its state. It is the capacity to change the state of
a system.

SI unit: joule (J): 1 J = 1 N·m


Gaussian unit: erg: 1 erg = 1 dyne·cm
Other unit: electron·volt (ev): 1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J

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Other units of Energy


calorie (cal): 1 cal = 4.186 J (Mechanical equivalent of heat)
1 cal = the heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 g of water by 1°C

Food calorie (Cal): 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 1 kcal = 4186 J


1 Cal = the heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C

Kinetic Energy, KE
It is the energy in moving matter and wave.

Some forms of kinetic energy:

motion: radiant sound thermal wave


1
KE =
2

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Potential Energy, PE
Energy in matter due to arrangements of its parts, its composition,
location and structure. It is commonly considered as a stored
energy having the potential to do mechanical work.
Some forms of potential energy:

gravitational: elastic:
PE = chemical 1 electrical nuclear
PE =
2

Work-Energy Theorem
A constant net force changes the velocity of an object and does
work on that object.
v2
v1
F F
m m
d

1 1
= − = KE − KE = ∆KE
2 2

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Sample Problems
1. A 260-g beach volleyball is spiked so that it acquires a speed
of 25 m/s. (a) What is its kinetic energy? (b) What was the
net work done on the ball to make it reach its speed, if it
started from rest?

2. How much net work is required to accelerate a 1000-kg car


from 15 m/s to 60 m/s?

Two types of forces


CONSERVATIVE FORCES DISSIPATIVE FORCES
• Forces that do both positive • Forces that only do negative
and negative work work
• Negative Work done → ∆PE • Negative Work done → heat
• Examples: • Examples:
– Gravity – Friction
– Elastic force (e.g. spring) – Viscosity
– Electrical force – Air drag

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Work done by gravity (a constant force)


y2

d h = vertical
) displacement
y1
= cos = cos 90° +
W=mg =− ℎ=− −
=− −
= − PE − PE = −∆PE

Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy


In this case, no dissipative (non-conservative) forces are present.
Thus, the work done by the net force is the same as the work
done by conservative force (e.g. gravity)
KE − KE = −PE + PE
KE + PE = KE + PE

Mechanical Energy, E = KE + PE
E =E

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Work done on spring (a varying force)

Work-energy theorem (all forces)

= ∆PE + ∆KE
Work done by Kinetic
potential energy
dissipative forces energy
from all
(always negative) conservative forces

Law of Conservation of Energy

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Sample Problems
1. Jane looking for Tarzan, is running at top speed (5.3 m/s) and
grabs a vine hanging vertically from a tall tree in the jungle.
How high can she swing upward?

2. A projectile is fired at an upward angle of 45.0° from the top


of a 265-m cliff with a speed of 185 m/s. What will be its
speed when it strikes the ground below?

Sample Problems
3. A ball of mass 100 g is thrown vertically upwards with a speed
of 15 m/s. What is the maximum height the ball reaches?

4. A stretched bow stores 64 J of elastic potential energy. The


bow fires an arrow of mass 20 g. Calculate the speed of the
arrow as it leaves the bow.

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A trolley is attached to a mass of 0.2 kg.


The 0.2 kg mass is allowed to fall to the
floor.
a) Calculate the gravitational potential
energy of the 0.2 kg when it is 0.9 m
above the ground.
b) State the kinetic energy of the 0.2 kg
mass and the trolley together, just
before the mass hits the ground.
c) Calculate the maximum speed of the
trolley, just as the mass hits the
floor.

Momentum,
It is a conserved vector quantity that keeps an
object in uniform motion.
It is defined as:
⃗= ⃗
where: Note:
= mass and ⃗ = velocity of the object [1] The SI unit of
momentum is kg·m/s.
The magnitude of the momentum:
= [2] An object which is
where: at rest ( = 0) has
= mass and = speed of the object
zero momentum!
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Impulse
It is the change of an object’s momentum.
It is defined as:
⃗= ⃗ − ⃗ = ∆⃗ = ∆

• Like momentum, impulse is


also a vector quantity.
• Its unit is the same with
momentum, kg·m/s or N·s.

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Impulse and Force


⃗ ⃗

⃗= Δ⃗ = ⃗ − ⃗ = ⃗= ⃗ =
⃗ ⃗

Recall: ⃗ = ⃗/
⃗= ⃗

For constant ⃗
⃗= ⃗ ∫ = ⃗ − = ⃗ Δ

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Law of Conservation of Momentum


When no external force acts on a system, the momenta
of the system before and after the internal interaction
are equal.

⃗ = ⃗

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Conditions:
Second Law of motion and momentum: ⃗ = ⃗/
No external force ⃗/ =0
Solving for the momentum of the system:
∫ ⃗ = ∫0
⃗=
Thus,
⃗ = ⃗
⃗ =
where:
= mass of the system
⃗ = velocity of the system before the interaction of its components
= velocity of the system after the interaction of its components
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Classification of Interactions
Explosion is the separation of a single object
into two or more fragments or a system into
its components.
ex: firing an arrow, throwing a ball, jumping into the air

Collision is the crashing or bumping (either


permanent or temporary) of two or more
objects into each other.
ex: hitting a ball, karate chopping a brick, punching a
bag. 25

Conservation of Momentum under


explosion

By law of conservation of momentum: ⃗ =


with ⃗ = 0 and = : 0 = +
Applying the signs for directions : 0=− +
Thus, =
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Sample Problem
An astronaut is floating in space near her shuttle when she realizes that the cord
that’s supposed to attach her to the ship has become disconnected. Her total
mass (body + suit + equipment) is 91 kg.
She reaches into her pocket, finds a
1 kg metal tool, and throws it out
into space with a velocity of 6 m/s
directly away from the ship. If the
ship is 10 m away, how long will it
take her to reach it?

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Types of Collision
Perfectly Inelastic (Coupled) Partly Elastic Perfectly Elastic (Rebound)

Billiard ball’s collision Newton’s cradle


Ballistic pendulum
• Kinetic energy is not • Some kinetic energy is • Kinetic energy is
conserved transformed conserved
• Objects stick together • Short period of bump • Bouncy and silent
• Creates distinct sound • Produces sound • Perpetual motion
• =0 • 0< <1 • =1
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Conservation of Linear Momentum


under Collision

By law of conservation of momentum:


⃑ =

With ⃑ = and = :

⃑ + ⃑ = +
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Head-on collision of two particles

⃗ ⃗

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Head-on Collision Analysis


Phase 1: Deformation Period
impulse for m1: ⃗d1= m1 – m1 ⃗ 1 (1)
⃗ ⃗
impulse for m2: ⃗d2= m2 – m2 ⃗ 2 = – ⃗d1 (2)

The relative velocity of approach from (1) and (2):


⃗ 2 – ⃗ 1 = ⃗ + =⃗ (3)

Head-on Collision Analysis


Phase 2: Restitution Period
impulse for m1: ⃗r1= m1 1 – m1 (4)

impulse for m2: ⃗r2= m2 2 – m2 = – ⃗r1 (5)

The relative velocity of separation from (4) and (5):

2 –
1 = –
⃗ + = −⃗ (6)

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Newton’s Collision Rule


Coefficient of Restitution
(Degree of Elasticity)
- It is the ratio of the impulse of
restitution and the impulse of
deformation.
- It is the negative ratio of relative
velocities of separation and approach.
⃗ −
= =−
⃗ ⃗ −⃗

Factors affecting the relationship between the impulse of deformation and


impulse of restitution: (1) geometry, (2) material properties, and (3) velocity.

e of Free-Falling Object and Floor


Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy:
=− 2
= 2

Coefficient of Restitution:

=− =
Figure: Free-fall

University of Virginia, Physics Department. (2003). The Energy of a Bouncing Ball. Retrieved from Galileo: A Supercomputer for Everyone:
http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/education/outreach/8thgradesol/EnergyBall.htm.

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Type Collision Equations Remarks


− 2
= ⃑ + ⃑
Perfectly + +
elastic 2 −
= ⃑ + ⃑
+ +
½m1 ⃑ 2 + ½m2 ⃑ 2 = ½m1 2 + ½m2 2 + Q
where: Q = net loss or gain in kinetic energy
Partly − 1+ Exoergic collision → +
elastic = ⃑ + ⃑ Endoergic collision → −
+ +
1+ −
= ⃑ + ⃑
+ +
= =
Perfectly The change in kinetic
⃑ + ⃑
inelastic = energy is zero.
+

Collision Problems
1. A 1.5-kg ball moving at 2.0 m/s to the right collides head on with a 1.0-kg
ball moving at 3.0 m/s to the left. The coefficient of restitution is 0.70. Find
the speed and direction of the balls after collision.
2. A 3.0-kg block moving to the right on a frictionless table at 4.0 m/s makes a
head-on collision with another 3-kg block moving 5 m/s to the left. Find the
final velocity of the blocks, if the collision is (a) perfectly elastic (b) perfectly
inelastic; and (c) if half the initial energy is dissipated in collision.

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Conservation of Energy Extended


Extended Kinetic Energy
1 1
= + = +
2 2
Extended Work-Energy Theorem
=∆ =∆ +∆
Extended Conservation of Energy
=∆ +∆ +∆
Extended Conservation of Mechanical Energy
, + , + = , + , +

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Conservation of Angular Momentum


When no external torque (moment of force) acts on a system

=
=
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Sample Problem
A wheel is rotating freely at rotational speed
800 rev/min on a shaft whose rotational
inertia is negligible. A second wheel, initially at
rest and with twice the rotational inertia of
the first, is suddenly coupled to the same
shaft.
(a) What is the rotational speed of the
resultant combination of the shaft and two
wheels?
(b) What fraction of the original rotational
kinetic energy is lost?

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References
1. Young, H. D., Freedman, R. A., Ford, A. L., & Sears, F. W.
(2016). Sears and Zemansky's University Physics: With
modern physics. San Francisco: Pearson Addison Wesley.
2. Gibilisco, Stan. Physics DeMYSTiFieD, Second Edition. US:
McGraw-Hill Professional, 2010.
3. Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. L. (1963). The
Feynman lectures on physics. Reading, Mass: Addison-
Wesley Pub. Co.
4. Serway, Raymond A. (2007). Essentials of college physics.
Belmont, Calif. ; [Toronto] :Thomson-Brooks/Cole
5. Giancoli, Douglas C. (2005) Physics: principles with
applications Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Prentice
Hall
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