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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

WASTE ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION STUDY (WACS) PLAN


for the Municipality of <Municipality>, <Province>

1. OBJECTIVES

Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS) data will provide basis for the
development and updating of the 10-year solid waste management plan of <Municipality>,
<Province>. As such, the objectives of this WACS plan are to:

 Determine the total amount of wastes generated in the LGU on a daily basis
 Determine the waste composition of the wastes generated

Furthermore, as part of the 10-year solid waste management plan, data generated during the
conduct of WACS may be utilized to:

 Determine the size, capacity and design of facilities to manage solid wastes
 Conduct feasibility studies on alternative technologies for municipal solid waste
management (MSW)
 Prepare inventory of greenhouse gases from MSW
 Evaluate waste components potential for recycling or composting
 Measure the effectiveness of waste reduction and recycling programs
 Determine the amount and methods for disposal of wastes
 Identify potential sources of environmental pollution in the waste stream

This sampling plan relies on the concept that more samples yield more accurate data
representation. However, it also considers resource requirements such as time, labor, and
associated costs in conducting the WACS.

2. WACS TEAM

The WACS Team will be responsible for the conduct of this activity. Figure 1 shows the
organizational structure of the WACS Team. Table 1 outlines the duties and responsibilities
of each member of the WACS Team (EcoGov Project, 2011).

Aside from the members of the WACS Team, resource persons or organizations will be tapped
to achieve the objectives of the WACS activity. Among the organizations that could provide
valuable information to the WACS team are the barangay officials, other offices of the
municipality, representatives from government agencies, and trade and industry associations.
Table 2 provides a list of these organizations and the information that they may provide for
the conduct of WACS.

The Sub-Teams will be composed of those in-charge of the sample households and non-
household waste generators. The Household Sub-Teams will handle WACS for households in
<number> barangays. Non-household Sub-Teams will be in-charged of WACS for industrial
and commercial establishments, institutions, and other waste sources.

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Figure 1. WACS Team organizational chart.


(Sample WACS Team chart for municipality with 12 Barangays)

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Table 1. Roles and Responsibilities of the WACS Team

Designation Key Functions


Team Leader  Coordinate with MENRO-designate and Solid Waste Management
Officers
 Lead the team in the preparation for and execution of WACS
 Establish link and communication with resource persons and
organizations
 Ensure that both cooperators and WACS team members are well
informed about their responsibilities and procedures that will be
followed
 Act as or designate Site Safety Officer during the WACS activity
 Ensure that sufficient copies of data forms are reproduced and
provided to sub-teams
 Ensure that the data forms to be submitted for processing are
complete
 Prepare the WACS report
Sub-Team Leader  Coordinate with WACS team leader
 Lead the sub-team in the preparation for and execution of WACS
 Establish link and communication with cooperators and focal persons
 Act as or coordinate with designated Site Safety Officer
 Ensure that cooperators, waste collection-in-charge, sorters and
weighers are well informed about their responsibilities and procedures
that will be followed
 Ensure that sufficient copies of data forms are available
 Ensure that all needed WACS tools and materials are available
 Ensure that data forms to be submitted for processing are complete
 Ensure that the site is cleaned after the sorting activity and that all
sorting tools are accounted for at the end of each day
Logistics-in-Charge  Provide the needed WACS tools and materials, and ensure the proper
distribution to team or sub-team coordinators
 Help identify the appropriate sorting areas and ensure that the areas
are in order prior to actual sorting activity
 Assist in coordinating with authorities or focal persons
 Secure appropriate waste collection vehicles (as needed)
 Ensure the presence of first aider at the sorting site and establish a
procedure in dealing with accidents and other health-related cases
 Ensure that the WACS team is provided with clean water supply and
food
Data Processor  Prepare the needed WACS sample worksheets
 Conduct processing of data based on generated summary tables
 Clarify with data encoder any potential issues on data generated
 Discuss with Team Leader and Sub-Team Leaders the outputs of the
study
Data Encoder  Assist the data processor in the preparation of needed WACS sample
worksheets
 Collect completed field data entry forms daily and maintain a record of
collected forms during the study period
 Clarify accuracy of handwritten notes with recorders
 Encode data from individual data entry form into the Excel worksheets

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Designation Key Functions


Waste Collection-  Assist Sub-Team Leader in preparing for waste collection and disposal
in-charge plan
 Ensure that collection vehicle is in good running condition for the
duration of the study
 Ensure that the collection of sample waste from the generator is done
efficiently
 Ensure that all wastes at WACS site are properly disposed of at the end
of each day
Sorters  Ensure that the sorting areas are in order before starting any work
 Ensure that the segregation of waste is done properly
 Orient other persons involved in the sorting activity on proper waste
segregation
 Ensure that at the end of the sorting activity, sorted wastes are
brought to the designated area for proper disposal
 Help in the cleaning of sorting area and WACS tools
 Keep all the sorting tools in the proper storage area
Scalers  Provide consistent reading of weights and estimation of volume of
different waste materials
 Work closely with recorder to make sure that data recorded are
accurate
Recorders  Ensure that data recorded are accurate and clearly written
 Ensure that all data entry forms are submitted to Sub-Team Leaders at
the end of each day
Site Safety Officer  Ensure that all WACS Team members are provided with information
and training on WACS prior to actual waste characterization activity
 Ensure a safe and secured workplace for waste characterization
activity
 Ensure that the WACS Team members are provided with personal
protective equipment (PPE) and that PPE are properly use throughout
the actual waste characterization activity
First aider  Provide immediate assistance to WACS Team members in cases of
accidents or injuries during the actual conduct of WACS

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Table 2. Collaborating agencies and the information or assistance they can provide for the
WACS activity

COLLABORATING ROLES
OFFICES/AGENCIES
1. Barangay officials • Provide data on population, households,
establishments, and institutions
• Provide spot map and assist in identifying cooperators
• Provide vehicles (if available)
• Assist in coordination with authorities
• Assign staff to help in the WACS activity
2. Business Permits and Licensing • Provide the number and list of registered
Office establishments
3. Market administrator • Provide information on the schedule of waste
collection
• Assist in the coordination of waste collection and
characterization in the market
4. Municipal Tourism Office • Provide data on hotel list, occupancy, and size
5. Tourist Associations/ • Assist in identifying cooperators in the tourism industry
Organizations
6. DepED, CHED • Provide list of schools, and number of students and
employees
7. Municipal Planning and • Provide maps and other data on Institutional Offices
Development Office
8. Municipal Health Office • Provide data on list of hospitals, clinics and health
centers
9. Municipal Agricultural Office • Provide data related to agricultural industries
10. MENRO-DENR, EMB-DENR • Technical assistance
11. DOST-PSTC, DOST-REGION, • Technical assistance
DOST-ITDI

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

3. DESCRIPTION of SAMPLING AREA

<Municipality name> is a <class level> Municipality and composed of <total number>


barangays. These include <number> urban barangays, <number> rural barangays in the main
land and <number> island rural barangays. Table 3 shows the names of these barangays and
the <year> population and households.

Solid waste management facilities in <Municipality> include <mention existing SWM facilities
and their location, e.g. Materials Recovery Facilities, sanitary landfill, residual containment
area, etc.>. Figure 2 shows the map of <Municipality> showing the barangay boundaries and
solid waste management facilities.

Table 3. Number of Population and Households per Barangay (reference source, year)
(Edit the table; List the names of barangays, population, and household number)

Name of Barangay Population Number of Households


Urban Barangays
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12

Rural Barangays (mainland)


13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18
19.

Rural Barangays (Island)


20.
21.
22.
23.
TOTAL

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

<Briefly describe the major establishments or sectors in the municipality. Also mention the
major crops cultivated and land area covered. > Table 4 shows the list of establishments,
institutions, and other waste generators in <name of municipality> (reference source, year).

Table 4. List of Establishment and Institutions

Category Subcategory Types (Example only. Number List


Remove items from list if
not applicable)
Commercial General Malls/department stores
merchandise Grocery stores
Hardware stores
Other stores:
Food Restaurants
establishments Carinderias
Food stalls
Hotels Hotels
Hostels/inns
Dorm/guest lodge
Others
Market Main public market
Satellite public markets
(with structure)
Talipapa (open market)
Industrial Manufacturing Food manufacturers
Beverage industries
Furniture & fixture
Rubber & Plastic products
Petroleum & other fuel
products
Textile manufacturers
Footwear, leather &
leather products
Printing & publishing
Fabricated metal products
Wearing apparel
Paper & paper products
Machinery & equipment
Transport equipment
Chemical & chemical
products
Metal industries
Non-metallic mineral
products
Miscellaneous
manufacturers

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Agribusiness Agriculture (crop, livestock,


poultry)
Fishery
Forestry
Services Transport storage &
communication
Trade & repair of motor
vehicles & household
goods
Financial intermediation
Real estate renting &
business activity
Other services
Institutional Offices Government Offices
Private Offices
Banks
NGOs, NGAs
Schools Day care centers
Elementary schools
High schools
Colleges/universities
Parks Recreational centers
Parks
Cemeteries
Churches
Health-related Hospitals, Clinics
Others Street sweepings

Dredged
materials from
rivers
Construction
and demolition
wastes

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Figure 2. Municipality map showing barangay boundaries and existing solid waste
management facilities

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

4. SELECTION and DESCRIPTION of SAMPLING POINTS

4.1. Selection of household samples


The household sample size (n) for the entire municipality was determined using the Standard
formula:

𝑧 2 × 𝑃(1 − 𝑃)
𝑛= 𝑒2
𝑧 2 × 𝑃(1 − 𝑃)
1+( )
𝑒 2𝑁

Where n = household sample size of the Municipality


N = total number of households in the Municipality
z = z-value at 95% level of confidence = 1.96
P = standard deviation = 0.2
e = margin of error = 0.05

Since the total number of households in <Municipality> for <year> is <total household
number>, the sample size, n, is equivalent to <sample size> households. To get the number
of households per barangay, the total number of sample size is distributed proportionally
according to the size of households per barangay. This was determined using the following
formula:

𝑁𝐵𝑥
𝑛𝐵𝑥 = 𝑛 x
𝑁

Where nBx = household sample size for Barangay X


n = household sample size in Municipality
NBx = number of households in Barangay X
N = total number of households in Municipality

Applying the above formula to the different barangays in <Municipality>, the household
sample size per barangay is shown in Table 5.

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Table 5. Number of household samples per Barangay (edit the table based on the actual
number of barangays in the municipality)

Number of Sample Size


Barangay Population Households
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
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TOTAL

<If clustering will be done due to resource and time constraints, discuss which barangays will
be clustered and the basis of clustering, e.g. similar social, economic and demographic
features.>

Potential sample households (or cooperators) will be selected using systematic method with
the following formula:

Periodic interval = HH
n

where HH = total number of households


n = household sample size

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Based from the above formula, every <number of intervalth> household will be selected as
the cooperator in the conduct of WACS. In case the <number of intervalth> household is not
available or unwilling to cooperate, household prior to it (prior numberth) will be considered
as the replacement. The complete list of households per barangay will be obtained from
<source of household list>.

Sample computation was done automatically using the Excel worksheet provided by ITDI-
DOST (Annex A). Preparation of barangay worksheets for sample households, as well as
Municipality summary worksheet, was done following the instructions given by ITDI-DOST
(Annex B).

4.2. Selection of non-household samples


For computation of sample size for non-households, standard formula, as mentioned above,
was also used.

Commercial
<Describe the significant sources of commercial wastes in the municipality and the number
of samples for WACS activity. Mention if stratification will be done for a particular type of
commercial establishment.>

Industrial
<Describe the significant sources of industrial wastes in the municipality and the number of
samples for WACS activity. Mention if stratification will be done for a particular type of
industrial establishment.>

Institutions
<Describe the significant sources of institutional wastes and the number of samples for WACS
activity. Mention if stratification will be done for a particular type of institution.>

Other sources
<Describe other waste sources and number of samples. Mention if stratification will be done
for a particular source.>

Table 6 shows the list of non-household waste generators that will be included in the WACS
activity. To facilitate the participation of cooperators, a letter from the Mayor (Annex C), will
be sent to each cooperator.

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Table 7. Number and List of Sample Establishments and Institutions

Category Subcategory Types (Example only. Remove Number List Sample


items from list if not applicable) size
Commercial General Malls/department stores
merchandise Grocery stores
Hardware stores
Other stores:
Food Restaurants
establishments Carinderias
Food stalls
Hotels Hotels
Hostels/inns
Dorm/guest lodge
Others
Market Main public market
Satellite public markets
(with structure)
Talipapa (open market)
Industrial Manufacturing Food manufacturers
Beverage industries
Furniture & fixture
Rubber & Plastic products
Petroleum & other fuel
products
Textile manufacturers
Footwear, leather &
leather products
Printing & publishing
Fabricated metal products
Wearing apparel
Paper & paper products
Machinery & equipment
Transport equipment
Chemical & chemical
products
Metal industries
Non-metallic mineral
products
Miscellaneous
manufacturers
Agribusiness Agriculture (crop,
livestock, poultry)
Fishery
Forestry

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Services Transport storage &


communication
Trade & repair of motor
vehicles & household
goods
Financial intermediation
Real estate renting &
business activity
Other services
Institutional Offices Government Offices
Private Offices
Banks
NGOs, NGAs
Schools Day care centers
Elementary schools
High schools
Colleges/universities
Parks Recreational centers
Parks
Cemeteries
Churches
Health-related Hospitals, Clinics
Others Street
sweepings
Dredged
materials from
rivers
Construction
and
demolition
wastes

5. WASTE COLLECTION PROCEDURES

Prior to actual WACS, needed materials and tools (Annex D) were prepared and provided to
WACS team. WACS tools and materials mainly composed of personal protective gears,
emergency equipment, waste sorting tools, cleaning tools, and documentation materials.

Waste collection procedures will be based on Section 21 of RA 9003, i.e. mandatory


segregation of solid wastes at source. Identified cooperators in the WACS will be encouraged
to segregate their wastes into biodegradable, recyclable, residual, and special (NSWM, RA
9003).

Sample households shall be provided with four (4) distinct containers or bags, each
representing the waste components (biodegradable, recyclable, residual, and special).
Cooperators will be oriented on their roles and responsibilities, particularly on what wastes

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

should be placed inside the appropriate container. Moreover, they will be instructed NOT to:
1) mix wastes from other waste sources, other than their own generated wastes, 2) conduct
general cleaning, and 3) divert any recyclables from the waste sample. Each sample household
will be given an informed consent for them to sign. The content of informed consent will be
explained during the WACS orientation. Annex E shows the WACS participant informed
consent form.

Cooperators from non-household waste generators will also be oriented on their roles and
responsibilities. They will be instructed to segregate their own wastes daily for the whole
WACS activity and if possible, provide the needed data for each waste component.

Wastes from public market, and other public areas, if mixed, will be subjected to coning and
quartering (ASTM D5231-92). Representative wastes shall then be subjected to physical
sorting and determination of bulk density (ASTM E1109-18). Annex F provides the procedures
for coning and quartering, and bulk density. The volume of wastes in garbage trucks will also
be measured in cubic meters.

WACS will be done for <number of days> days. Wastes from cooperators will be collected
daily during the WACS period, i.e. <specify the dates and days>.

6. WASTE HANDLING PROCEDURES

All samples will be weighed and recorded in kilograms (kg) up to 1/10th decimal (0.0) place.
Bulk density will be expressed in kg per cubic metre (kg/m3). Waste sorters will ensure that
wastes are classified accordingly to component type, i.e. biodegradable, recyclable, residual,
and special. Annex G shows the waste component categories and subcategories.

In determining the net weight of sample wastes, tare weights of each container will be
deducted from the gross weight (weight of waste and container). Tare weights of containers
will be recorded and written in non-erasable ink on a masking tape and attached to that
container. Recorders and scalers will be guided accordingly to avoid mistake of recording the
wrong weight.

At the end of each sampling day, all wastes will be disposed of properly. WACS sorting site
will be cleaned well, and tools will be kept in proper storage area.

7. HEALTH and SAFETY

The handling of municipal solid wastes poses potential health and safety issues. As such, it is
important that all personnel, including cooperators, should be familiar with the hazards of
solid wastes. Annex H lists the health and safety guidelines in the conduct of WACS (DENR
and ADB, 2003).

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8. RECORD KEEPING and REPORTING PROCEDURES

Raw data collected during the WACS activity will be recorded in the appropriate data sheets
(Annex I). Raw data will, in turn, be encoded into the Excel file provided for by DOST. The
following parameters will be obtained after data processing: per capita waste generation,
total waste generation per day, waste component generation per day, percent composition
of solid waste, and bulk density of waste.

9. SCHEDULE of ACTIVITIES
Sample schedule. Edit the months and activities as needed

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

10. LINE-ITEM-BUDGET

LINE ITEM COST (PhP)


1. Personal Services
2. Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses
2.1. Supplies and materials
2.2. Traveling costs
2.3. Printing expenses
2.4. Representation expenses
2.5. Other MOOE
3. Capital Outlay
TOTAL

11. REFERENCES

ASTM D5231-92(2016), Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of


Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016,
www.astm.org

ASTM E1109-18, Standard Test Method for Determining the Bulk Density of Solid Waste
Fractions, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

DENR and ADB. 2003. Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS). Report No: 3. ADB
TA 3848-PHI: Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project. AEA Technology

EcoGov Project 2011. Waste Analysis and Characterization Study – A Manual. Philippine
Environmental Governance Project, Pasig City, Philippines

National Solid Waste Management Commission (n.d.). Republic Act 9003 and its
Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR): The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of
2000.

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX A

Sample Size Computation

1. open the provided ‘sample size computation WORKSHEET‘


2. in the ‘sample distribution’ sheet, input the following information in the appropriate cells:
MUNICIPALITY, TOTAL POPULATION, TOTAL NO. OF BARANGAYS,
TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS, TOTAL WACS DAYS
3. input the names of barangays, population in each barangay, and no. of households per barangay

4. if needed, add household number by inserting row(s) above the ‘TOTAL’ row
5. for each inserted row, copy the formula of sample size cell from any of the existing cells

6. go to ‘standard formula’ sheet


7. edit the margin of error (e) if needed, i.e. whether 5% or 10% margin of error
8. see the ‘sample distribution’ sheet for the sample size of each barangay
9. based from the sample size data of each barangay,
prepare the sample households worksheet per barangay

10. indicate the source of population and households’ data, e.g. Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015

Sample distribution SHEET

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX B

Worksheet Preparation for Household Samples

A. WORKSHEET PREPARATION for BARANGAY 1


1. check the list of sample households per barangay
2. initially, prepare worksheet for barangay with the highest number of households
3. copy the ‘sample barangay worksheet ‘(PRINTOUT)
4. enter information for the following:
Municipality name, Barangay name, Barangay population, No. of households
Total WACS day
5. in ‘TOTAL’ column, AUTOSUM 1st row cell from biodegradable to special.
6. AUTOSUM the other rows by dragging the first autosum result up to the last household.
7. AUTOSUM all the columns: size, biodegradable, recyclable, residual, special, and total
8. rename the worksheet as ‘DAY 1’
9. color the background of cells,
e.g. green –needs input; yellow –for formula, link cells, or with auto-results
10. prepare DAY 2 sheet by copying DAY 1 sheet. Rename the new sheet as DAY 2.

11. go to DAY 2 sheet


12. link the following DAY 1 info to DAY 2 sheet.
municipality, barangay, barangay population, no. of households, household names, size
13. color the background of linked cells to yellow

14. prepare DAY 3 sheet by copying DAY 2 sheet. Rename the new sheet as DAY 3.
15. if WACS duration is more than 3 days, just prepare other WACS day sheets
by copying DAY 3 sheet.
16. prepare SUMMARY sheet by copying DAY 3 sheet. Rename the new sheet as SUMMARY.

17. go to SUMMARY sheet


18. see the sample ‘barangay summary sheet‘ (PRINTOUT)
19. link each waste component data from first to last day worksheet in the SUMMARY sheet
20. go to biodegradable cell and input the following: (e.g. for 3-d WACS)
=day1 biodegradable + day2 biodegradable + day3 biodegradable
21. copy biodegradable formula for recyclable, residual, and special rows
22. copy the first row formula (biodegradable, recyclable, residual, special) by dragging
up to the last household row.

23. prepare the summary table at the bottom part (see PRINTOUT)
24. for barangay waste composition (%), the formula is
=total waste component/total waste generation x 100
Example: for Biodegradable:
=total biodegradable/total waste generation, enter;
add $ sign in waste generation, enter
(adding $ sign means the value is constant; or use F4 as shortcut)
25. copy biodegradable formula by dragging in recyclable, residual, and special row
26. AUTOSUM row of biodegradable, recyclable, residual, and special (total should be 100%)

27. for barangay per capita waste generation (kg/p/d), the formula is
=total waste component/total sample size/total WACS day
Example: for Biodegradable:

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

=total biodegradable/total sample size/total WACS day; enter


add $ sign in total sample size and WACS day values, enter
28. copy biodegradable formula by dragging in recyclable, residual, and special row
29. AUTOSUM row of biodegradable, recyclable, residual, and special

30. for barangay total waste generation (kg/d), the formula is


=per capita of each waste component * total population
Example for Biodegradable:
=per capita of biodegradable * total population; enter
add $ sign in total population; enter
31. copy biodegradable formula by dragging in recyclable, residual, and special cells
32. AUTOSUM row of biodegradable, recyclable, residual, and special
33. color the background of cells if needed; save file; close the file.
34. create a separate worksheet file for the next barangay with the highest number of households

B. WORKSHEET PREPARATION for BARANGAY 2 and OTHER BARANGAYS


1. copy worksheet file of ‘barangay 1’
2. delete excess rows for households
3. save file. Close the file
4. create worksheets for the other barangays by doing no. 1 to 3.

C. WORKSHEET PREPARATION for MUNICIPALITY SUMMARY


1. copy the sample ‘municipality summary worksheet’ (PRINTOUT)
2. link the following information from ‘sample size worksheet file’:
municipality, total population, total no. of barangays, total no. of households,
name of barangays, population of each barangay
3. open all the created barangay worksheet files -summary sheet
4. link the ‘barangay total waste generation (kg/d)’ of each waste component (biodegradable,
recyclable, residual, and special waste) per barangay (from the summary sheet)
5. AUTOSUM biodegradable to special waste row of each barangay
6. AUTOSUM all columns

7. for LGU waste composition (%), the formula is…


=total waste component/total waste generation x 100
Example: for Biodegradable:
=total biodegradable/total waste generation, enter;
add $ in total waste generation; enter
8. copy formula from biodegradable by dragging row until special waste
9. AUTOSUM each ‘TOTAL’ row (biodegradable, recyclable, residual, special); answer should be 100%

10. for LGU per capita (kg/p/d), the formula is…


=total waste component/total population;
Example: for Biodegradable:
=total biodegradable in kg per day/total population; enter
add $ in 'total population'; enter
11. copy formula from biodegradable by dragging row until special waste

12. for LGU waste generation (tons/day), the formula is…


=total waste component/1000

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

13. copy formula from biodegradable by dragging row until special waste

14. for LGU waste generation (tons/year), the formula is…


=total waste component in tons per day * 365 days
15. copy formula from biodegradable by dragging row until special waste

BARANGAY WORKSHEET

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

SUMMARY SHEET of BARANGAY

MUNICIPALITY SUMMARY WORKSHEET

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ANNEX C

Sample Letter for Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS)

Date

(Name of Barangay official or Establishment owner)


(Designation)
(Address)

Dear ___________:

We would like to inform you that our Solid Waste Management Office will be conducting
Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS) on _____ to _____, <year>. The objectives
of WACS are to determine 1) the total amount of wastes generated in <Municipality> per day,
and 2) the composition of generated wastes. WACS data will serve as the basis for updating
the 10-year Solid Waste Management Plan of <Municipality>.

In this connection, we would like to request your full cooperation and assistance during our
waste characterization study. We would appreciate it very much if you would assign
representative(s) from your office for the said activity. For inquiries, you can contact
________________ at <contact number>.

Thank you very much.

Very truly yours,

<Mayor’s name>
Mayor
<Municipality>

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX D

WACS Tools and Materials

WACS for Households


No. Materials Description Quantity
1 Weighing scale 20-30 kg max 1 pc per sub-team
Preferably digital, 2 decimal places
2 Sorting containers Garbage bags or sando bags 1 set/household/day
4 different colors (1 set):
preferably green, red, blue, black
Size: Small or medium
3 Marking pens 2 pcs per sub-team
4 Masking tape 3-4 pcs per sub-team
5 Scissors 1-2 pcs per sub-team
6 Cutter 1 pc per sub-team
7 Ball pen and pencil 2 sets per sub-team
8 Clipboard or folder 2 pcs per sub-team
9 Rubber gloves Latex, disposable 1 box per sub-team
Face masks Disposable, non-woven, 3 ply with 1 box per sub-team
10
ear loop
Working clothes long sleeves (or arm cloth) and full- Provide all sub-team members
11
length pants
12 Reflectorized vest Provide all sub-team members
13 Rubber boots or closed shoes Provide all sub-team members
14 Alcohol 70% solution, disinfectant 1 bot per sub-team
15 First aid kit 1 set per sub-team
16 Camera or use mobile phone camera 1 unit per sub-team
17 Rain coat As needed
For household waste component
18 Data entry sheets
per barangay
19 Laptop or desktop For encoding of raw data 1 unit per sub-team

24
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

WACS for Non-households (for mixed wastes)


No. Materials Description Quantity
(per establishment or institution)
1 Weighing scale 50-60 kg capacity, flat-type, 0.1-
kg increment; mechanical or 1 pc
digital
2 Sorting containers 6-8 bins or
Waste bins or
2-3 packs garbage bags
Garbage bags, XL or XXL
(20 pcs/pack)
3 Container for bulk
24 x 24 x 24 inches
density (see sketch
Non-absorbent to moisture 1 pc
below)
With handle
4 Shovel with long handle preferably wide-mouth shovels 2-3 pcs
with long handle
5 Tongs 8-10 pcs
stainless steel
6 Measuring tape Preferably with lock 1 pc
Broom stick and dust
7 1 set
pan
8 Marking pen 2-3 pcs
9 Ball pen and pencil 2 sets
10 Clipboard or folder 2 pcs
11 Masking tape 1-2 pcs
12 Scissors 1-2 pcs
13 Cutter 1-2 pcs
Working clothes long sleeves (or arm cloth) and Provide all members
14
full-length pants
15 Rubber boots or closed shoes Provide all members
16 Rubber gloves Latex, disposable 2 boxes
Face masks Disposable, non-woven, 3 ply 2 boxes
17
with ear loop
18 Hand soap Antibac hand soap 1 pc
19 Alcohol 70% solution, disinfectant 1 bot
20 First aid kit 1 set
For waste component & bulk
21 Data entry sheets Per establishment or institution
density
22 Laptop or desktop 1 unit

SITE REQUIREMENT
23 Shaded area or provide 2 - 3 tents as shade
Durable plastic sheeting 4 x 8 ft or bigger
24
or used tarpaulin For floor cover
25 Water supply For washing/cleaning

25
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

Bulk Density box:

26
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX E

WACS Participant Informed Consent Form

I have read and understand the information about the Waste Analysis Characterization Study to be
conducted in ___________________________________________ from ____________________ and
I have been given the opportunity to ask questions about it and all my questions have been answered
to my satisfaction.

I understand that all personal data collected will remain confidential and that any resulting publication
will maintain my anonymity.

I understand that I will be given a copy of this form, and the WACS team will keep another copy on
file.

My participation is completely voluntary and there is no cost or compensation associated with my


participation in this study.

I, along with the WACS member, agree to sign and date this informed consent form.

Print Name of Participant_____________________


Signature of Participant ______________________
Date _____________________________________
Day/month/year

Print Name of WACS member__________________


Signature of WACS member ___________________
Date ______________________________________
Day/month/year

[If the participant is illiterate 1]

I have witnessed the accurate reading of the consent form to the potential participant, and the
individual has had the opportunity to ask questions. I confirm that the individual has given consent
freely.

Print name of witness______________________


Signature of witness _______________________
Date ___________________________________
Day/month/year

1A literate witness must sign (if possible, this person should be selected by the participant and should have no connection
to the research team).

27
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX F

Coning and Quartering

Based from ASTM D5231-92(2016), Standard Test Method for Determination of the
Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste, ASTM International, West Conshohocken,
PA, 2016, www.astm.org

1. Collect representative samples (from garbage trucks)


1.1. Unload the waste materials in one pile on a clean surface.
1.2. Get representative sample (approximately 500 kg) at one entire side
of the discharged load.

2. Do coning and quartering


2.1. Open all waste bags and mix the materials well.
2.2. Make a cone and divide the wastes into four quarters.
2.3. Randomly select one quarter for sorting.
Desired or recommended weight for sorting is about 100-150 kg.
2.4. Use the remaining quarters for bulk density determination (see procedure below).

3. Sort waste into each component categories


3.1. Sort waste according to major categories or subcategories.
3.2. Weigh and record each component waste in the data sheet.
3.3. After the sorting activity, clean all tools and WACS area.

Bulk Density Determination


Based from ASTM E1109-18, Standard Test Method for Determining the Bulk Density of Solid
Waste Fractions, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

1. Record the volume and weight of the empty container


1.1. Measure the volume (length, width, height) of the bulk density box in cubic meter.
1.2. Weigh the empty box (in kg) and record in the data sheet.

2. Fill the container with representative waste samples to slightly above the rim level.
2.1. Avoid compaction, segregation and loss of fine materials.

3. Tamp the container three times by lifting it 6 cm above the ground and dropping squarely.
4. Weigh the filled container and record in the data sheet.
5. Remove the waste materials from the container.

6. Repeat the procedure using another batch of waste materials.


7. Report the bulk density (kg/cu m) as the average of two determinations.

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WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX G

Waste Component Categories

29
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX H

Health and Safety Guidelines

1. All team members should have attended the WACS orientation/training prior to actual
conduct of WACS. All members should be familiar with the potential health hazards during
WACS activity.
2. All members should wear proper personal protective gears throughout the duration of
WACS activity. The following work attire is mandatory: long sleeve shirt, full length pants,
boots or safety shoes, gloves, and masks. The following attire is strongly recommended
and may be required depending on site conditions: eye protection, hard hats, and safety
vests.
3. Pregnant women and those with open wounds should not be allowed to participate in
WACS activities. Likewise, those under the influence of intoxicants, narcotics, or
controlled substances are prohibited to join the activity.
4. Smoking, drinking, or eating is only allowed in designated area. Avoid any practice that
may increase the probability of hand-to-mouth transfer and ingestion of waste materials.
5. Proper care must be taken to avoid contact with hazardous or contaminated or potentially
contaminated substances. Report all suspicious or potentially dangerous wastes to the
team leader prior to handling or sorting.
6. Stay within the designated work site. Always ask permission to the WACS coordinator or
team leader before leaving the site.
7. All injuries must be reported directly to the first-aider or safety officer for proper
emergency procedures.
8. Always use tongs during waste sorting. Never dig into the pile with your hands.
9. The following equipment should be available during the sorting activity: first aid kit, fire
extinguisher.

Reference:
DENR and ADB. 2003. Waste Analysis and Characterization Study (WACS). Report No: 3. ADB
TA 3848-PHI: Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project. AEA Technology.

30
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

ANNEX I

Raw Data Sheets

1. Waste Component Data Sheet for Households

31
WACS Plan for <Municipality, Year>

2. Waste Component Data Sheet for Non-Households

32