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I. Define social processes and explain their characteristics.

Social processes are defined to be simply the various modes of social interaction. Following
are the characteristics of social processes:
 Universal
 Personal or Impersonal
 Continuous
 Occur between at least 2 individuals
 Voluntary or Involuntary
 Caused by Contact
 Culminate in social effects
II. Explain any two types of social processes.
i. Cooperation
Cooperation refers to the synchronised and harmonious configuration of actions
between individuals to attain a common goal in more-or-less an organised fashion.
Cooperation is the most pervasive of all social processes. It is derived from two Latin
words, co meaning together, and operari, meaning to work. So, cooperation would
simply mean “working together”. An example of this process would be a group of
engineers building a tall skyscraper (constructive/integrative) or a group of terrorists
wreaking havoc in a city (destructive/disintegrative).
Following are the characteristics of cooperation:
 Common Goal
 Shared Reward
 Common Ideology
 Impersonal/Personal
 Voluntary/Involuntary
 Constructive/Destructive
ii. Conflict
Conflict refers to the (often physical or violent) opposition by a group of individuals
against another with regards to a particular reason or topic of controversy, where each
faction tries to prove its supremacy.
Conflict is said to be the antithesis to cooperation. Where cooperation is thought to be
largely constructive, conflict is thought to be mostly (except some reformative cases)
destructive. It is mainly fuelled by the ego of the competing factions, where either one or
both of the competitors feel that their ideologies and style of thinking is supreme and
faultless. For example, during the reformative age of India, the orthodox church and
clergy believed that women must never hold places of power, while the social reformers
begged to differ and preached for an equal status to both the genders. This egalitarian
ideology was seen as unecclesiastical and blasphemous by many of the orthodoxy, and
so a conflict was sparked between the two.
Following are the characteristics of Conflict:
 Voluntary
 Universal
 Usually Destructive/Disintegrative
 Leads to divisions in the society
 Latent or Overt
 Aimed at people, i.e. personal
 Conditioned by Culture
III. Explain characteristics of
a. Cooperation
Following are the characteristics of Cooperation:
 Common Goal
 Shared Reward
 Common Ideology
 Impersonal/Personal
 Voluntary/Involuntary
 Constructive/Destructive

b. Conflict
Following are the characteristics of Conflict:

 Voluntary
 Universal
 Usually Destructive/Disintegrative
 Leads to divisions in the society
 Latent or Overt
 Aimed at people, i.e. personal
 Conditioned by Culture

c. Accommodation
Following are the characteristics of Accommodation:

 Natural (since conflict are not eternal)


 Respected by either side
 Organisational / Formally put down in forms of MoUs, treaties etc.
 Experiences mixed feeling from either side
 Results in group cohesion

Assimilation

Following are the characteristics of Assimilation:

 Natural
 Lead to social integration and solidarity
 Gradual process
 Two way process
 Fusion of two groups

And also briefly mention their types.

a) Cooperation:

 Primary
 Secondary
 Tertiary
 Indirect
 Direct
 Constructive
 Destructive

b) Conflict:
 War
 Factional Strife
 Litigation
 Idealistic conflicts

IV. Explain process of assimilation and accommodation.


i. Assimilation
Assimilation refers to the process wherein different individuals, having varied ideologies,
thinking, and backgrounds get inextricably absorbed (assimilated) into a mainstream society
such that both the society and the individual(s) retain their identity, or furthermore, fuse
them with each other, hence forming a sense of solidarity and integrity.
For example, Hellenistic rulers (Yavanas) from the northwest descending into India and being
assimilated into Hindu as well as Buddhist societies.
Following are the characteristics of Assimilation:
 Natural
 Lead to social integration and solidarity
 Gradual process
 Two way process
 Fusion of the concerned groups

ii.
V. What are social processes? Explain the levels of social interaction.
VI. Write a short note on:
a. Accommodation
b. Characteristics of Assimilation
c. Characteristics of Competition
VII. Define the process of socialisation. What are norms and values?
VIII. Define ‘Culture’ and explain its characteristics.
IX. Write a short note on:
a. Types of Culture
b. Components of Culture
X. Explain importance of Socialisation
XI. Write a note on
a. two agencies of socialisation
b. Definition and meaning of socialisation
c. Adult socialisation
d. Resocialisation