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Types of structural steel

Metals 1. Carbon Steel - has maximum amount of

manganese and silicon. Usually used as
- Metal comes from the word metallion which
structural steel members
means mine. In the late 1860’s the open hearth
2. Heat- treated construction steels – produced
steelmaking process was developed in Europe.
strongest general-use structural steel.
This provided another source of steel, one of
3. Heat – treated high strength carbon steels –
the most valuable and widely used construction
heat treating produce changes in the physical
material. Different kinds of metal came from
and mechanical properties.
iron are as a raw material and processed with
4. High-strength low-alloys steels – improved
various kinds of alloying elements.
mechanical properties and greater resistance to
Properties of Metal atmospheric corrosion.

Physical properties Stainless steel

- Density, specific heat, melting and boiling point, - Have outstanding corrosion and oxidation
thermal expansion and conductivity. resistance

Mechanical Properties Heat-resisting steel – maintain their basic mechanical

and physical properties despite of high temperature
- Strength, toughness, malleability, hardness,
ductility, elasticity, fatigue and creep Beam Structural steel products

Chemical Properties 1. Rolled structural steel shapes

2. Open web steel joints
- Oxidation, corrosion, flammability and toxicity - Lightweight, produce by welding structural steel
Ferrous Metals shapes such as angles and bars
3. Sheet steel products
- Ferrous metals are mainly composed of iron - Used for roofing, sliding, decking, and framing
and have magnetic properties system.
Cast Iron Examples : Light gauge steel framing systems.
Expand steel mesh
 White cast Irons 4. Welded wire fabric
- Hard and brittle, few applications for - Used to reinforce concrete slabs
construction 5. Reinforcing bars
 Malleable cast irons - Placed in concrete members to improve tensile
- Reheated white cast iron, has greater ductility strength of concrete
and used for hardware. 6. Fasteners
 Gray cast irons - Commonly used fastener include bolts, nails,
- Tougher and softer, used for casting, pipes, rivets and screws
ornament, railing and lamppost
Nonferrous Metals

These metals are those containing very little or no.

Steel iron. In other words, all metals other than iron and
steel are nonferrous
-Plain carbon steel that are alloys of iron and carbon
as less than 2% carbon. 1. Aluminum alloy
- Relatively soft and ductile and has tensile
Alloy Steel
strength of around 7000 psi
- Contain one or more alloying elements other
than carbon, generally manganese ad silicon.
 Wrought alloys - Mechanically worked
by process such as forging, drawing,
extruding or rolling to form steel sheet
material. Tensile Testing of Metal Samples
 Cast alloys - Used to produce a product
for which the molten metal is cast into Tensile strength, also known as Ultimate Tensile
the shape of the finished product. Strength (UTS), is the maximum tensile stress carried by
the specimen, defined as the maximum load divided by
Aluminum products: the original cross sectional area of the test sample.
Testing methods for tensile testing is based on ASTM
 Solfit
A370, ASTM B557, ASTM E8, ASTM E21, EN 2002-1 EN
 Fascia
1002-1 and ISO 6892-1
 Guffers
 Siding Corrosion Testing

ASTM’s corrosion and wear standards provide the

appropriate procedures for carrying out corrosion,
2. Copper – is nonmagnetic metal that has
wear, and abrasion test on specified metallic materials
excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. It
and alloys. These corrosion and wear standards are
is ductile and malleable and easily worked
useful to metallurgical companies, products
 High copper alloys – are wrought alloys
manufacturers and other users concerned with the
having specified copper contents from
specified materials in understanding the their wear and
96 to 99.3 percent copper
embrittlement behaviors. The standards used in this
 Brasses – are copper alloys with zinc as
testing is based on 875-15, G4-01(2014), G109-
the major alloying element
07(2013), G180-13 and G19811(2016)
 Bronzes - are copper alloys in which
neither nor zinc is used as the major Ultrasonic Testing (ASTM E213)
alloying element.
 Copper nickel zinc alloys – are referred The purpose of this practice is to outline a
to as silver nickels because of their procedure for detecting and locating significant
silver color. They have good electrical discontinuities such as pits, voids, Inclusions, cracks,
and mechanical properties and good splits, etc.., by the ultrasonic pulse reflection method.
corrosion resistance. This practice 2 covers a procedure for detecting
 Miscellaneous copper zinc alloys – are discontinuities in metal pipe and tubing during a
often referred to as manganese or volumetric examination using ultrasonic methods.
nickel bronzes. Typically, the major
alloying element is zinc, so they are
much like some of the brasses
3. Lead – is a soft, heavy metal that is easily
worked with good corrosion resistance. A
special feature is its ability to resist penetration
from radiation

Properties of Lead

 High density and weight

 Softness and malleability
 Low melting point
 Good electrical conductivity
 Low in strength and elasticity