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PHYSICS

MOST IMPORTANT

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

Written By RP Khadanga

ICSE Class 10

PHYSICS

MOST IMPORTANT

NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Exclusively targeted towards ICSE Class 10 Physics Board Exam revisions, this Exam18 book

includes most important numerical problems with solutions to help you understand

fundamentals of every unit as per the ICSE 2018-2019 syllabus.

Also recommended to prepare for class tests in school

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1IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Light

Important Formulas 03

2 Sound

Important Formulas 14

Points to Remember 17

3 Current Electricity

Important Formulas 32

Points to Remember 34

4 Electromagnetism

Important Formulas 68

5 Heat

Important Formulas 70

Points to Remember 71

2IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 1 – LIGHT

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Refractive index µ=

2) Refractive index µ=

3) Refractive index µ=

a𝜇 = (where ‘a’ is the rarer medium and ‘b’ is the denser medium)

b

i) Incident ray is parallel to emergent ray.

ii) Angle of incidence is equal to angle of emergence.

6) Refractive index a𝜇 b = where ‘a’ is medium (air), ‘b’ is any other denser medium and

‘c’ is the critical angle.

i + e = A + D or

i) Angle of incidence = Angle of emergence

I=e

r1 = r2

Size of image =

or =

3IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Magnification = 1 + (where ‘D’ is the least distance of distant vision and ‘f’ is focal

length of convex lens)

12) Power of Lens: The power of lens is the measure of convergence or divergence

produced by it.

P= ( )

= ( )

where, f = focal length and P = Power

4IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Water 1.33

Ruby 1.76

Alcohol 1.37

Diamond 2.42

Ice 1.31

5IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1) The angle of incidence in air for a ray of light is 45. If ray travels through water of

refractive index 4/3, find angle of refraction.

a𝜇 =

w

sin r = =

µ

= .

𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑟 = 0.5303

⸫ 𝑟 = (𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑟)-1 = 32 approx. [ANS]

2) The refractive index of a material is 1.4. If velocity of light in vacuum is 3 x 108 ms-1,

find the velocity of light in the material.

µ =

1.4 =

= = 2.14 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]

.

3) A glass block 2.4 cm thick is placed over a stamp. Calculate the heights through which

image of stamp is raised. Refractive index of glass is 1.5.

a𝜇 =

g

.

1.5 =

.

Apparent depth = .

= 1.6 cm

If refractive index of glass is 1.5, calculate the actual thickness of glass slab.

We know µ =

6IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

⇒ 1.5 =

.

𝑂𝑟 1.5𝑥 − 18 𝑚𝑚 = 𝑥

𝑂𝑟 1.5𝑥 − 𝑥 = 18 𝑚𝑚 = 18 𝑚𝑚

𝑥 = 36 𝑚𝑚 [ANS]

5) A rectangular tank 6 metre deep is full of water. By how much the bottom appears to

be raised, given refraction index of water = 𝟒/𝟑 ?

Apparent dept = 𝑥 metres

Let Refractive index 𝜇 =

Now 𝜇 =

=

Or 𝑥 = = 4.5 metres

Hence the distance by which bottom appears to be raised = 6 – 4.5 = 1.5 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒 [ANS]

𝟒

6) If the speed of light in vacuum is 3 x 108 ms-1and refractive index of water is 𝟑,

calculate the speed of light in water.

We know that

𝜇 =

.

=

⇒ Speed of light in water = 2.25 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]

7) A stamp collector uses a lens (convex) of focal length 7 cm to examine a stamp. What

is the power of lens?

8) A glass slab 2.5 cm thick is placed over a coin. If the refractive index of glass is 3/2,

find the height through which coin is raised.

𝜇=

Apparent depth =

7IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

.

= = 1.66 cm = 1.7 cm

.

9) A light of wave length 500 nm in air enters a glass place of refractive index 1.5.

Find its wave length in glass.

Refractive index = = 1.5

.

10) A 10 cm tall object is placed on the principal axis of a convex lens of focal length 20 cm

and at a distance of 10 cm from it. Find by accurate scale diagram, the position nature

and size of image.

Size of object = 10 cm = 1 cm

Size of image A1 B1 = 2 x 10 cm = 20 cm

Nature of Image is erect, virtual and enlarged. [ANS]

11) A 5 cm tall object is placed on the principal axis of diverging lens of focal length 15 cm

and at a distance of 10 cm from it. Find the nature, position and size of image.

8IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Size of object 5 cm = 1 cm

Distance:

On constructing ray diagram, it is found

Size of image = A1 B1 = 0.6 cm = 0.6 x 5 cm = 3.0 cm [ANS]

12) An object 6 cm high is placed at a distance of 18 cm from a convex lens of focal length

6 cm. Find by scale diagram:

(i) The Nature of Image

(ii) Position of Image

(iii) Size of Image

Scale 2 cm = 1 cm

cm

ii) Position is at 9 cm i.e. between F and 2F.

iii) Size of Image = A1B1 = 3 cm i.e. smaller in size. [ANS]

9IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

13) The refractive index of water with respect to air is a𝝁w and that of glass with respect to

air is a𝝁g. Express the refractive index g of glass with respect to water.

Let C1, C2 and C3 be the velocities of light in air, water and glass respectively. Then by

definition:

a𝜇 w = , w𝜇 g = , and a𝜇 g =

Here, a𝜇 w x w𝜇 g = x =

= a𝜇g

µ

⸫ w𝜇 g = [ANS]

µ

i.e. re = =

(3 x 108)

(2.25 x 108)

(1.24 x 108)

(1.96 x 108)

(1.33)

(2.42)

(1.31)

(24 )

10IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

23) Critical angle is the angle of _____________________ for which the angle of

__________________ is ________________.

(Incidence, refraction, 90 )

What is the refractive index of glass.

= 2 x 108 m/s

Refractive index of glass is

25) A ray of light passes through a right angled prism as shown in the figure. State the

angles of incidence at the faces AC and BC.

Angle of incidence at Face BC = 0

26)

11IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

27) Wavelength and frequency are given. Fill up the name of the wave.

Wave

(800 nm to 1 mm)

(1 mm to 10 m)

(> 10m)

(i) Gamma rays, (ii) X - rays (iii) Ultraviolet rays (iv) Visible light (v) Infrared waves

(vi) Microwaves (vii) radio waves

28) Give the colours and the range of the wavelengths constituting a visible spectrum.

The wavelength ranges for various colours of visible spectrum are given below:

Colour Wavelength in Å

12IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

(ii) Ultraviolet spectrum

(ii) 100 Å to 4000 Å

30) Give the approximate range of wavelengths in vacuum associated with UV rays and

visible light.

(ii) For visible light, the range is 4 x 10-7 to 8 x 10-7 m.

31) A TV station transmits waves of frequency 200 MHz. Calculate the wavelength of the

waves if their speed in air is 3.0 x 108 ms-1.

C = 3 x 108 ms-1

13IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 2 – SOUND

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Relation between speed of sound distance of reflection body from source of sound and time

for hearing echo

𝑉= Or d=

2) In RADAR system

The speed of radio waves is the same as that of light in vacuum.

3) The Frequency of a vibrating string depends upon the length of the string, tension in the

string and the mass per unit length of the strong.

𝐼

𝑓= 𝑚

T= tension in the string and

M = mass per unit length of string.

Weber-Fechner’s Law,

L X Log10 1, or

L = K log10 1, where ‘L’ is called sensation of loudness and I is the intensity of sound.

5) 𝑉 = 𝑓𝜆

Where f = n = frequency (Hz)

λ = wavelength (m)

6)

14IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

𝑓= Where ‘f’ is the frequency of tuning fork and ‘T’ is the Time of oscillation of

tuning fork in see.

9) Relation between frequency and density of stretched string, when all other variable are

constant.

√

𝐹× i.e. =

√ √

10) SONAR stands for sound Navigation and ranging. Sonar works on the Principle of echoes.

Depth of sea is calculated by this system using the formula.

𝑑 = 𝑉𝑡/2

11) The time taken to hear an echo can be given by the relation :

Speed of sound v

Here

t= time taken to hear an echo=01.s

d= distance between the listener and the surface of reflection of sound and

v= speed of sound = 340 ms’

2d= the distance covered by the sound to reach the reflection surface and to come back

2 2

T= 2d

v

12) Weber- Fechner’s law: Loudness of sound increases with the intensity of a sound according

to Weber –Fechner’s Law.

L = K log10 I

15IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Unit of sound is decibel.

● The unit of loudness is named after Scientist Alexander Graham Bell who invented the

telephone.

Where I is the intensity of sound and I0 is the zero level sound and it is equal to 10-12

Wm-1 at the frequency of 100 Hz.

● Any person who is constantly exposed to the sound level above 120 dB, complains of

headache and may suffer from loss of hearing.

● Examples of Harmful sounds: Thunder- 110dB, Pop Concert- 120 to 140 dB, Aeroplane

taking off – 130 to 140 dB.

16IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

POINTS TO REMEMBER

1. If a body vibrates more than 20 times and less than 20,000/ min we can hear it.

3. If the frequency of a sound is between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz then human can hear it.

7. Sound waves travel with a speed of 332 ms’ in air (340 ms’ taken generally).

● Unit of amplitude → metre

● Unit of velocity of wave → ms-1

● Unit of wavelength → metre

● Unit of time period → second (s)

● Unit of frequency → Hertz (Hz)

● Unit of loudness level → phon

● Velocity of electromagnetic wave → 3 X 108 ms -1 in vacuum.

1Hz = 1 Vibration

1KHz = 103 Hz

1MHz = 106 Hz

Angstrom unit (Å): The unit used to measure wavelength of electromagnetic spectrum is called

angstrom unit. One angstrom (1 Å) = 10-8 cm = 10−10 metre

i. Ultraviolet Rays - Range 100 Å

3900 Å

ii. X- Rays – 100 Å to 10-2 Å

iii. Gamma Rays – 10-2 Å to 10-3 Å

The range of electromagnetic waves which cause sensation of sight is 7800 Å to 3900 Å.

17IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Radio waves 1 Km or 1013 Å

Television waves 1 m or 1010 Å

Microwaves 1 cm or 108 Å

Infra-Red 107 Å

Visible light 8000 Å

Ultraviolet 4000 Å

X - Rays 100 Å

10-2 Å

Y- Rays 10-3 Å

Secondary cosmic Rays 10-4 Å

Sr.no Wavelength range (app) Colour

1 8000 Å to 6200 Å Red

2 6200 Å to 5900 Å Orange

3 5900 Å to 5800 Å yellow

4 5800 Å to 5000 Å Green

5 5000 Å to 4650 Å Blue

6 4650 Å to 4450 Å Indigo

7 4450 Å to 3800 Å Violet

Audible range = Frequency range

20 Hz to 20,000 hz

Infrasonic – below 20 Hz

Wavelength of visible light is of the order of 6 X 10-7 m and audible sound in air varies from 17 X

10-3 m to 17m

5x1014 +12

λ = 340 ms-1 =17m

20Hz

20,000 Hz

18IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Speed of Waves:

SOUND WAVE LIGHT WAVE

Speed - 332 m/s Speed- 3 X 108 m/s

SR.NO Source (Object of sound) Sound level (db)

1 Threshold of hearing 0

2 Rustling of leaves 10

3 Whisper 15-20

4 Normal Conversation 50-60

5 Teacher teaching in class 60-70

6 Motor cycle 70-80

7 Roaring of a lion 90-100

Thundering (at the time of

8 lightening) 110

9 Pop concert 120-140

10 Aeroplane taking off 130-140

19IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1) The velocity of sound in air is given as 330ms. A man claps his hands while standing at a

distance of 165m from a high wall.

i. Will he hear a distinct echo of his clap?

ii. Given reason for your answer

i. Yes, he will hear a distinct echo of his clap.

ii. Time after which echo is heard = = =1 second

As the minimum time required for hearing echo is 0.1s & the time calculated above is 1 second,

therefore the man can hear echo.

2) A man stands at a distance of 255m away from a wall. He shoots a rifle and hears an echo

after 1.5 sec. calculate the velocity of sound.

Given:

Distance = d = 255m

Time= t= 1.5 sec

Velocity of sound = V=

= 2 X 255 m = ( 𝑋 2)

1.5 s

3s

3) Without changing the length of a string, its tension is increased 4 times. What happen to its

frequency of vibrations?

Frequency of vibrations will increase by 2 times because F X √𝑡

4) Assuming velocity of sound at room temperature to be 340 ms-1 (calculate the wavelength of

wave emitted by a tuning fork of frequency 512.

(Hint: λ = )

Frequency = f = 512

Frequency

= 𝑚𝑠 -1

= 0.66 [ANS]

20IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

B. Calculate the wavelength?

From given figure AB = 42 cm

Wavelength of (a) = = 14𝑐𝑚

Wave length of (b) = = 7𝑐𝑚 [ANS]

We know that wavelength λ =

For visible light (V = 5X 1014 Hz)

λ= 3 X 108 ms -1 = 6 X 10-7m

5 X 1014 Hz

For audible sound (20 Hz – 20000 Hz)

λ = 332 ms -1 16.6m

20 Hz

λ = 332 ms -1 16.6 X 10-3

20000 Hz

Wavelength of visible light is of the order of 6 X 10-7m and audible sound in air varies from 16.6

X 10-3 m to 16.6 m.

7) The audible range of frequencies for a normal human being is 20 to 20,000 Hz.

9) To hear an echo clearly or distinctly, the minimum distance between the listener and the

reflector of sound is 17m.

10) The vocal sound made by the bats have frequencies ranging from 50 to 50,000 hertz per sound.

11) The sensation of any sound persists in our ear for about 0.1 second.

12) The distance between a source of sound and a reflecting surface is 0.34km. The echo will

reach the source after reflection after approximately

(a) 2s (b) 0.5s (c) 1s (d) 0.25s

Ans (a)

13) A person standing between two vertical cliffs and 480m from the nearest cliff shouts. He

hears the first echo after 3 sec and the second echo 2 sec later.

(a) Calculate the speed of sound

(b) The distance of the other cliff from the person.

21IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Given

d1= 480m, t1 = 2 sec, t2 = 3 sec

d2 =? V =?

T= 2d, v= 2d1 = 2 X 480m = 480m/s

V T1 2 sec

Speed of sound = 480m/sec …. (1)

V = 2d or d = Vt

t 2

d2 = V X t2 = 480m/s X 3 sec = 720m … (2)

2 2

i. Name the wave

ii. What is the speed of the wave in vacuum?

i.X-rays

ii.3 X 108m/s [ANS]

15) Radar sends a signal to an aircraft at a distance of 30km away and receives it back after 2 X

10-4 second. What is the speed of the signal?

Given: Distance of aircraft = 30 Km = 30,000 m.

Total distance = 2 X 30,000 = 60,000 m.

Time taken = 2 X 10-4 second

Hence speed of sound V

= distance travelled(2d)

Time taken (t)

= 60,000 = 30,000 X 104 m/s

2 X 10-4

= 3 X 108 m/s [ANS]

b. A sound made on the surface of a lake takes 3s to reach a boatman. How much time will

it take to reach a diver inside the water at the same depth? Velocity of sound in air =

330m

Velocity of sound in water = 1450 ms-1

Depth of lake = V X t = 330 X 3 = 990m.

Depth of diver = 2 X 990m = 1980m.

Time taken by sound in water = 990 = 0.68s

1450

Total time = 3+ 0.68 = 3.68 seconds. [ANS]

22IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

16) An observer stands at a certain distance away from a cliff and produces a loud sound. He

hears the echo of sound after 1.8s. Calculate the distance between the cliff and the observer

if the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1

Given: V = 340 m/s , t = 1.8 s ,

Distance travel by sound = 2d.

Distance = speed X time

2d = V X t

D=VXt = 340 X 1.8 = (170 X 1.8) m

2 2

= 306 m

The distance between the cliff and the observer is 306 m [ANS]

17) A man standing between two cliffs produces a sound and hears two successive echoes at

intervals of 3 sec and 4 sec respectively. Calculate the distance between the two cliffs. The

speed of sound in air is 330 ms-1 .

We know

V=

Or 2d = V x t

Now d1 = 330 X 3 = 495 m & d2 = 330 X 4 = 660m

2 2

Distance between the two cliffs = (495 + 660) m = 1155m [ANS]

18) A man standing 25m away from a wall produces a sound and receives the reflected sound.

Calculate the time after which he receives the reflected sound if the speed of sound in air is

350ms-1

t= =2𝑋 ms-1 = 0.142 Seconds [ANS]

19) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per sec. An observer starts the pendulum and

fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.

If the velocity of sound in air is 340,m-1 , what is the distance between the cliff and the

observe?

5 vibrations take 1 sec.

8 vibrations will require

𝑋 8 = = 1.6 𝑠𝑒𝑐

As V = or 340 = .

d = 340 X 1.6 = 272m [ANS]

2

20) A) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 Hz and a wavelength of 1.3. calculate the speed

with which this sound travels.

We know that

V=nλ here, n = 256 Hz

And λ = 1.3 m

Speed of sound v= 256 X 1.3 or V= 332.8 m/s [ANS]

23IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

B) What difference would be felt by a listener between this sound and another sound

travelling at the same speed but of wavelength 2.6m?

.

The fundamental frequency of other sound wave will be . = 128 Hz [ANS]

(Speed of first sound = 332.8 m/s)

Hence there may be difference of overtones in the two sounds. Thus the quality in the two

cases may be different. Second sound will be less shrill, sharp and more flat of wavelength.

21) Radar is able to detect the reflected waves from an enemy Aeroplan after a time interval of

0.15 milli seconds. If the velocity of the wave is 3 X 108 ms-1, calculate the distance of

Aeroplan from the radar.

Given V= 3 X 108 ms-1, and

T = 0.015 milli seconds = 0.015 X 10-3 s

Let d be the distance of Aeroplane from the radar.

Then total distance travelled by the waves = 2d.

V=

Or d = = 3 X 108 X 0.015 X 10-3 s = 2250m.

Thus the distance of Aeroplane from the radar is 2250m. [ANS]

22) A man stands at a distance of 255 m away from a wall. He shoots a rifle and hears an echo

after 1.5s calculate the velocity of sound.

Given distance, d= 255m

And time t = 1.5s

Velocity of sound, V = = 2𝑋 . = 340𝑚/𝑠 [ANS]

23) Calculate the speed of a sound wave whose frequency is 2 KHz and wavelength 65cm

V = 2 KHz = 2000 Hz

λ= 65cm = 0.65 m

V = v x λ = 2000 x 0.65 = 1300 m/s.

Speed of the sound wave is 1300 m/s. [ANS]

24) A worker lives at a distance of 1.32 Km from the factory. If the speed of sound in air be 330

m/s, how much time will the sound of factory siren take to reach the worker?

Distance of the factory = 1.32 km

= 1.32 x 1000 m = 1320 m

Speed of sound = 330 m/s

Time for siren sound to reach the worker

= = /

= 4 second [ANS]

25) A tank, travelling at the rate of 72 Km/ hr , towards a hill fires a shot and its driver hears the

echo after 4.5 second. Find the distance of tank from the hill when the shot was fired.

Velocity of sound = 340 ms-1.

24IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Let A be the position of the tank when shot was fired and B be its position when its echo was

received.

AB = Vt

Where V = velocity of tank

t = time for echo

let 𝑥 be the distance between the tank & hill.

Distance travelled by sound = 𝑥 + 𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡 = 2𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡

2𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡 = V x t where V = velocity of sound

Here V = 72 km h-1 = 72 x ms-1

= 20ms-1

V = 340 ms-1 , t = 4.5 sec

2𝑥 = (20 𝑋 4.5 ) = 340 𝑋 4.5

or, 2𝑥 = ( 340 𝑋 4.5 ) + (20 𝑋 4.5 )

or, 2𝑥 = 4.5 𝑋 360

or 𝑥 = 4.5 X 360 = 810m [ANS]

2

26) Radar sends a signal to an aircraft at a distance of 30km away and receives it back after 2 X

10-4 second. what is the speed of the signal

Given: Distance of aircraft = 30 km = 30,000m

Total distance = 2 X 30,000 = 60,000m

Time taken = 2 X 10-4 sec

Hence speed of sound V = Distance travelled (2d)

Time taken (t)

= 60,000 = 30,000 X 104 m/s

2X 10-4

= 3 X 108 m/s [ANS]

27) A person standing between two vertical cliff and 480m from the nearest cliffs shouts. He

hears the first echo after 3s and the second is echo 2 second later calculate:

1. The speed of sound

2. The distance of the other cliff from the person.

25IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1. Speed of sound V =

𝑣 =2𝑋 = 480 ms-1 [ANS]

D = v x t = 480 ms-1 X 3s = (240 X 3) m

2 2

=720m[ANS]

28) An observer stands at a certain distance away from a cliff and produces a loud sound. He

hears the echo of the sound after 1.8s. Calculate the distance between the cliffs and the

observer if the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1

Given: V = 340 m/s,

T = 1.8 seconds

Distance travelled by sound = 2d

Distance = speed X time

2d = v x t

D = v x t = 340 X 1.8 = 170 x 1.8

2 2 = 306 m [ANS]

29) A man standing between two cliffs produces a sound and hears two successive echoes at

intervals of 3s and 4s respectively. Calculate the distance between the two cliffs

The speed of sound in the air is 330 ms-1

We know V = ,

Or, 2d = V X t

D1 = and D2 =

D1 = 495 m and D2 = 660m

Distance between the two cliffs = 495m + 660m

= 1155m

30) A man stands at a distance of 68m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time interval will he

hear the echo, if the speed of sound in air is 340 ms-1?

If the man had been standing at a distance of 12m from the cliff would he have heard a clear

echo?

Time (t) = 2 X distance

Speed

t = 2 x 68 m = 0.4 second

= 340m/s [ANS]

26IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

31) A radar sends a signal to an Aeroplan at a distance 45km away with a speed of 3 X 108 ms-1 .

After how long is the signal received back from the Aeroplan?

V=

t = 2 X 45 X 1000 = 3 X 10-4 s [ANS]

3 X 108

32) An observer stands at a distance of 850m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time gap will

he hear the echo if sound travel at a speed of 350ms-1 in air?

Given d = 850m, V = 350ms-1 , t = ?

We know that d =

t = 2d = 2 X 850m = 2 X 17m = 34 m

v 350ms-1 7 7

t = 4.86s

Time gap = 4.86s [ANS]

33) A man standing in front of a vertical cliff fires a gun. He hears the echo after 3 seconds. On

moving closer to the cliff by 82.5m, he fires again. This time, he hears the echo after 2.5

seconds

Calculate:

1. The distance of the cliff from the initial position of the man.

2. The velocity of sound.

1. Let the distance between initial position of man and cliff be 𝑥 meter.

Time taken in travelling 2𝑥

Distance by sound = 3 sec [ANS]

2. Speed of sound =

S= ……. (1)

When he moves 82.5m close to cliff,

Distance = 2 ( (𝑥 − 82.5)

Time = 2.5 sec

( . )

Speed of sound = .

( . )

Now = .

or 5𝑥 = 6𝑥 − 495

Or 𝑥 = 495 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟

Speed of sound = 2 X 495 = 2 X 165 = 330 m/s [ANS]

3

34) Radar is able to detect the reflected waves from an enemy Aeroplane, after a time interval of

0.02 milli seconds. If the velocity of the waves is 3 X 108 ms-1, calculate the distance of the

plane from the radar.

27IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Let ‘d’ be the distance of enemy plane from the radar. The waves from the radar travel a

distance (d + d) 2d before being detected.

The time taken for this purpose is 0.02ms (or 2 X 10-5 s). Hence, velocity of waves is

V = 2d = 2d

t 2X 10-5 s

or 2d = 3 X 108 ms-1

2 X 10-5s

2

= 3 X 108 m = 3 Km

So distance of the enemy plane from the radar is 3 km [ANS]

35) The wavelength of waves produced on the surface of water is 20 cm. if the wave velocity is

24ms-1,

Calculate:

1. The number of waves produced in one second and

2. The time required to produced one wave

Given:

Λ = 20cm = 0.2m, V = 24ms-1

V =? , I =?

1. Number of waves produced in one second,

/

i.e., V = = = 120 s-1 [ANS]

.

T= 1 = 1 = 0.0083s [ANS]

V 120s-1

36) The ratio of the amplitude of two waves is 4:9. What is the ratio of their intensities?

We know that intensity of a wave (I) X square of its amplitude (a)2.

i.e. I 1 = a12

I2 a22

Hear a1 = 4

a2 9

I1 = (4)2 = 16

I2 (9) 2 81

37) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per second. An observer stars the pendulum and

fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.

28IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

If the velocity sound in air is 340 ms-1, what is the distance between the cliff and the

observer?

2 2

= 272m [ANS]

38) A man standing 25m away from a wall produces a sound and receives the reflected sound.

(a) Calculate the time after which he receives the reflected sound if the speed of sound in

air is 350ms-1

D = 25m

V = 350ms-1

Time t = 2d = 2 X 25m 1m

V 350 ms-1 7 ms-1

39) An observer stands at a distance of 850m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time-gap will

he hear the echo, if sound travels at a speed of 350ms-1 in air

V=

t=

= 2 X 850m

350ms-1

= 4.85 sec

40) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per second. An observer starts the pendulum and

fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.

If the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1, what is the distance the cliff and the observer?

29IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Here, given that V = 340 m/s

As V = or 340 = .

d = 340 X 1.6

2

d = 272m

Distance between the cliff and the observer is 272m [ANS]

41) Radio waves of speed 3 X 108 m/s are reflected off the moon and received back on earth, the

time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back at the earth's surface is

2.5 seconds. What is the distance of the moon from the earth?

Then radio waves, after being reflected from the moon surface travel a distance 2d in 2.5

seconds duration.

Hence =𝑣

.

Or d = 3 X 108 X 2.5 m

2

= 3.75 X 108 m

= 375,000 Km

42) Radio waves of speed 3 X 108 m/s are reflected off the moon and received back on the earth,

the time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back on the earth’s

surface is 2.5 seconds. What is the distance of the moon from the earth?

We know that d = v x t

2

T is the time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back on the earth’s

surface = 2.5s

30IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

2

Distance of the moon from the earth is 3.75 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]

43) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 hertz and a wavelength of 1.3m.

1. Calculate the speed with which this sound travels.

2. What difference would be felt by a listener between this sound and

another sound travelling at the same speed but of wave length 2.6m?

1. We know that

Hence there may be difference of overtones in the two sounds. Thus the quality in the two

cases may be different. Second sound will be less shrill, sharp and more flat of

wavelength.

44) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 hertz and a wavelength of 1.3m calculate the speed

with which this sound travels.

We know that V = n λ

Here, n = 256 Hz and λ = 1.3m

Speed of sound V = 256 x 1.3

Or v = 332.8 m/s [ANS]

45) Calculate the minimum distance at which a person should stand in front of a reflecting surface

so that he can hear a distinct echo. Speed of sound in air is 350ms-1.

We know d =

= 350 x .1

2

= 17.5 m.

Here the minimum distance required for hearing a distinct echo is 17.5 m [ANS]

31IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

𝐼=

𝑡 time in second

𝑉=

𝑄 coulombs

𝑅=𝑝

𝑎 meter. ’l’ is length in meters and ‘a; the area of cross

section(in m2)

(in series) individual resistance in series.

(R=R1+R2+R3)

= + +

𝑅 𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟3 individual resistance in parallel

(𝑖𝑛 𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑)

1 1 1 1

= + +

𝑅 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3

6) 𝑅1 𝐿1 R1 and R2 are the resistance of conductors and L1 and L2 the

=

𝑅2 𝐿2 length of conductors respectively.

=

𝑅2 𝑎2 area of cross section respectively

𝐼= 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 =

𝑅 𝐼 and ‘R’ is the resistance in ohms.

𝐼=

𝑅+𝑟 R is the external resistance in ohms and I is the current in

Amp.

𝑟=

𝑉 resistance of circuit; ‘E’ is the e.m.f of cell and ‘V’ is the

potential difference.

11) (𝐸 − 𝑉) ‘R’ is the internal resistance of cell; ’E’ is the e.m.f ‘V’ is the

𝑟=

𝑉 p.d and I is current.

internal resistance of cell.

32IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

13) 𝐼= in series ‘N’ is the number of cell in series ’E’ the e.m.f, ’R’ the

external resistance ‘r’ the internal resistance and I ,the

current in circuit

14) 𝐼= in Parallel ‘N’ is the number of cells in parallel; ‘E’ the e.m.f of each

cell, ‘R’ the internal resistance ‘r’ is the internal resistance

of each cell and i the current circuit

RT

If a cell of emf ɛ and internal resistance r sends a current I in an external resistance R, then

ɛ

Current dream from the cell 𝐼 =

ɛ

Terminal voltage of the cell 𝑉 = 𝑇𝑅 =

ɛ

Voltage drop inside the cell, 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑟 =

ɛ

Internal resistance of a cell, 𝑟 = − 1 𝑅.

33IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

POINTS TO REMEMBER

1) Current:

Bigger units are kilo ampere(kA=103A) & mega ampere [MV=106A]

small units are milliamp ere(mA=103A) & Micro ampere (A=10-6A)

2) Potential difference:

Bigger units are kilovolt(kV=103) and megavolt ( MV=106V)

3) Resistance:

Bigger units are kilo-ohm(kΩ =103Ω) and mega ohm (MΩ = 106Ω) and

Giga Ohm (G Ω) = 109 Ohm.

4) Specific Resistance:

C.G.S unit of specific resistance is ohm-cm (Ω- cm)

5) Unit of electric charge: The unit of electric charge is coulomb one coulomb is equivalent

to total change 6.25* 1018 Electrons.

7) Potential difference: Potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is the

amount of work done to move certain amount of change from one point to another

point.

Amount of charge (Q)

One Volt is the potential difference, if one joule of work is done in moving a charge of

one coulomb.

potential all along in series circuit, but potential difference goes on increasing. Total

potential difference (p.d) in series circuit is equal to the sum total of p.d across the

terminals of individual resistors.

i.e. V= V1+ V2+V3.

34IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

9) Parallel circuit: When a number of resistors are connected such that they have a

common positive and a common negative terminal then resistors are said to be in

parallel circuit.

The current divides in parallel circuit in the inverse ratio of resistance

Total current flowing through parallel circuit is equal to the sum total of current flowing

through individual resistors.

i.e. I=I1+I2+I3

symbol σ, called Sigma.

σ= =

Conductance =

(a) In order to increase the resistance of a circuit resistors are connected in series.

R1 R2 R3

Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

(b) When we have to decrease the resistance of a circuit in order to pass heavy current,

resistors is connected in parallel.

1 1 1

𝑅𝑝 = + +

𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3

𝑹𝟏𝑹𝟐

𝑹𝒑 =

𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐

Sum of two resistors

resistor R, is given by

35IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

I1 =( )I

I1 =( )I

If ‘n’ identical resistors are connected in parallel, the equivalent resistor Rp is given by

= + − + ⋯ 𝑛 times

No. of resistors

Conductance X

14) Relation between E.M.F; P.D; Internal Resistance and External Resistance:

P.D across of Ext. Resistance

( )

𝑟=

2. Drop in potential at the terminal of cell is the product of current drawn from the cell and

internal resistance of cell.

E-V = Ir

3. If a large current is drawn from cell i.e. external resistance is low then drop in potential is

very large.

15) Cells in series can give a large current only if their internal resistance is so small that it

can be neglected is negligible with respect to external resistance.

Current in external circuit= Total E.m.f

Total resistance of circuit ⇒ 𝐼 =

If ‘r’ is so small that it is negligible, them 𝐼 = 𝑛

It is for this reason that lead acid accumulators are connected in series.

36IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

16) Cell can give maximum current in parallel only if external resistance is very small and

internal resistance is large. 𝐼 =

18) The number of electrons contained in one coulomb of charge is 1.6 X 10-19.

37IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1) An experiment is performed to verify ohm’s law observations and tabulated and follows.

Current (I) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

(In Amperes)

Potential difference 1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0

(V) (In Volts)

(ii) Show that the graph confirms the Ohm’s law

(iii) Find the resistance of the resistor used

difference verses current is a straight line. This

confirms the Ohm’s law.

resistance of the resistor.

.

Resistance = = .

.

= = 12Ω [ANS]

.

2) What should be the length of nichrome wire of resistance 5 Ω if the length of similar wire

is 60 cm and resistance 2.5 Ω?

Ʀ1 = 5Ω , L2 = 60 cm, R2 = 2.5 Ω, L1 = ?

As = , L 1= ∗ 𝐿2 = .

= 120 cm (am) [ANS]

connected in parallel between point

B and C let R1 be their equivalent

resistance

= + = = , R1 = 3 Ω

Now equivalent resistance R1 in series with 6 Ω resistance let R be the equivalent resistance of

circuit.

Ʀ = 6+3 = 9 Ω [ANS]

38IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

4) An in candescent lamp of resistance 80 Ω draws a current of 0.75 A find the line voltage.

5) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the following combination of resistors r1, r2, r3 and

r4

The resistors r3 and r4 are in parallel if r is equivalent resistance of resistors r3 and r4 then

= + = or 𝑟 =

Ʀ = 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 + [ANS]

6) The equivalent resistance of the following circuit diagram is 4 Ω calculate the value of ‘X ’.

Resistance of 5 Ω and X Ω are in series.

Similarly, resistance of 8 Ω and 4 Ω are in

series.

Equivalent resistance.

R1 = (5 +) Ω,

R2 = 8+4 = 12 Ω

Now R1 and R2 are in parallel

combination

= +

or = +

or − =

or =

or =

or 5+𝑥 = 6 or

𝑥 = 6-5 =1 Ω [ANS]

39IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

7) Calculate the resistance between the points X and Y in the given figure below.

Fig. 1 Fig.2

The resistors of 3 Ω and 2 Ω are in series

Their equivalent resistance = 3 Ω + 2 Ω = 5 Ω Now the resisters of 5 Ω, 1 Ω and 5 Ω are in parallel

as shown in alongside fig (ii)

Their equivalent resistance = + 1 + = =

Or Ʀ = 71 Ω

Hence the resistance between X and Y is 0.71 Ω. [ANS]

8) Calculate the specific resistance of the material of a wire 1.1 m long 0.4 mm in diameter

and having a total resistance of 4.2 ohm?

.

r= mm = 0.02 cm

R= 4.2 ohm

. ( . )

P= = 47.9 X 10-6 Ohm cm. [ANS]

40IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

9) Two resistances of 2 ohm and 4 ohm are first connected to each other in series and then in

parallel. Find the resistance of the combination in each case.

R1 = 2 ohm, r2 = 4 ohm, Rp =? , Rs =?

(i) In series Rs = r1 + r2

Rs= 2+4 =6 ohm

(ii) In parallel

= + = + = 𝑅𝑝 = = 1.33 ohm [ANS]

10) A wire of resistance ‘r’ ohm is doubled up by connecting its free ends together. What will

be the resistance of wire in its new shape?

Let ‘r’ be the resistance of wire (fig-a) as its free ends are joined together, it becomes a

combination of two wires each of resistance connected in parallel with each other (fig-b)

(Fig-a)

(Fig-b)

Here 𝑟1 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟2 =

So = + = + = R=

/ /

Resistance of wire in its new shape will be Ohm. [ANS]

11) Calculate the number of electrons passing per second through a conductor to give a

current of 1 amp. Charge on an electron = 1.6 X 10-19C.

Let ‘n’ be the number of electrons passing per second through the conductor when 1

ampere current passes , then Total change passing per second = ne

Current I =

Here e = 1.6 X 10-19 C, t =1 sec I = 1emp, n =?

N= = . ∗

= 6.25 X 1018 . [ANS]

41IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

12) Given fig shows a circuit diagram having a battery of 24V and negligible internal

resistance. Calculate the (a) reading of ammeter and

(b) Readings of V1 , V2 and V3

E = 24 V

= + = = = or R1 = 2 Ω

Now resistances of 1.5 Ω, R1 and 8.5 Ω are in series

Total resistance = 1.5 + R1+ 8.5

= 10 + R1 = (10+2) Ω

= 12 Ω

(a) Current drawn from cell (ammeter reading)

𝐼= = = 2 𝐴 [ANS]

V1= IR = 2 X 1.5 = 3V

V2 = IR = 2 X 2 = 4V

V3 = IR = 2 X 8.5 = 17 V

13) Calculate the resistance of Eureka wire 110 cm long and 0.2mm in diameter. Given specific

resistance of Eureka = 49= 10-8 ohm-m.

42IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

p= 49 X 10-8 ohm .m

∗ .

Now R = ( )

= 17.6 ohm [ANS]

14) Four cells each of 1.5 volt e.m.f and 20 ohm internal resistance are used to send a current

through a wire of 20 ohm resistances. The cells are arranged (i) all in series (ii) all in

parallel. Calculate the current in the wire in each case

.

(i) Cells connected in series I = = = = 0.6 amp

Current = 0.6 amp [ANS]

.

(ii) Cells connected in parallel, 𝐼 = = = = 0.6 𝑎𝑚𝑝

Current = 0.6 amp [ANS]

15) There resistors of 6 Ω , 3 Ω and 2 Ω are connected in parallel the combination of above

resistors is connected in series to a resistance of 4 Ω and then to a cell of e.m.f 1.5 V If the

internal resistance of cell is negligible

(i) Draw the circuit diagram

(ii) Calculate the current in main circuit

(iii) Calculate the current in each of the resistor in parallel

(i)

= + + = = 1 R1 = 1 Ω

.

Current in main circuit 𝐼 = = = 0.3 𝐴 [ANS]

Current in 6 Ω resistor

.

I1 = = = 0.05 𝐴 [ANS]

43IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

.

I2 = = = 0.10 𝐴 [ANS]

Current in 2 Ω resistor

.

I3 = = = 0.15 𝐴 [ANS]

(i) What is the current through the 5 ohm resistor?

(ii) What is the current through R?

(iii) What is the value of R? And

(iv) What is the value of V?

Given

Potential difference across 5 ohm resistor = 10 V

Potential difference across R ohm resistor = 6 V

Value of resistance R1= 5 ohm

I =? , R =? And V =?

By Ohm’s law the current through resistor of 5 ohm is

(i) 𝐼 = = = 2𝐴 [ANS]

(ii) Since the two resistors are connected in series therefore the current through resistor R is

also 2 ampere [ANS]

R= = = 3 𝑂ℎ𝑚 [ANS]

(iv) Since the resistors are in series therefore, net resistance of the circuit is

R=R1+R2=5+3=8 Ω

Hence by the expression of V=IR we have V= 2X8= 16V [ANS]

17) A letter A consist of a uniform wire of resistance 1 ohm per cm the sides of the letter are

each 20cm long and the cross piece in the middle is 10 cm long (P-8.50). Find the

resistance of the letter between points (i) BD and (ii) AB

44IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Therefore R1= R2 =R3 =R4 = R5 =10 Ω

As R2 and R3 are in series therefore their combined resistance is 10+10=20 Ohm

This combination is in parallel with R5.

= + = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = = 6.67Ω [ANS]

(ii) Now resistance R1, R and R4 are in series therefore resistance across AB is

R1= R+R1+ R4= + 10 + 10 = 26.67Ω [ANS]

18) A circuit is made by connecting three resistances of 4 Ω,8 Ω and 10 Ω their total resistance

is more than 10 Ω but less than 14 Ω show the circuit arrange on a diagram and calculate

the equivalent resistance(1989 type)

We connect the resistance of 4 Ω and 8 Ω in parallel to each other and then connect this

parallel combination to the 10 Ω resistance in series the required arrangement is as shown in

Fig. the equivalent resistance of 4 Ω and 8 Ω in parallel is given by

1 1 1 2+1 3 8

= + = = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = Ω = 2.67 Ω

𝑅 4 8 8 8 3

Thus, the total resistance of the setup is (2-67+10) Ω = 12.67 Ω [ANS]

Fig

45IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

19) What is the equivalent resistance between the point X and Y for the network show given

figure?

= + + = = =

R= 2 Ω [ANS]

20) What is the usual color code followed for connecting live neutral and earth wires? Why is

it so important?

Live wire- red, Neutral wire – black and earth wire – Green. This color code of electric

wire must be followed, so that even a layman will be able to identify the correct

connecting wire.

22) Which one has more resistance – a 100 Walt bulb or 60 Walt bulbs?

The resistance of a 60 Walt bulb is more than the resistance of a 100 Walt bulb.

46IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

23) (a) What happens to the electrical resistance when mercury is cooled to 4.12 k? (b) What

name is given to this phenomenon?

(a) When mercury is cooled to 4.12 k the electrical resistance of mercury disappears

completely and becomes zero.

extremely low temperature is known as super conductivity.

24) Derive the formula for electric power which is used only when voltage V and resistance R

are known to us.

We know that P= V X 1

= 𝑅 … … … (𝑖 )

Or V= IR

Or 𝐼 = … … … . (𝑖𝑖)

We get P = 𝑉𝑋 or Power P =

25) A battery of emf 12V and internal resistance 2Ω is connected with two resistances A and B

of resistance 4 Ω and 6 Ω respectively joined in series.

Find:

i. current in the circuit

ii. The terminal voltage of the cell

iii. The potential difference across 6 Ω Resistor

iv. Electrical energy spent per minute in 4 Ω resistors.

(2016)

Current in the circuit = = = 1𝐴 [ANS]

Resistor = I X R = 1A X 6 Ω =6 V [ANS]

47IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Then = Ω

+ Ω

+ Ω

= = Ω Rp =2 Ω

Then equivalent resistance between point A and B, R= (2+2+5) =9 Ω [ANS]

27) A cell of E.m.f 2v and internal resistance 1.2 Ω is connected with an ammeter of resistance

0.8 Ω and two resistors of 4.5 Ω and 9 Ω as shown in the diagram below. (2015)

(ii) What is the potential difference across the terminals of the cell?

Resistance of resistor A= 0.8 Ω

Resistance of resistor B= 4.5 Ω

Resistance of resistor C=9 Ω

The resistors B and C are in parallel.

If the equivalent resistance is Rp then = . Ω

+ Ω

= Ω

= Ω

rp = 3Ω

The resistor A is in series with resistance Rp

R= 0.8+3=3.8 Ω

Total resistance current draw from the battery = 3.8+1.2 = 5 Ω

48IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

𝐼= = 𝐴 I = 0.4 A

1 1 1 1 3

= + + = =1

𝑅 3 3 3 3

R1 = 1 Ω

1 1 1 5

= + =

𝑟3 4 6 12

R3 = = 2.4Ω

29) Two resistors of 4 Ω and 6 Ω are connected in parallel to a cell to draw 0.5 A current from

the cell (2014)

(i) Draw a labeled circuit diagram showing the above arrangement

(i)

49IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

i X 4 = (0.5-i) X 6 or

4i=3-6i

Or 10i = 3 or i =0.3A

= 0.5-0.3= 0.2 A (Am) [ANS]

30) A metal wire of resistance 6 Ω is stretched so that its length is increased to twice it original

length, calculate its new resistance?

A1 l1 = A2 l2

𝑙2 𝐴1 𝑙2

= , 𝑅1 = 𝑝

𝑙1 𝐴2 𝑙1

New resistance, 𝑅2 = 𝑝

𝑅2 𝑙2 𝐴1 𝐿2 𝐴1 𝑙2 𝐿2 𝑙2

= 𝑋 = 𝑋 = 𝑋 =( )

𝑅1 𝐴2 𝐿1 𝐿1 𝐴2 𝑙1 𝐿1 𝑙1

31) Calculate the equivalent resistance between the points A and B for the following

combination of resistance

R1 = 4+4+4 = 12 Ω

R2 = 2+2+2 = 6 Ω

50IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1 1 1 1 1+3+2 6 1

= + + = = =

𝑅3 12 4 6 12 12 2

R3 = 2 Ω

Hence equivalent resistance between A and B = 13 Ω [ANS]

32) An electrical application is rated at 1000 KVA, 220 V if the application is operated for 2

hours calculate the energy consumed by the application in (i) kwh (ii) joule.

1000 X 2 = 2000 kwh [ANS]

= 7.2 X 109 J [ANS]

33) Calculate the equivalent resistance between P and Q from the following diagram?

= + = = = R=4Ω

Resistance between P and Q = 3+4+2= 9 Ω [ANS]

51IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

220 to 240 V

35) Three resistors are connected to a 6 V batter as shown in the given figure (2011)

(i) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit

(ii) Total current in the circuit

(iii) Potential difference across the 7.2 Ω resistor

= + = R= 4.8

Now total resistance = 4.8+7.2= 12 Ω [ANS]

36) Calculate the equivalent resistance between A and B from the following diagram. (2011)

R=3Ω

The equivalent resistance between A and B is 3 Ω [ANS]

37) Three resistors are connected to a 12 V battery as shown in the Fig. given below.

(a) What is the current through the 8 Ohm resistance?

52IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

(b) What is the potential difference across the parallel combination of 6 Ohm and 12 ohm

resistor?

(c) What is the current through the 6 Ohm Resistor? (2011)

Their effective resistance = = = 4Ω

Total resistance of the circuit = 8+4 = 12 Ω

So current drawn = = 1A

P.D. across the parallel combination of resistors = 12-8= 4 V

The resistances are in parallel they have the same P.D each i.e., 4 V [ANS]

38) (a) An electric bulb is marked 100 250 V what information does this convey?

(b) How much current will the bulb draw if connected to a 250 v supply?

(a) It means that if a bulb is given a 250 volt supply, It will consume 100 J of energy in each

second

(b) Let P = VI

I= = 0.4 A [ANS]

39) Five resistors of different resistance are connected together as show in the figure A 12 v

battery is connected to the arrangement calculate:

(a) The total resistance in the circuit

(b) The total current flowing in the circuit (2010)

53IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

2+3+1

=

60

= =

R1= 10 Ω

40) Six resistance are connected together as shown in the figure calculate the equivalent

resistance between the point A and B.

Where = + = = R= 5 Ω

54IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

41) The equivalent resistance of the following circuit diagram is 4 Ω calculate the value of 𝑥.

1 1 1

= +

𝑅 𝑅1 𝑅2

1 1 1

= = +

4 5+𝑋 8+4

1 1 1

= − =

4 12 5 + 𝑋

1 1

= =

6 5+𝑋

=5+𝑥 = 6

X = 6-5 = 1 Ω [ANS]

42) Three resistors of 6.0 Ω, 2.0 Ω and 4.0 Ω respectively are joined together as shown in the

figure the resistors are connected to an ammeter and to a cell of e.m.f 6.0 V.

(2007)

Calculate:

(a) Effective resistance of the circuit

(b) Current drawn from the cell

effective resistance

R1 = 6 Ω

R = 3 Ohm [ANS]

(b) V= IR or 6+ I X 3

55IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

43) Calculate the value of the resistance which must be connected to a 15 Ω resistance to

provide an effective resistance of 6 Ω

resistances in parallel to make resultant 6 W

Now, = +

1 1 1

𝑜𝑟 = −

𝑅 6 15

5−2

=

30

3

=

30

1

=

10

R = 10 Ω [ANS]

44) A cell of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 1.0 w is connected to two resistors of 4.0 W

and 20.0 in series as shown in the figure (2006)

(ii) Potential difference across the 4.0 Ohm resistor

(iii) Voltage drop when the current is flowing

(iv) Potential difference across the cell.

Internal resistance = 1.0 Ohm (r)

External resistance = r1+ r2( in series)

R= 4+20 = 24 Ω

. .

(i) Current I = or 𝐼 = = = .06 𝑎𝑚𝑝 [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

(iii) Voltage drop when the current is flowing = Ir = 06 X 1 = .06 Volt [ANS]

(iv) Potential difference across the cell = RI = 24 X .06 = 1.44 volt [ANS]

(i) The total resistance of the circuit

(ii) The value of R

(iii) The current flowing through R. (2006)

(i) Since V= IR

.

R= = .

= 20 Ω

= + 𝑜𝑟 = −

= =

𝑅= = 30 Ω [ANS]

(iii) Since v= IR and potential (V) is equal at the two ends i.e. A and B

Let I be current flowing through R then (0.3-1) is current flowing through 60 Ωresistances

Now V= V I1 R1 = I2 R2

I1 X 30 = (0.3- I1) X 60

I1 = 0.6 – 2 I, or 3 I1 = 0.6

.

or I1 = = 0.2

57IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

46) A Wire of uniform thickness with a resistance of 27 Ω is cut into three equal pieces and

they are joined in parallel. Find the resistance of the parallel combination.

Then = + + = + +

= 𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑝 = = 3Ω

47) Mention two factor on which the resistance of wire depends (2005)

length of a wire

area of a cross- section of a wire

48) Four resistances of 2.0 Ω, each are joined end to end, to from a square ABCD. Calculate the

equivalent resistance of the combination between any two adjacent corners.

The diagram indicates a square ABCD formed by joining four resistance of 2 Ω each end to

end let us calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination between the two adjacent

corner C and D

Let us calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination between the two adjacent

corners C and D. Arms DA AB and BC are joined in series so their equivalent resistance=

(2+2+2) Ω - 6 Ω now resistance of 6 Ω and 2 Ω are in parallel The equivalent resistance of

the combination is R Then, = + = =

R= Ω = 1.5 Ω [ANS]

58IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

49) In the fig given alongside A, B and C are three ammeters. The ammeter B reads 0.5 A (All

the ammeter have negligible resistance )

Calculate:

(i) The reading in the ammeters A and C

(ii) The total resistance of the circuit

.

Or i c i.e., current passing through the ammeter c is = 1.0 ampere [ANS]

(ii) Here = + = = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = 2 Ω

Current through A = 0.5 +1.0 = 1.5 ampere. [ANS]

(i)State the resistance of the coil of the bulb

(ii) Another identical bulb is connected in series with the first one and the system is

connected across the main as shown in alongside.

State the rate of conversion of energy in each bulb

Calculate the total power

What will be the total power if the bulbs are connected in parallel?

Current I = = = amp

.

59IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

= 806.7 [ANS]

(ii) When another bulb is connected in series, then total resistance of two bulb becomes

twice and current passing through the circuit

I1 = = amp

= I 2R = 2 𝑋( )

= 15 watt [ANS]

= V X I1 = 220 X = 30 watt [ANS]

In parallel each bulb will consume 60 watt independently hence power consumption

will be = 60+60= 120 watt. [ANS]

51) A cell of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 10 Ohms is connected to a resistance of 5

Ohms, with an ammeter in series what is the reading of the ammeter?

E= i (R+ r)

.

1.5 = I (5+10) or i = .

I = 0.1 A [ANS]

52) Four cells each of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 2.0 Ohms are connected in parallel.

The battery of cells is connected to an external resistance of 2.5 Ohms. Calculate:

(i) The total resistance of the circuit

(ii) The current flowing in the external circuit and

(iii) The drop in potential across the terminals of the cells

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

(i) As the four cells are connected in parallel their internal resistance i.e. r = 2 Ω will also be

connected in parallel therefore, total internal resistance

= + + + = = =2,

rp= = 0.5 Ω

(ii) The current flowing in the external circuit in parallel combination of the cells, the effective

e.m.f of any number of cells is equal to the e.m.f due to a single cell.

.

Current i = . Ω

= 0.5 A [ANS]

= 1.5 V -0.25 V = 1.25 V [ANS]

Which is same across the terminal of every cell as the other specification of different cells

are same

. . . . Ω

Or 𝑉 = = . Ω . Ω = . Ω

= 1.25 𝑉 (𝐴𝑚) [ANS]

(i) The value of combined resistances of 40 Ohm and R using the reading of the two

meters

(ii) The value of R

(iii) The current flowing through R

61IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

.

(i) Therefore the total resistance of the circuit is R= = = 10 𝑜ℎ𝑚 [ANS]

.

(ii) Now R and 40 Ohm are connected in parallel and their combined resistance is 10 Ohm

therefore we have = + solving for R we have R = = 13.3 𝑜ℎ𝑚

= 0.3 A [ANS]

54) Define the e.m.f (E) of a cell and the potential difference (V) across a resistor (R) in terms

of the work done in moving a unit charge

State the relating between these two works and the work done in moving a unit charge

through a cell connected across the resistor. Take the internal resistance of the cell as ‘r’

hence obtains expression for the current ‘i’ in the circuit

E.M.F of a cell is generally define as the amount of work done (or the energy spent) in taking

a unit positive charge around the complete circuit of the cell. It is also defined as the

potential difference between the terminals of a cell when no current is drawn from it (or

when the cell is an open circuit)

Potential difference (P .D) or the terminal voltage of a cell is generally defined as the

amount of work done in carrying a unit positive charge round the circuit connected across

the terminals of the cell.

If ‘W’ is the amount of work done (in J) in moving a test change ‘q’ between the terminals of

a cell through a resistor ‘R’ then the

P.D = i.e., work done in moving a unit positive change across the terminals of the cell.

Relation between ‘E’, ‘V’ external resistance ‘R’ and the internal resistance ‘r’ Applying Ohm’s

law to external resistance only ; I = . . . . . 1

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

We have =

Or ER = v (R + r) = VR + Vr

ER-VR=Vr

Or R (E- V) = Vr

( )

Or 𝑟 = =

(V= IR)

Or I =

55) A battery of e.m.f 9 V and internal resistance 0.6 ohm connected to three resistors A,B and

C. (1995)

Calculate:

(i) The combined resistance B and c

(ii) The total resistance of A,B and C

(iii) The total resistance of the circuit

(iv) The current in each of the three resistance A,B and C

(i) Let R be the combined resistance of B and c which are connected in parallel we than

have

= + −= Or r= 2.4 ohm [ANS]

(ii) Now R and A are connected in series therefore the total resistance,

say Y of A, B and c is given by Y= A + R =(2+2.4)=4.4 ohm [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Z = (Y+06) Ω = (4.4+0.6) Ω = 5.0 Ω [ANS]

I= = = 1.8 𝐴

Thus IA = 1.8 A

.

IB= = = 0.72𝐴

.

IC = = = = 1.08𝐴 [ANS]

56) Four cells each of e.m.f 2 V and internal resistance 0.1 Ohm are connected in series. The

combination is connected in series to an ammeter of negligible resistance, a 1.6 Ohm

resistor and an unknown resistor R1 the current in the circuit is 2A

(1996)

Draw a labeled circuit diagram for the above arrangement and calculate:

(i) The total resistance in the circuit

(ii) The total e.m.f

(iii) The value of R1 and

(iv) The potential difference across R1

= 1.6+0.4+R1 (2+R1) Ω

⸫ Total Resistance = R1+2 (2+2) Ω = 4 Ω. (solved after finding out R1) [ANS]

. .

(iii) Here I = or 2 =

64IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

57) Two resistors of resistance 2 Ohm and 3 Ohm in parallel are connected to a cell of e.m.f

1.5 v and internal resistance 0.3 Ohm. Draw a labeled circuit diagram showing the above

arrangement and the current drawn from the cell. (1997)

𝐼 1 1 5 6

= + = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = = 1.2 𝑂ℎ𝑚

𝑅 2 3 6 5

= 1.2 + 0.3 =1.5 Ohm

.

Hence current in the circuit is 𝐼 = = .

= 1𝐴 [ANS]

58) Circuit diagram is given in which three resistances 1 Ohm, 2 Ohm and 3 Ohm are

connected to cell of e.m.f 2 v and internal resistance 0.5 ohm

(i) Calculate the total resistance of the circuit (ii) what is the reading of the ammeter?

(iii) What will be the ammeter reading if an exactly similar cell is connected in series

with the given cell? (1994)

or = +

R1 = = 1.5 Ω

Total resistance is the circuit R = R1 + r = (1.5 + 0.5) Ω = 2.0 Ω [ANS]

65IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Total internal resistance of the cells = 1 Ω

Ammeter reading = 4/2.5= 1.6 A [ANS]

59) A cell supplies a current of 0.6 A through a 2 Ohm coil and a current of 0.3A through a 8

Ohm coil Calculate the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the cell.

I2= 0.3 A, R2= 8 Ω, r =?

Using I =

1) 0.6 = and 2) 0.3 =

As same cell is used

= 3.6 V [ANS]

(i) The equivalent resistance between P and Q

(ii) The reading of the ammeter

(iii) The electrical power between P and Q

1 1 1 3+2 5

= + = =

𝑅 4 6 12 12

Equivalent resistance R = = 2.4Ω [ANS]

But E = IR

4 = I X 2.4

I= . = 1.66 𝐴 [ANS]

(iii) P = I2R = ( .

)2 X 2.4 = 6.66 watts [ANS]

66IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

61) Write an expression for the resistance of a conducting wire in terms of its length and area

of cross section

R= 𝑃 , where r = resistance

L= length and

A = Area of cross section of the wire

P = resistivity or specific resistance of the material of the wire.

62) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the following combination of resistors : r1 , r2 , r3, r4

1 1 1 𝑟4 + 𝑟3

= + =

𝑟 𝑟3 𝑟4 𝑟3𝑟4

R=

Now resistance r1, r2 and r4 are in series their combined resistance R is given

( ) ( )

R = r1 , r2 + = [ANS]

67IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 4 – ELECTROMAGNETISM

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Primary e.m.f: The e.m.f of an alternating current connected to primary coil is called primary

e.m.f

2) Secondary e.m.f: The e.m.f induced in the secondary coil is called secondary e.m.f

. . .

3) =

. . . .

Or =

.

4) =

. .

Or =

A moving charge in magnetic field not parallel to the field experience a force called “LORENTZ

FORCE” and since moving charge is called current then conductor carrying a current in magnetic

field experiences

Force F = BIL in other words this force

F X B (Magnetic field)

F X I (current)

F X L (length of conductor inside the field)

68IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1) A transformer lowers e.m.f from 220V to 15V. If the number of turns in primary is 3220, how

many turns are in secondary coil?

Given: Ep = 220 V

Es = 15 V

NP = 3520, NS =?

𝐸𝑠 𝑁𝑠

=

𝐸𝑝 𝑁𝑝

15 𝑉 𝑁

=

220 𝑉 3520

∴ NS = = 240 𝑣

Calculate:

1. The current in primary coil

2. The current in secondary coil

400 = IP X 220

∴ IP = 1.8A

So current in primary coil is 1.8A

2. IP X EP = Is X Es

𝐼𝑝 𝑋 𝐸𝑝

∴ Is = 𝐸𝑠

.

∴ Is = = 26.4 𝐴

So, the current in secondary coil is 26.4 A [ANS]

1. Maximum?

2. Minimum?

2. At 180° and 360°

69IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 5 – HEAT

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Heat capacity =

∆

C= ∆

Or Q = mc ∆T Joule

C = mc

m = Mass in kg, T2 = Higher temperature in ° c, T1 = Lower temperature in °c.

5) Heat lost by the hot body = Heat gained by the cold body

m1 c1((T1 – T) = m2 c2 ( T – T2)

Q = Quantity of heat and m = mass of the substance.

70IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

POINTS TO REMEMBER

1) Water has the highest specific heat capacity. i.e 4.2 J/g°c.

In other words, every 1gm of water will absorb 4.2 joules of heat energy, when its

temperature rises by 1°c only.

2) Ice has the highest specific latent heat. Its experimental value is 336 X 103J kg-1 in S.I

System.

3) Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam: It is the amount of heat energy required to

change 1 kg of water at 100°c, into 1 kg of steam at 100°c, without any rise in

temperature. It is 226 X 104 J kg -1. Steam has the highest specific latent heat capacity of

vaporization.

4) 1 calorie = 4.2 J.

5) 1 Kilocalorie = 4200 J

6) Heat → Joule

In C.G.S system → °

𝑜𝑟 𝐽𝑔 °

𝐶

8) Thermal capacity

In C.G.S system → J° 𝐶

In S.I System → 𝐽𝐾

In C.G.S system → J 𝑔

In S.I system → J 𝐾𝑔

In C.G.S system → J 𝑔

In S.I system → J 𝐾𝑔

71IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

H = Heat

m = Mass

C’ = Heat capacity

t or T = Final temperature

t1 = lower temperature

t1 = Higher temperature

Q = Amount of heat

P = power

72IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

1) A certain amount of heat Q will warm 1 gram of material ‘X’ by 3 degree Celsius and 1g of material

‘ Y’ by 4°c. Which material has a higher specific heat capacity?

Then m1 CX ∆ t1 = m2 CY ∆ t2

1 X CX X 3 = 1 X C Y X 4

3 CX = 4Cy

= = CX CY

2) Calculate the mass of ice required to lower the temperature of 300g of water at 40°c to water at

0°c(specific latent heat of ice = 336 J/g, Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g°c)

Let ‘m’ be the mass of ice. Heat energy required to melt to lower the temperature = m X L = m X 336

Heat energy imparted by the water in fall of its temperature from 40°c to 0 °c = mass of the water X

specific heat capacity X fall in temperature = 300 X 4.2 X 40°c

.

m =

m = 150g.

3) A copper vessel of mass 100g contains 150g of water at 50°c. How much ice is needed to cool it to

5°c?

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 °c -1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g-1

Ice ?X 336j g-1 0°c = 5° c

Water 150g 4.2 Jg-1 °c-1 50°c QR = 5-0 =5

Vessel 100g 0.4 J-1 °c-1 50°c QF = 50° - 5° =45°c

73IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

357𝑥 = 28350

𝑥= = 85.45g [ANS]

4) A refrigerator converts 100g of water at 20°C to ice at -10°c in 35 minutes. Calculate the average

rate of heat extraction in terms of watts.

L = 336 J/g , P = =?

∆ Q1 = mc ∆ t = 100 X 4.2 X 20 J

∆ Q1 = mc ∆ t

= 100 X 4.2 X 20 J

∆Q2 = mL + mc ∆ t

74IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

∆ Q = ∆ Q 1 + ∆ Q2

∆

= = = = 21

= 21 watts [ANS]

5) Heat energy is supplied at a constant rate to 100gm of ice at 0°c. The ice is converted to water at

0°c in 2 minutes. How much time is required to raise the temperature of water from 0°c to 20°c?

Given:

Sp. Heat capacity of water is 4.2 J g -1 ° c-1

Sp. Latent heat of ice = 336 Jg-1

P= = = 280

Q=PXt

8400 = 280 X t

Time required to raise the temperature of water from 0°c to 20° c is 0.5 min [ANS]

6) How much heat energy is released when 5gm of water at 20°c changes to ice at 0°c?

[Sp. Heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1 °c -1

Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g -1]

= 5 X4.2 X 20 + 5 X 336

75IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

= 420 + 1680

7) 50 gram of metal piece at 27°c requires 2400° J of heat energy so as to attain a temperature of

327°c. Calculate the specific heat capacity of metal

Given m = 50g

∆t = (327-27) ° c = 300°c

Q = 2400 J

Now, Q = mc ∆ t

2400 = 50 X C X 300

(m= mass, ∆t = rise in temperature and Q = heat energy, C = specific heat capacity)

8) A hot solid of mass 60g at 100°c is placed in 150g of water at 20°c. The final steady temperature

recorded is 25°. Calculate the specific heat capacity of solid.

150 X 4.2 X 5 = 60 X C X 75

.

C=

9) 40g of ice at 0°c is used to bring down the temperature of a certain mass of water at 60°c to 10°c.

Find the mass of water used.

[Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 °C-1]

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J Kg-1]

Let ‘M’ be the mass of water. Then, Heat lost by water = M.C. ∆T

= M X 4.2 X (60-10)

76IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Heat gained by ice = Heat gained for melting + heat gained to come to temperature 10°c

= ML + Mc ∆ T

If no heat is lost to the surrounding, Heat gained by ice = Heat lost by water or M X 4.2 X 50 = (40 X

336) + 1680= 13440 + 1680= 15120

10) 200g of water at 80°c is added to 300g of cold water at 10°c. Calculate the final temperature of the

mixture of water. Consider the heat taken by the container to be negligible. The specific heat

capacity of water is 4200 J Kg-1 °C-1.

Let the final temperature be T °c, Then, Heat lost by hot water = 0.2 X 4200 X (80-T) J

heat lost = heat gained

= 16 – 0.2 T = 0.3 T -3

Or 0.3 T + 0.2 T = 16 + 3

Or, 0.5 T = 19

Or T = = 38° 𝑐

.

11) 50g of ice at 0°c is added to 300g of a liquid at 30°c. What will be the final temperature of the

mixture when all the ice has melted? The specific heat capacity of the liquid is 2.65 J g-1 ° C -1 While

that of water is 4.2 J g-1 ° C-1 Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g-1.

Heat given by liquid = Heat taken by ice to change the state + heat taken by water to increase the

temperature.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Or, t = 7.01 °C

12) 40g of water at 60°c is poured into a vessel containing 50g of water at 20°c. The final temperature

recorded in 30°c calculates the thermal capacity of the vessel. Take specific heat capacity of water

as 4.2 J g-1 °c -1.

Heat lost by water to change its temperature from 60°c to 30°c = mc ∆t = 40 X 4.2 X 30 J = 5040 j

According to the principle of calorimetry or, Heat gained = Heat lost 2100J + Heat of vessel = 5040J

⸫ Heat capacity =

= ° = 294 𝐽 ° C-1

13) A piece of ice of mass 40g is dropped into 200g of water at 50° c . Calculate the final temperature

of water after all the ice has melted.

(Specific heat capacity of water = 4200J/Kg °c, Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J/kg)

= (42,000 – 840t) J

Heat taken by ice to change into water at 0° c = 40 X 10-3 X 336 X 103 = 13,440J

Heat taken by water to change its temperature from 0°c to t °c = (40 X 10-3 X 4.2 X 103 X t) J

= 168t J

Total heat taken by water = (13,440 +168 t) According to the principle of calorimetry.

Or, t = 28.33 °c

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

14) An electric heater raises the temperature of 5000g of a given liquid from 25°c to 31°c in 120 s. If

the power of the heater is 1 Kw, Calculate (a) the heat capacity of the liquid. (b) The specific heat

capacity of the liquid.

Let ‘s ‘be the specific heat capacity of the liquid. Heat used in raising the temperature of the liquid

from 25°c to 31°c.

= 5000 X S (31-25) J

= 5000 X S X 6 J …..[1]

= 120000 J …. [2]

From 1 & 2

So heat capacity of the liquid is 4 g-1 ° C-1 and specific heat capacity is 20,000J.

15) Some hot water was added to three times its mass of cold water at 10°c and the resulting

temperature was found to be 20°c. What was the temperature of the hot water?

Let the temperature of the hot water be t°c and mass of hot water = m gm

m X C X ( t -20) = 3m X C X 10

= t-20 = 30

⸫t = 30 + 20 = 50° C

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

16) Calculate the heat energy that will be released when 5.0 Kg of steam at 100°c condenses to form

water at 100°c. Express your answer in SI unit. (Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam is

2268 KJ Kg-1)

17) 10125 J of heat energy boils off 4.5g of water at 100°c to steam at 100°c, Find the specific latent

heat of steam

18) m1 g of steam, at 100°c, is condensed to form water at 100°c. If there is no heat loss to the

surroundings, the heat released in this process is used to convert m2g of ice at 0°c into water at

0°c.

i. Find the heat lost by steam in terms of m1 and the heat gained by ice in terms of m2

ii. Form a heat equation and find the ratio of m2 : m1 from it. (Specific latent heat of vapourization

of steam= 2268 KJ Kg-1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 KJ Kg-1

Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg -1 ° C.

= m1 X 2268 KJ Kg-1

ii. Now, heat lost by steam = heat gained by ice. m1 X 2268 = m2 X 336

19) Calculate the amount of heat released when 5.0g of water at 20°c is changed into ice at 0°c

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g)

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

= 21.0 X 20 + 1680 = 42.0 + 1680

20) A piece of iron of mass 2.0 Kg has a thermal capacity of 966 J/ °C.

i. How much heat is needed to warm it by 15°c?

ii. What is its specific heat capacity in S.I units?

Thermal capacity, C =

= 14490 J [ANS]

ii. Specific heat capacity C =

= .

=

21) A thermos flask of negligible heat capacity contains 100g of ice and 30g of water.

a. Calculate the mass of steam at 100°c needed to condense in the flask to just melt the ice.

b. Calculate the amount of water in the flask after condensation.

Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam=2260 J/g.

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g °c

Or Mass of steam, M =

= 14.86 gm [ANS]

b. Amount of water in the flask after condensation = mass of (water present + Melted ice +

Condensed steam)

22) In a laboratory experiment for finding specific latent heat of ice, 100g of water at 30° was taken in

a calorimeter made of copper and of mass 10g. When 10g of ice at 0°c was added to the mixture

and kept within the liquid till the ice melted completely the final temperature of the mixture was

found to be 20°c.

i. What is the total quantity of water in the calorimeter at 20°c?

81IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

ii. Specific heat capacities of water and copper being 4.2 J/g °c and 0.4 J/g°C respectively, what

quantity of heat would each release in cooling down to 20°c from the initial stage?

iii. Write an expression for the heat gained by ice on melting.

iv. Calculate the value of the latent heat of fusion of ice form the data discussed above.

ii. Heat lost by water + Heat lost by calorimeter in cooling down to 20°c

= m1 C1 t + m2 C2 t

iv. 10L + 10 x 4.2 X (20-0) = 4240

10 L + 840 = 4240,

10 L = 3400

23) A vessel of negligible heat capacity contains 40g of ice in it at 0°c. 8g of steam at 100°c is passed

into the ice to melt it. Find the final temperature of the contents of the vessel.

[Sp. Latent heat of vaporisation of steam = 2268 J/g.

Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J /g &

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g°C]

Heat given out by 8g of steam (at 100°c) in condensing into water at 100°c

= mL = 8 X 2268 J = 18144 Heat given out by this 8g of water (at 100°c) in cooling down to the final

temperature of T°c.

= 8 X 4.2 X (100-T) = 33.6 X (100 – T) J

= (21504 – 33.6 T) J

Also heat needed by 40 g of ice (at 0°c) into melting into water (at 0°c) = mL = 40 X 336 J = 13440J

Heat needed by this 40g of water (at 0°c) in getting heated upto the final temperature of T°c.

82IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

By principle of calorimetry

(21504-33.6T) j = (13440-168 T) J

24) In a laboratory experiment to measure specific heat capacity of copper 0.02 Kg of water at 70°c

was poured into a copper calorimeter with a stirrer of mass 0.16 Kg initially at 15°c. After stirring,

the final temperature reached to 45°c. Specific heat of water is taken as 4200 JKg-1 ° c -1

i. What is the quantity of heat released per Kg of water per 1°c fall in temperature?

ii. Calculate the heat energy released by water in the experiment in cooling form 70 °C to 45 °c

iii. Assuming that the heat released by water is entirely used to raise the temperature of

calorimeter from 15 °c to 45 °c, Calculate the specific heat capacity of copper.

i. The heat energy released by 1 kg of water per 1 °c fall in its temperature is the magnitude of the

specific heat capacity of water i.e. 4200J [ANS]

ii. The heat energy H1 released by water in the experiment is given by

H1 = 0.02 X 4200 X (70-45) = 2100 J [ANS]

iii. Let H2 be the heat needed by the calorimeter + stirrer for getting heated.

25) A hot solid of mass 60g at 100°C is placed in 100g of water at 18°c. The final steady temperature

recorded is 20°c. Find the specific heat capacity of the solid.

= 60 X C1 X 80 J

Heat gained by water = mc θ

= 100 X 4.2 X 2J

By principle of calorimetry we have heat cost = Heat gained

60 X C1 X 80 = 100 X 4.2 X 2

26) Calculate the mass of steam at 100 °c that must be passed into 8.4 Kg of water at 30 °c to raise the

temperature of water to 80 °c.

83IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

= m X 2268 J

= 2268 MJ

2. Heat given out by water at 100 °c (obtained from the condensation of steam) in cooling down to

80 °c

=mXCXt

= m X 4.2 X 20 = 84 m J

= (2268m + 84m) J

= 2352 m J.

4.2 J lg °C X 50 ° C = 1764000 J.

Since heat given out by stem = Heat taken up by water 2352 m = 1764000

27) 2 Kg of ice melts when a jet of steam at 100 °c is passed through a hole drilled in a block of ice.

What mass of steam was used?

Given:

Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/Kg °C

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J/Kg.

Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam = 2268 X 103 J /Kg.

= m (2,268 X 103) J

= mc ∆T

84IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

= m X 42 X 104 J

Total heat lost = m (2268 X 10 ) + m (42 X 104)

3

= m X 2688 X 103 J.

= 2 X (336 X 103) J = 672 X 103 J.

m X 2688 X 103 = 672 X 103

Or m =

28) 10g of ice at 0 °c absorbed 5460 J of heat to melt and change into water at 50 °c. Calculate the

specific latent heat of fusion of ice. Given specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J Kg-1 ° C-1

Quantity of heat required to melt ice = 10 X L

Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0 °C to 50 °C = 10 X 4.2 X 50

Solving for L we have L = 336 J g-1

29) In an experiment to determine the specific Latent heat of vaporisation of steam L, the following

measurements were taken:

Mass of calorimeter + stirrer = 𝒙 𝒌𝒈

Mass of water = y kg

Initial temperature of water = T1 °C

Final temperature of mixture = T2 °C

Given: Specific heat capacity of calorimeter and water are S1 and S2 respectively. Express L in terms

of above data.

Heat lost by water to lower its temperature T2 = m X s2 (100-T2)

Heat gained by water = y X S2 (T2 – T1)

Heat gained by calorimeter = 𝑥 X S1 (T2- T1)

Now, Heat lost by steam = Heat gained by water + Heat gained by calorimeter

Therefore, mL + mS2 (100 – T2) = y X S2 (T2 – T1) + 𝑥 X S1 (T2 – T1)

( )( ( )

Or, L = )

[ANS]

30) A piece of metal at 10 °C has a mass of 50g. When it is immersed in a current of steam at 100 °c,

0.7 g of steam is condensed on it. Calculate the specific heat of the metal. (Given: Latent heat of

steam = 540 Cal/g)

85IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Initial temperature = 10 °c

Let ‘c’ be the specific heat in cal/g °C. Then heat gained by metal = 50 g X C X (100-10) °C

= 50 X 90 X C Cal.

Mass of steam condensed = 0.7g

Heat lost by steam = Heat gained by a piece of metal

But, 50 X C X 90 = 0.7 X 540

.

C= = 0.084 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔 -1 °C-1

31) A 30g ice cube at 0 °C is dropped into 200g of water at 30°C. Calculate the final temperature of

water when the entire ice cube is melted. Given: Latent heat of ice is 80 cal g-1

Specific heat capacity of water = 1 cal 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔-1 °C-1

Heat lost by 200g water in cooling from 30°C to 0°C = 200 X 1 X (30 – T)

This heat is used by 30g of ice in getting just completely melted and in raising the temperature of

melted water to T°c. Now heat needed to just melt 30g of ice = 30 X 80 = 2400 cal.

Heat needed to raise the temperature of 30g of water from 0°C to T°C = 30 X 1 X (T – 0) cal = 30 T

cal

= 200 T + 30 T = 6000-2400

= 230 T = 3600,

=T= = 15.65 °c

⸫ Final temperature of water = 15.65 °c [ANS]

32) 1 Kg of ice at 0 °c is being continuously heated through an electric heater of 1 KW. Assuming that

all the heat is transmitted to ice, calculate the time intervals in seconds for water to get heated

from 0 °c to 100 °c.

(Given: Specific latent heat of ice = 3,336,000 J Kg-1

Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg-1 K -1)

86IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

i. Amount of heat required to completely melt 1 kg of ice at 0 °C

= Specific latent heat of ice

= 336000 J

Hence, time required = 336000 / 1000 = 336 sec [ANS]

ii. Amount of heat required by 1 Kg of water at 0 °c, in getting heated to 100 °c = 1 X 4200 X 100 J =

420000 J.

Hence time needed =

S = 420 sec [ANS]

33) A metal of mass 250g is heated to a temperature of 65 °C. It is then placed in 50g of water at 20 °C.

The final steady temperature of water becomes 25 °C. Neglecting the heat taken by the container;

calculate the specific heat capacity of the metal.

Let ‘c’ be the required specific heat capacity then heat lost by the metal = 250 X C X (65-25) =

10,000CJ

10000 CJ = 1050 J

⸫C = ,

= 0.105 Jg-1 ° C-1

34) Calculate the heat given out when a piece of iron of mass 50g and specific heat capacity 460 J Kg-1

° C-1 cools from 100 °c to 40 °c

Specific heat capacity of iron, C = 460 J Kg-1 ° C-1

Change in temperature ∆T = (100-40) °C = 60 °C

⸫ Heat energy = m X C X ∆T

Hence, the heat given out by the iron piece is 1380 J [ANS]

35) Calculate the heat energy gained when 5 Kg of water at 20 °C is brought to its boiling point.

(sp. Heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg-1 ° C-1)

⸫ Heat energy gained = mc ∆T

= 5 X 4200 X 80

= 1680000J [ANS]

36) 0.085 Kg of copper of sp. Heat capacity 100 cal kg-1 °C-1 and at 20 °C is heated by a burner for one

minutes, which supplies heat energy at a rate of 12 calories/sec. calculate the final temperature of

copper.

87IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Heat supplied to copper = 𝑋 60𝑠

= 720 Cal.

Heat supplied = mc ∆T

⇒∆T = .

°C = 84.70 °C

= 104.70 ° C [ANS]

37) Calculate the total amount of heat required to convert 100g ice at 0°C to steam at 100°c

(Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 Jg-1)

(Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1)

Heat required to convert 100g ice at 0°C to water at 0°C = Mass X Specific latent heat of fusion of ice

Heat required to raise the temperature of 100g water from 0°C to 100 °C

⸫Total amount of heat required = 33300 + 42000 = 75300J [ANS]

38) 2000 cal of heat is supplied to 200g of water. Find the rise in temperature.

(Take specific heat of water = 1 cal g-1 ° C -1)

Mass of water, m = 200g

Sp. Heat of water, C = 1 Cal g-1 ° C-1

Rise in temperature = ∆T

We know Q = m X C X ∆T

⇒∆T= = = 10°C [ANS]

39) Calculate the current flowing in a nichrome wire immersed in 500 g of turpentine oil at 20° C. Such

that the temperature of the oil rises to 70°C 5 minutes when the wire is connected to a battery of

emf 24V. The specific heat capacity of the oil is 750 J Kg-1°c-1

= 24 X I X 5 X 60 J.

Heat gained by turpentine = m X S X t = 500 X 0.75 X 50J

88IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

⸫ Current flowing = I = 2.60 A [ANS]

40) A refrigerator converts 100g of water at 20°C into ice at -10°C in 1 hr. Calculate the quantity of

heat extracted per sound.

Given: Sp. Latent heat of ice = 336 J/g

(Specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 J/g°C, Sp. Heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g °C)

Total heat extracted per hour = heat lost by water (being cooled from 20°c to 0°c + freezing to 0°C +

in reducing the temperature of ice to -10°c

= 100g [4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1X (20-0) ° C + 336 Jg-1 + 2.1 Jg-1 ° C-1 X {0- (-10) ° C} ]

= 44100 J

= 12.25 j/s

= 12.25 W [ANS]

41) 0.5 Kg of ice at -10 °C is heated until whole of it evaporates. Find the amount of heat required.

Given: Latent heat of ice = 336 X 103 J/Kg

Latent heat of steam = 2268 X 103 J/Kg and specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 X 103+ J/kg °c

Amount of heat required to evaporate 0.5 Kg of ice at -10 °C = Heat required to (raise temperature

of ice from - 10 °C to 0 °C + melt ice + raise the temperature of water from 0 °C to 100 °C + vaporize

the water)

= m[Cice ∆ t + Lice+ CW ∆t1 + L steam]

= 0.5[{2.1 X 103 X (0-(-10)} + 336 X 103 + 4.2 X 103 X (100-0) + 2268 X 103]

= 0.5 [21 X 103 + 336 X 103 + 420 X 103 + 2268 X 103] = 1.5225 X 106 J [ANS]

42) A copper vessel contains 200g of water at 24 ° C. When 112g of water at 42°C is added the

resultant temperature of water is 30°c. Calculate thermal capacity of calorimeter.

89IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

=6 (m X S) J

Heat gained by the water at 24°c

= 200 X4.2 X (30-24) J

= 6 X (m X S) = 5644.8 – 5040

.

=mXS= = 100.8 𝐽 ° 𝐶 -1

⸫ Thermal capacity of calorimeter = 100.8 J°C-1 [ANS]

43) A vessel of mass 80g (sp. Heat capacity = 0.8 J g -1 ° C-1) contains 250g of water at 35°C. Calculate

the amount of ice at 0°c, which must be added to it, so that final temperature is 5°c

[sp. Latent heat of ice = 340 J g -1]

Heat required to change ice at 0°C to water at 0°C = m + 340 = 340m J.

= 21 mJ

Total heat gained = (340 m + 21m) = 361 mJ

Heat lost by the water at 35°C to 5° C

= 1050.0 X 30 = 31500 J

= 33420 J

According to the question 361 m = 33420

Or, m = = 92.57 𝑔

44) Calculate the final temperature when 2 kg of cold water at 5°c is mixed with 0.4 Kg of hot water at

95°C.

90IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

0.4 X 4200 X (95-𝑥) = 2 X 4200 X (𝑥 − 5)

= = .

=5

= 95 − 𝑥 = 5𝑥 − 25

= 5𝑥 + 𝑥 = 95 + 25

= 6𝑥 = 120

=𝑥 =

= 20

45) A hot solid mass 60gm and at 100°c is placed in 120gm of water at 20°c when final temperature

recorded is 22°c. Find the heat capacity of solid.

60 X C X (100-22) = 100 X 4.200 X (22-20)

. .

C= = = 0.179 J/g°c

⸫ Heat capacity of solid is 0.179 J/g°C [ANS]

46) 8000 J of heat is given to 200g of copper at 20°c. What is the final temperature if the specific heat

capacity of copper is 0.4 J g -1 °C -1 ?

Then heat required to raise the temperature of 200g of copper from 20°c to T°C

Heat given = 8000J

Or (T-20) = .

= 100

47) A drill of power 400 W makes a hole in a lead cube of specific heat capacity 0.13 Jg-1 ° C-1 in 80s. If

the temperature of lead rises from 25°c to 325°, calculate the mass of lead cube.

Heat energy required to heat the lead to raise the temperature from 25° to 325°c = [ m X 0.13 X

(325°c-25°c)] J

91IExam18

ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

m X 0.13 X (325 – 25) = 400 X 80 or m X 0.13 X 300 =32000 or m= or m =

820.5g

So mass of the lead cube is 820.5g [ANS]

48) Which contains more heat 1gm of ice at 0°c or 1 gm of water at 0°c?

1 g of water at 0°c contains more heat. Heat contained by 1gm ice converted from 1gm of water at

0°c = (1 X 336) J = 336 J or heat given out by 1gm of water at 0°c converted from 1gm of ice at 0°c =

336 J

49) A vessel contains 100g of ice and 100g of water at 0°c. Steam at 100°c is passed into this vessel

until whole of the ice melts and the temp of the contents is raised by 10°c. Neglecting the heat

gained by the vessel, calculate the mass of steam used.

(Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice is 336J g -1

Sp. Latent heat of vaporisation of steam is 2260 Jg-1

Specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 Jg-1)

= m X 2260 + m X 4.2 X 90

= 2638 mJ

= (100 X 336) + (100 X 4.2 X 10)

= 33600 + 4200.0 = 37800 J

= 100 X 4.2 X 10 = 4200 J

2638 m = 37800 + 4200 = 42000 or m = 42000/2638 = 15.92g.

⸫ Mass of steam used = 15.92g [ANS]

50) An electric immersion heater is switched on for 10 minutes. The heat supplied by it raises the

temperature of 400gm of water from 10°C to 90°C Calculate the power of heater in watts.

Let power of heater = P

Heat energy absorbed by water = mc ϴR

= 400g X 4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1 X 80°C

= 134400 J

⸫By the law of conservation of energy P X 600s = 134400J

⸫P = = 224 = 224 𝑊

92IExam18

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