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ICSE CLASS 10

PHYSICS
MOST IMPORTANT
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

Written By RP Khadanga

For 2019 BOARD EXAMS


ICSE Class 10

PHYSICS

MOST IMPORTANT
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS

Written by R.P. Khadanga

For 2019 Board Exams

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

This Book Includes…


Exclusively targeted towards ICSE Class 10 Physics Board Exam revisions, this Exam18 book
includes most important numerical problems with solutions to help you understand
fundamentals of every unit as per the ICSE 2018-2019 syllabus.

Target Exam: ICSE Class 10 Board Exams


Also recommended to prepare for class tests in school

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr.No Topic Page No.


1 Light

Important Formulas 03

Important Problems & Solutions 06

2 Sound

Important Formulas 14

Points to Remember 17

Important Problems & Solutions 20

3 Current Electricity

Important Formulas 32

Points to Remember 34

Important Problems & Solutions 38

4 Electromagnetism

Important Formulas 68

Important Problems & Solutions 69

5 Heat

Important Formulas 70

Points to Remember 71

Important Problems & Solutions 73

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 1 – LIGHT

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Refractive index µ=

2) Refractive index µ=

3) Refractive index µ=

4) When a ray after refraction, retraces its path then:


a𝜇 = (where ‘a’ is the rarer medium and ‘b’ is the denser medium)
b

5) In case of refraction through optical slabs:


i) Incident ray is parallel to emergent ray.
ii) Angle of incidence is equal to angle of emergence.

6) Refractive index a𝜇 b = where ‘a’ is medium (air), ‘b’ is any other denser medium and
‘c’ is the critical angle.

7) In case of refraction through prism:

Angle of incidence + Angle of emergence = Angle of prism + Angle of deviation


i + e = A + D or 

8) In the minimum deviation position of prism:


i) Angle of incidence = Angle of emergence

I=e

ii) Angle of refraction at first face = Angle of refraction at second place

 r1 = r2

9) The magnification of lens is:

Size of image =
or =

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

10) For simple microscope:

Magnification = 1 + (where ‘D’ is the least distance of distant vision and ‘f’ is focal
length of convex lens)

11) f - number = The size of aperture =

12) Power of Lens: The power of lens is the measure of convergence or divergence
produced by it.

P= ( )
= ( )
where, f = focal length and P = Power

VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN DIFFERENT MEDIA

Medium Velocity of Light ( ms -1 )

Vacuum (air) 3 x 108

Water 2.25 x 108

Ruby 1.7 x 108

Ordinary glass 1.96 x 108

Crown glass (1.86 to 1.96) x 108

Flint glass 1.75 to 1.85 x 108

Diamond 1.24 x 108

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

REFRACTIVE INDEX OF SOME COMMON SUBSTANCES

Substance Refractive Index (µ)

Water 1.33

Ruby 1.76

Glass (ordinary) 1.53

Alcohol 1.37

Crown glass 1.53 to 1.61

Sulphuric Acid 1.43

Flint glass 1.62 to 1.71

Paraffin oil 1.44

Diamond 2.42

Ice 1.31

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

IMPORTANT PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

1) The angle of incidence in air for a ray of light is 45. If ray travels through water of
refractive index 4/3, find angle of refraction.

a𝜇 =
w

sin r = =
µ

= .

𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑟 = 0.5303
⸫ 𝑟 = (𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑟)-1 = 32 approx. [ANS]

2) The refractive index of a material is 1.4. If velocity of light in vacuum is 3 x 108 ms-1,
find the velocity of light in the material.

µ =

 1.4 =

 Velocity of light in material


= = 2.14 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]
.

3) A glass block 2.4 cm thick is placed over a stamp. Calculate the heights through which
image of stamp is raised. Refractive index of glass is 1.5.
a𝜇 =
g

.
 1.5 =

.
 Apparent depth = .
= 1.6 cm

 Height through which image is raised = (2.4 – 1.6) = 0.8 cm [ANS]

4) A coin placed under a glass appears raised by 12 mm.


If refractive index of glass is 1.5, calculate the actual thickness of glass slab.

Let the real thickness be = 𝑥

 Apparent thickness = (𝑥 – 12) mm

We know µ =

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⇒ 1.5 =
.
𝑂𝑟 1.5𝑥 − 18 𝑚𝑚 = 𝑥

𝑂𝑟 1.5𝑥 − 𝑥 = 18 𝑚𝑚 = 18 𝑚𝑚

 𝑥 = 36 𝑚𝑚 [ANS]

5) A rectangular tank 6 metre deep is full of water. By how much the bottom appears to
be raised, given refraction index of water = 𝟒/𝟑 ?

Here real depth of water = 6 m


Apparent dept = 𝑥 metres
Let Refractive index 𝜇 =
Now 𝜇 =

 =
Or 𝑥 = = 4.5 metres
Hence the distance by which bottom appears to be raised = 6 – 4.5 = 1.5 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒 [ANS]

𝟒
6) If the speed of light in vacuum is 3 x 108 ms-1and refractive index of water is 𝟑,
calculate the speed of light in water.

We know that
𝜇 =
.
=

 Speed of light in water = (3.0 x 108) x


⇒ Speed of light in water = 2.25 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]

7) A stamp collector uses a lens (convex) of focal length 7 cm to examine a stamp. What
is the power of lens?

Power = = = 0.1428 cm [ANS]

8) A glass slab 2.5 cm thick is placed over a coin. If the refractive index of glass is 3/2,
find the height through which coin is raised.

𝜇=

 Apparent depth =

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.
= = 1.66 cm = 1.7 cm
.

Distance through which coin is raised = (2.5 – 1.7) cm = 0.8 cm [ANS]

9) A light of wave length 500 nm in air enters a glass place of refractive index 1.5.
Find its wave length in glass.


Refractive index = = 1.5

Wave length is glass medium ( m ) = = 333.33 m [ANS]


.

10) A 10 cm tall object is placed on the principal axis of a convex lens of focal length 20 cm
and at a distance of 10 cm from it. Find by accurate scale diagram, the position nature
and size of image.

Let the scale be 1 cm = 10 cm

 Size of object = 10 cm = 1 cm

 Distance of object from lens = 10 cm = 1 cm

 Focal length of lens = 20 cm = 2 cm

On constructing ray diagram, it is found;


Size of image A1 B1 = 2 x 10 cm = 20 cm

Distance of image from optical centre OB1 = 2 x 10 cm = 20 cm


Nature of Image is erect, virtual and enlarged. [ANS]

11) A 5 cm tall object is placed on the principal axis of diverging lens of focal length 15 cm
and at a distance of 10 cm from it. Find the nature, position and size of image.

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Let the scale be 5 cm = 1 cm.

 Size of object 5 cm = 1 cm

 Distance of object from lens = 10 cm = 2 cm

 Focal length of lens = 15 cm = 3 cm

Distance:
On constructing ray diagram, it is found
Size of image = A1 B1 = 0.6 cm = 0.6 x 5 cm = 3.0 cm [ANS]

Distance of image from lens = OB1 [ANS]

Nature of Image is erect, virtual and diminished. [ANS]

12) An object 6 cm high is placed at a distance of 18 cm from a convex lens of focal length
6 cm. Find by scale diagram:
(i) The Nature of Image
(ii) Position of Image
(iii) Size of Image

Scale 2 cm = 1 cm

A1 B1 image size is 3 cm at a distance ɤ = 9


cm

i) Nature of Image – Real and inverted.


ii) Position is at 9 cm i.e. between F and 2F.
iii) Size of Image = A1B1 = 3 cm i.e. smaller in size. [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

13) The refractive index of water with respect to air is a𝝁w and that of glass with respect to
air is a𝝁g. Express the refractive index g of glass with respect to water.

Let C1, C2 and C3 be the velocities of light in air, water and glass respectively. Then by
definition:
a𝜇 w = , w𝜇 g = , and a𝜇 g =

Here, a𝜇 w x w𝜇 g = x =
= a𝜇g

µ
⸫ w𝜇 g = [ANS]
µ

14) What is the refractive index of an opaque body?

Infinity because the speed of light for an opaque medium is O.


i.e. re = =

15) Velocity of light in vacuum (air) is _____________________________.


(3 x 108)

16) Velocity of light in water is ___________________________.


(2.25 x 108)

17) Velocity of light in Diamond is ________________________.


(1.24 x 108)

18) Velocity of light in ordinary glass is ____________________.


(1.96 x 108)

19) Refractive index of water is __________________________.


(1.33)

20) Refractive index of Diamond is _______________________.


(2.42)

21) Refractive index of ice is _______________________.


(1.31)

22) Critical angle for Diamond is only ________________________.


(24 )

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23) Critical angle is the angle of _____________________ for which the angle of
__________________ is ________________.
(Incidence, refraction, 90 )

24) The speed of light in glass is 2 X 105 km/s.


What is the refractive index of glass.

Speed of light in glass = 2 x 105 km/s


= 2 x 108 m/s
Refractive index of glass is

µglass = = 1.5 [ANS]

25) A ray of light passes through a right angled prism as shown in the figure. State the
angles of incidence at the faces AC and BC.

Angle of incidence at Face AC is = 45


Angle of incidence at Face BC = 0

26)

Sr. No. Name of Electromagnetic Waves Wavelength Range In Meter

1 Gamma Rays 6 X10-13 → 1 X 10-10

2 X-Rays 1 X10-10 → 3 X 10-8

3 Ultraviolet Rays 3 X10-8 → 4 X 10-7

4 Visible light 4 X10-7 → 8 X 10-7

5 Infrared Rays 8 X10-7 → 3 X 10-5

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6 Heat Radiations 1 X10-5 → 1 X 10-3

7 Microwaves 1 X10-3 → 3 X 10-1

8 Ultrahigh frequency (UHF) 1 X10-1 → 1

9 Very High Frequency (VHF) 1 → 10

10 Radio Frequency (RF) 10 → 104

11 Power Frequency (PF) 5 X106 → 6 X 106

27) Wavelength and frequency are given. Fill up the name of the wave.

No. Name of Wavelength in nm frequency


Wave

(i) < 0.01 > 1019 Hz

(ii) 0.01 - 1.0 3 x 1019 to 3 x 1016 Hz

(iii) 1.0 – 400 3 x 1016 to 7.5 x 1014 Hz

(iv) 400 – 800 7.5 x 1014 to 3.75 x 1014 Hz

(v) 800 - 106 3.75 x 1014 to 3 x 1011 Hz


(800 nm to 1 mm)

(vi) 106 - 1010 3 x 1011 to 3 x 107 Hz


(1 mm to 10 m)

(vii) Above 1010 Below 3 x 107 Hz


(> 10m)

(i) Gamma rays, (ii) X - rays (iii) Ultraviolet rays (iv) Visible light (v) Infrared waves
(vi) Microwaves (vii) radio waves

28) Give the colours and the range of the wavelengths constituting a visible spectrum.

The wavelength ranges for various colours of visible spectrum are given below:

Colour Wavelength in Å

Violet 4000 to 4460

Indigo 4460 to 4640

Blue 4640 to 5000

Green 5000 to 5780

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Orange 5920 to 6200

Red 6200 to 8000

29) Write the range of wavelength of

(i) Infrared spectrum


(ii) Ultraviolet spectrum

(i) 8000 Å to 107 Å


(ii) 100 Å to 4000 Å

30) Give the approximate range of wavelengths in vacuum associated with UV rays and
visible light.

(i) For UV radiations the range is 3 x 10-8 m to 4 x 10-7 m.


(ii) For visible light, the range is 4 x 10-7 to 8 x 10-7 m.

31) A TV station transmits waves of frequency 200 MHz. Calculate the wavelength of the
waves if their speed in air is 3.0 x 108 ms-1.

Given V = 200 MHz


C = 3 x 108 ms-1

Using C = V, we have; 𝝀 = = = 1.5m [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 2 – SOUND

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Relation between speed of sound distance of reflection body from source of sound and time
for hearing echo
𝑉= Or d=
2) In RADAR system

D= where ‘c’ is the speed of light in vacuum

‘t’ is the time and ‘d’ is the distance to be calculated.


The speed of radio waves is the same as that of light in vacuum.

3) The Frequency of a vibrating string depends upon the length of the string, tension in the
string and the mass per unit length of the strong.

𝐼
𝑓= 𝑚

Where L = Length of the string,


T= tension in the string and
M = mass per unit length of string.

4) Loudness of sound increases with the intensity of sound according to

Weber-Fechner’s Law,

According to this Law,

L X Log10 1, or

L = K log10 1, where ‘L’ is called sensation of loudness and I is the intensity of sound.

5) 𝑉 = 𝑓𝜆
Where f = n = frequency (Hz)

v= wave velocity ms-1


λ = wavelength (m)

6)

(If velocity or the medium is same for two waves A and B)

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7) In case of guitar t2 →Length of longer wire.

= , where ‘L1’ →Length of smaller wire

‘f1’ is frequency of longer wire,

‘f2’ is frequency of smaller wire

8) Frequency of a tuning fork

𝑓= Where ‘f’ is the frequency of tuning fork and ‘T’ is the Time of oscillation of
tuning fork in see.

9) Relation between frequency and density of stretched string, when all other variable are
constant.


𝐹× i.e. =
√ √

Where ‘f’ is frequency ‘d’ is density

10) SONAR stands for sound Navigation and ranging. Sonar works on the Principle of echoes.
Depth of sea is calculated by this system using the formula.
𝑑 = 𝑉𝑡/2

11) The time taken to hear an echo can be given by the relation :

t= Total distance to travelled = 2d


Speed of sound v
Here
t= time taken to hear an echo=01.s
d= distance between the listener and the surface of reflection of sound and
v= speed of sound = 340 ms’

2d= the distance covered by the sound to reach the reflection surface and to come back

i.e. d= tv = 01.s x 340 = 17m


2 2

T= 2d
v
12) Weber- Fechner’s law: Loudness of sound increases with the intensity of a sound according
to Weber –Fechner’s Law.

L = K log10 I

L is called sensation of loudness and I is the intensity of sound.

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13) Unit of Loudness: The loudness is generally expressed in decibel (dB)


Unit of sound is decibel.
● The unit of loudness is named after Scientist Alexander Graham Bell who invented the
telephone.

● Sound level (in dB) =


Where I is the intensity of sound and I0 is the zero level sound and it is equal to 10-12
Wm-1 at the frequency of 100 Hz.

● Any person who is constantly exposed to the sound level above 120 dB, complains of
headache and may suffer from loss of hearing.

● Examples of Harmful sounds: Thunder- 110dB, Pop Concert- 120 to 140 dB, Aeroplane
taking off – 130 to 140 dB.

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POINTS TO REMEMBER

1. If a body vibrates more than 20 times and less than 20,000/ min we can hear it.

2. 1 vibration = 2beats, 2 oscillation, 2 swings.

3. If the frequency of a sound is between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz then human can hear it.

4. So audible range is 20Hz to 20,000Hz it is called limit of audibility.

5. Sounds having frequency less than 20 Hz are called infrasonic or subsonic.

6. Sounds having frequency more than 20,000 Hz are called ultrasonic.

7. Sound waves travel with a speed of 332 ms’ in air (340 ms’ taken generally).

Quick Guide To Units Used In Sound:

● Audible range → 20 Hz to 20,000Hz.


● Unit of amplitude → metre
● Unit of velocity of wave → ms-1
● Unit of wavelength → metre
● Unit of time period → second (s)
● Unit of frequency → Hertz (Hz)
● Unit of loudness level → phon
● Velocity of electromagnetic wave → 3 X 108 ms -1 in vacuum.

1Hz = 1 Vibration

1KHz = 103 Hz

1MHz = 106 Hz

1Giga hertz = 109 Hz

Angstrom unit (Å): The unit used to measure wavelength of electromagnetic spectrum is called
angstrom unit. One angstrom (1 Å) = 10-8 cm = 10−10 metre

Range of Electromagnetic Waves:


i. Ultraviolet Rays - Range 100 Å
3900 Å
ii. X- Rays – 100 Å to 10-2 Å
iii. Gamma Rays – 10-2 Å to 10-3 Å

The range of electromagnetic waves which cause sensation of sight is 7800 Å to 3900 Å.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Wavelength of various electromagnetic waves


Radio waves 1 Km or 1013 Å
Television waves 1 m or 1010 Å
Microwaves 1 cm or 108 Å
Infra-Red 107 Å
Visible light 8000 Å
Ultraviolet 4000 Å
X - Rays 100 Å
10-2 Å
Y- Rays 10-3 Å
Secondary cosmic Rays 10-4 Å

Colours based on the Wavelengths


Sr.no Wavelength range (app) Colour
1 8000 Å to 6200 Å Red
2 6200 Å to 5900 Å Orange
3 5900 Å to 5800 Å yellow
4 5800 Å to 5000 Å Green
5 5000 Å to 4650 Å Blue
6 4650 Å to 4450 Å Indigo
7 4450 Å to 3800 Å Violet

The frequency range of infrasonic, audible and ultrasonic waves:


Audible range = Frequency range
20 Hz to 20,000 hz

Ultrasonic above - 20,000Hz

Infrasonic – below 20 Hz

The order of wavelength of visible light and audible sound:


Wavelength of visible light is of the order of 6 X 10-7 m and audible sound in air varies from 17 X
10-3 m to 17m

We know that wavelength 𝜆 =

For visible light (V= 5 X 1014 +12)

λ = 3 X 108 ms-1 = 6X 10-7


5x1014 +12

For audible sound (20 Hz-\ - 20,000Hz)


λ = 340 ms-1 =17m
20Hz

λ= 340 ms-1 = 17 X 10-3 m


20,000 Hz

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Speed of Waves:
SOUND WAVE LIGHT WAVE
Speed - 332 m/s Speed- 3 X 108 m/s

Sound levels of some common sounds in our daily life.


SR.NO Source (Object of sound) Sound level (db)
1 Threshold of hearing 0
2 Rustling of leaves 10
3 Whisper 15-20
4 Normal Conversation 50-60
5 Teacher teaching in class 60-70
6 Motor cycle 70-80
7 Roaring of a lion 90-100
Thundering (at the time of
8 lightening) 110
9 Pop concert 120-140
10 Aeroplane taking off 130-140

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

IMPORTANT PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS


1) The velocity of sound in air is given as 330ms. A man claps his hands while standing at a
distance of 165m from a high wall.
i. Will he hear a distinct echo of his clap?
ii. Given reason for your answer
i. Yes, he will hear a distinct echo of his clap.
ii. Time after which echo is heard = = =1 second
As the minimum time required for hearing echo is 0.1s & the time calculated above is 1 second,
therefore the man can hear echo.

2) A man stands at a distance of 255m away from a wall. He shoots a rifle and hears an echo
after 1.5 sec. calculate the velocity of sound.
Given:
Distance = d = 255m
Time= t= 1.5 sec
Velocity of sound = V=
= 2 X 255 m = ( 𝑋 2)
1.5 s

= 1020 m = 340 ms-1 [ANS]


3s

3) Without changing the length of a string, its tension is increased 4 times. What happen to its
frequency of vibrations?
Frequency of vibrations will increase by 2 times because F X √𝑡

4) Assuming velocity of sound at room temperature to be 340 ms-1 (calculate the wavelength of
wave emitted by a tuning fork of frequency 512.
(Hint: λ = )

Velocity = V = 340 ms-1


Frequency = f = 512

Wave length λ = Wave Velocity


Frequency
= 𝑚𝑠 -1
= 0.66 [ANS]

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5) Two waves take one second to go from A to


B. Calculate the wavelength?
From given figure AB = 42 cm
Wavelength of (a) = = 14𝑐𝑚
Wave length of (b) = = 7𝑐𝑚 [ANS]

6) What is the order of wavelength of visible light and audible sound?


We know that wavelength λ =
For visible light (V = 5X 1014 Hz)
λ= 3 X 108 ms -1 = 6 X 10-7m
5 X 1014 Hz
For audible sound (20 Hz – 20000 Hz)
λ = 332 ms -1 16.6m
20 Hz
λ = 332 ms -1 16.6 X 10-3
20000 Hz
Wavelength of visible light is of the order of 6 X 10-7m and audible sound in air varies from 16.6
X 10-3 m to 16.6 m.

7) The audible range of frequencies for a normal human being is 20 to 20,000 Hz.

8) Minimum distance to hear an echo is 17m.

9) To hear an echo clearly or distinctly, the minimum distance between the listener and the
reflector of sound is 17m.

10) The vocal sound made by the bats have frequencies ranging from 50 to 50,000 hertz per sound.

11) The sensation of any sound persists in our ear for about 0.1 second.

12) The distance between a source of sound and a reflecting surface is 0.34km. The echo will
reach the source after reflection after approximately
(a) 2s (b) 0.5s (c) 1s (d) 0.25s
Ans (a)

13) A person standing between two vertical cliffs and 480m from the nearest cliff shouts. He
hears the first echo after 3 sec and the second echo 2 sec later.
(a) Calculate the speed of sound
(b) The distance of the other cliff from the person.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Given
d1= 480m, t1 = 2 sec, t2 = 3 sec
d2 =? V =?
T= 2d, v= 2d1 = 2 X 480m = 480m/s
V T1 2 sec
Speed of sound = 480m/sec …. (1)
V = 2d or d = Vt
t 2
d2 = V X t2 = 480m/s X 3 sec = 720m … (2)
2 2

Distance of other cliff from the person is 720m [ANS]

14) A type of electromagnetic wave has wavelength 50Å.


i. Name the wave
ii. What is the speed of the wave in vacuum?
i.X-rays
ii.3 X 108m/s [ANS]

15) Radar sends a signal to an aircraft at a distance of 30km away and receives it back after 2 X
10-4 second. What is the speed of the signal?
Given: Distance of aircraft = 30 Km = 30,000 m.
Total distance = 2 X 30,000 = 60,000 m.
Time taken = 2 X 10-4 second
Hence speed of sound V
= distance travelled(2d)
Time taken (t)
= 60,000 = 30,000 X 104 m/s
2 X 10-4
= 3 X 108 m/s [ANS]

b. A sound made on the surface of a lake takes 3s to reach a boatman. How much time will
it take to reach a diver inside the water at the same depth? Velocity of sound in air =
330m
Velocity of sound in water = 1450 ms-1
Depth of lake = V X t = 330 X 3 = 990m.
Depth of diver = 2 X 990m = 1980m.
Time taken by sound in water = 990 = 0.68s
1450
Total time = 3+ 0.68 = 3.68 seconds. [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

16) An observer stands at a certain distance away from a cliff and produces a loud sound. He
hears the echo of sound after 1.8s. Calculate the distance between the cliff and the observer
if the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1
Given: V = 340 m/s , t = 1.8 s ,
Distance travel by sound = 2d.
Distance = speed X time
2d = V X t
D=VXt = 340 X 1.8 = (170 X 1.8) m
2 2
= 306 m
The distance between the cliff and the observer is 306 m [ANS]

17) A man standing between two cliffs produces a sound and hears two successive echoes at
intervals of 3 sec and 4 sec respectively. Calculate the distance between the two cliffs. The
speed of sound in air is 330 ms-1 .
We know
V=
Or 2d = V x t
Now d1 = 330 X 3 = 495 m & d2 = 330 X 4 = 660m
2 2
Distance between the two cliffs = (495 + 660) m = 1155m [ANS]

18) A man standing 25m away from a wall produces a sound and receives the reflected sound.
Calculate the time after which he receives the reflected sound if the speed of sound in air is
350ms-1
t= =2𝑋 ms-1 = 0.142 Seconds [ANS]

19) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per sec. An observer starts the pendulum and
fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.
If the velocity of sound in air is 340,m-1 , what is the distance between the cliff and the
observe?
5 vibrations take 1 sec.
8 vibrations will require
𝑋 8 = = 1.6 𝑠𝑒𝑐
As V = or 340 = .
d = 340 X 1.6 = 272m [ANS]
2

20) A) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 Hz and a wavelength of 1.3. calculate the speed
with which this sound travels.
We know that
V=nλ here, n = 256 Hz
And λ = 1.3 m
Speed of sound v= 256 X 1.3 or V= 332.8 m/s [ANS]

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B) What difference would be felt by a listener between this sound and another sound
travelling at the same speed but of wavelength 2.6m?
.
The fundamental frequency of other sound wave will be . = 128 Hz [ANS]
(Speed of first sound = 332.8 m/s)
Hence there may be difference of overtones in the two sounds. Thus the quality in the two
cases may be different. Second sound will be less shrill, sharp and more flat of wavelength.

21) Radar is able to detect the reflected waves from an enemy Aeroplan after a time interval of
0.15 milli seconds. If the velocity of the wave is 3 X 108 ms-1, calculate the distance of
Aeroplan from the radar.
Given V= 3 X 108 ms-1, and
T = 0.015 milli seconds = 0.015 X 10-3 s
Let d be the distance of Aeroplane from the radar.
Then total distance travelled by the waves = 2d.
V=
Or d = = 3 X 108 X 0.015 X 10-3 s = 2250m.
Thus the distance of Aeroplane from the radar is 2250m. [ANS]

22) A man stands at a distance of 255 m away from a wall. He shoots a rifle and hears an echo
after 1.5s calculate the velocity of sound.
Given distance, d= 255m
And time t = 1.5s
Velocity of sound, V = = 2𝑋 . = 340𝑚/𝑠 [ANS]

23) Calculate the speed of a sound wave whose frequency is 2 KHz and wavelength 65cm
V = 2 KHz = 2000 Hz
λ= 65cm = 0.65 m
V = v x λ = 2000 x 0.65 = 1300 m/s.
Speed of the sound wave is 1300 m/s. [ANS]

24) A worker lives at a distance of 1.32 Km from the factory. If the speed of sound in air be 330
m/s, how much time will the sound of factory siren take to reach the worker?
Distance of the factory = 1.32 km
= 1.32 x 1000 m = 1320 m
Speed of sound = 330 m/s
Time for siren sound to reach the worker
= = /
= 4 second [ANS]

25) A tank, travelling at the rate of 72 Km/ hr , towards a hill fires a shot and its driver hears the
echo after 4.5 second. Find the distance of tank from the hill when the shot was fired.
Velocity of sound = 340 ms-1.

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Let A be the position of the tank when shot was fired and B be its position when its echo was
received.
AB = Vt
Where V = velocity of tank
t = time for echo
let 𝑥 be the distance between the tank & hill.
Distance travelled by sound = 𝑥 + 𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡 = 2𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡
2𝑥 − 𝑣𝑡 = V x t where V = velocity of sound
Here V = 72 km h-1 = 72 x ms-1
= 20ms-1
V = 340 ms-1 , t = 4.5 sec
2𝑥 = (20 𝑋 4.5 ) = 340 𝑋 4.5
or, 2𝑥 = ( 340 𝑋 4.5 ) + (20 𝑋 4.5 )
or, 2𝑥 = 4.5 𝑋 360
or 𝑥 = 4.5 X 360 = 810m [ANS]
2
26) Radar sends a signal to an aircraft at a distance of 30km away and receives it back after 2 X
10-4 second. what is the speed of the signal
Given: Distance of aircraft = 30 km = 30,000m
Total distance = 2 X 30,000 = 60,000m
Time taken = 2 X 10-4 sec
Hence speed of sound V = Distance travelled (2d)
Time taken (t)
= 60,000 = 30,000 X 104 m/s
2X 10-4
= 3 X 108 m/s [ANS]

27) A person standing between two vertical cliff and 480m from the nearest cliffs shouts. He
hears the first echo after 3s and the second is echo 2 second later calculate:
1. The speed of sound
2. The distance of the other cliff from the person.

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1. Speed of sound V =
𝑣 =2𝑋 = 480 ms-1 [ANS]

2. Distance of the other cliff from the person =


D = v x t = 480 ms-1 X 3s = (240 X 3) m
2 2
=720m[ANS]

28) An observer stands at a certain distance away from a cliff and produces a loud sound. He
hears the echo of the sound after 1.8s. Calculate the distance between the cliffs and the
observer if the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1
Given: V = 340 m/s,
T = 1.8 seconds
Distance travelled by sound = 2d
Distance = speed X time
2d = v x t
D = v x t = 340 X 1.8 = 170 x 1.8
2 2 = 306 m [ANS]

29) A man standing between two cliffs produces a sound and hears two successive echoes at
intervals of 3s and 4s respectively. Calculate the distance between the two cliffs
The speed of sound in the air is 330 ms-1
We know V = ,
Or, 2d = V X t
D1 = and D2 =
D1 = 495 m and D2 = 660m
Distance between the two cliffs = 495m + 660m
= 1155m

30) A man stands at a distance of 68m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time interval will he
hear the echo, if the speed of sound in air is 340 ms-1?
If the man had been standing at a distance of 12m from the cliff would he have heard a clear
echo?

1. Distance =68m, speed = 340 m/s


Time (t) = 2 X distance
Speed
t = 2 x 68 m = 0.4 second
= 340m/s [ANS]

2. No, minimum distance required for hearing an echo is 17m. [ANS]

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31) A radar sends a signal to an Aeroplan at a distance 45km away with a speed of 3 X 108 ms-1 .
After how long is the signal received back from the Aeroplan?
V=
t = 2 X 45 X 1000 = 3 X 10-4 s [ANS]
3 X 108

32) An observer stands at a distance of 850m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time gap will
he hear the echo if sound travel at a speed of 350ms-1 in air?
Given d = 850m, V = 350ms-1 , t = ?
We know that d =
t = 2d = 2 X 850m = 2 X 17m = 34 m
v 350ms-1 7 7
t = 4.86s
Time gap = 4.86s [ANS]

33) A man standing in front of a vertical cliff fires a gun. He hears the echo after 3 seconds. On
moving closer to the cliff by 82.5m, he fires again. This time, he hears the echo after 2.5
seconds
Calculate:
1. The distance of the cliff from the initial position of the man.
2. The velocity of sound.

1. Let the distance between initial position of man and cliff be 𝑥 meter.
Time taken in travelling 2𝑥
Distance by sound = 3 sec [ANS]

2. Speed of sound =
S= ……. (1)
When he moves 82.5m close to cliff,
Distance = 2 ( (𝑥 − 82.5)
Time = 2.5 sec
( . )
Speed of sound = .
( . )
Now = .
or 5𝑥 = 6𝑥 − 495
Or 𝑥 = 495 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟
Speed of sound = 2 X 495 = 2 X 165 = 330 m/s [ANS]
3

34) Radar is able to detect the reflected waves from an enemy Aeroplane, after a time interval of
0.02 milli seconds. If the velocity of the waves is 3 X 108 ms-1, calculate the distance of the
plane from the radar.

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Let ‘d’ be the distance of enemy plane from the radar. The waves from the radar travel a
distance (d + d) 2d before being detected.

The time taken for this purpose is 0.02ms (or 2 X 10-5 s). Hence, velocity of waves is
V = 2d = 2d
t 2X 10-5 s

or 2d = 3 X 108 ms-1
2 X 10-5s

D = 3 X 108 ms-1 X 2 X 10-5s


2
= 3 X 108 m = 3 Km
So distance of the enemy plane from the radar is 3 km [ANS]

35) The wavelength of waves produced on the surface of water is 20 cm. if the wave velocity is
24ms-1,
Calculate:
1. The number of waves produced in one second and
2. The time required to produced one wave

Given:
Λ = 20cm = 0.2m, V = 24ms-1
V =? , I =?
1. Number of waves produced in one second,
/
i.e., V = = = 120 s-1 [ANS]
.

2. Time required to produce one wave


T= 1 = 1 = 0.0083s [ANS]
V 120s-1

36) The ratio of the amplitude of two waves is 4:9. What is the ratio of their intensities?
We know that intensity of a wave (I) X square of its amplitude (a)2.
i.e. I 1 = a12
I2 a22

Hear a1 = 4
a2 9

I1 = (4)2 = 16
I2 (9) 2 81

Ratio of the intensities of two waves is 16:81 [ANS]

37) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per second. An observer stars the pendulum and
fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.

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If the velocity sound in air is 340 ms-1, what is the distance between the cliff and the
observer?

Let the distance between the cliff and the observer is d

Vs = 340 m/s, t = 8/5 = 1.6s

We know that dco = Vs X t = 340m/s X 1.6s


2 2

= 272m [ANS]

38) A man standing 25m away from a wall produces a sound and receives the reflected sound.

(a) Calculate the time after which he receives the reflected sound if the speed of sound in
air is 350ms-1

D = 25m
V = 350ms-1

Time t = 2d = 2 X 25m 1m
V 350 ms-1 7 ms-1

0.14 sec [ANS]

39) An observer stands at a distance of 850m from a cliff and fires a gun. After what time-gap will
he hear the echo, if sound travels at a speed of 350ms-1 in air

Given speed V = 350ms-1 and distance ‘d’ = 850m,

V=

t=

= 2 X 850m
350ms-1

= 4.85 sec

The observer will hear echo after 4.85 sec [ANS]

40) A pendulum has a frequency of 5 vibrations per second. An observer starts the pendulum and
fires a gun simultaneously. He hears the echo from a cliff after 8 vibrations of the pendulum.
If the velocity of sound in air is 340 ms-1, what is the distance the cliff and the observer?

5 vibrations take 1 sec

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8 vibrations will require 𝑋 8 = 1.6 𝑠𝑒𝑐


Here, given that V = 340 m/s

As V = or 340 = .

d = 340 X 1.6
2

d = 272m
Distance between the cliff and the observer is 272m [ANS]

41) Radio waves of speed 3 X 108 m/s are reflected off the moon and received back on earth, the
time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back at the earth's surface is
2.5 seconds. What is the distance of the moon from the earth?

Let ‘d’ be the distance of the moon from the earth.

Then radio waves, after being reflected from the moon surface travel a distance 2d in 2.5
seconds duration.

Hence =𝑣

Or = 3 𝑋 108 (V = 3 X 108 m/s & t = 2.5s given)


.

Or d = 3 X 108 X 2.5 m
2

= 3.75 X 108 m

= 375,000 Km

Distance of the moon from the earth is 375,000 Km [ANS]

42) Radio waves of speed 3 X 108 m/s are reflected off the moon and received back on the earth,
the time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back on the earth’s
surface is 2.5 seconds. What is the distance of the moon from the earth?

We know that d = v x t
2

Where d is the distance of the moon from the earth.

V is the speed of radio waves = 3 X 108 ms-1

T is the time elapsed between the sending of the signal and receiving it back on the earth’s
surface = 2.5s

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D = 3 x 108 ms-1 x 2.5s = 3.75 x 108 ms-1


2

Distance of the moon from the earth is 3.75 x 108 ms-1 [ANS]

43) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 hertz and a wavelength of 1.3m.
1. Calculate the speed with which this sound travels.
2. What difference would be felt by a listener between this sound and
another sound travelling at the same speed but of wave length 2.6m?

1. We know that

V = nλ , here n = 256 Hz and λ = 1.3m

Speed of sound V = 256 x 1.3 or V = 332.8 m/s [ANS]

2. Fundamental frequency of other sound wave will be 332.8/2.6 = 128 Hz [ANS]

Hence there may be difference of overtones in the two sounds. Thus the quality in the two
cases may be different. Second sound will be less shrill, sharp and more flat of
wavelength.

44) A certain sound has a frequency of 256 hertz and a wavelength of 1.3m calculate the speed
with which this sound travels.

We know that V = n λ
Here, n = 256 Hz and λ = 1.3m
Speed of sound V = 256 x 1.3
Or v = 332.8 m/s [ANS]

45) Calculate the minimum distance at which a person should stand in front of a reflecting surface
so that he can hear a distinct echo. Speed of sound in air is 350ms-1.

We know d =

= 350 x .1
2

= 17.5 m.
Here the minimum distance required for hearing a distinct echo is 17.5 m [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 3 – CURRENT ELECTRICITY

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) 𝑄 I is the current in Amp, Q is the charge in coulombs and t is


𝐼=
𝑡 time in second

2) 𝑊 V is p.d in volts, W is work in joules and Q is change in


𝑉=
𝑄 coulombs

3) 𝐿 Ʀ is resistance in ohms; p is specific resistance in ohm-


𝑅=𝑝
𝑎 meter. ’l’ is length in meters and ‘a; the area of cross
section(in m2)

4) R=r1+r2+r3 R is the total resistance in series, whereas r1, r2 and r3 are


(in series) individual resistance in series.
(R=R1+R2+R3)

5) 1 1 1 1 R is the total resistance in parallel and r1: r2: r3 etc. are


= + +
𝑅 𝑟1 𝑟2 𝑟3 individual resistance in parallel

(𝑖𝑛 𝑃𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑)
1 1 1 1
= + +
𝑅 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3
6) 𝑅1 𝐿1 R1 and R2 are the resistance of conductors and L1 and L2 the
=
𝑅2 𝐿2 length of conductors respectively.

7) 𝑅1 𝑎1 R1 and R2 are the resistance of conductors and a1 and a2 the


=
𝑅2 𝑎2 area of cross section respectively

8) 𝑉 𝑉 ‘I’ is the current in Amps, ’V’ the potential difference in volts


𝐼= 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 =
𝑅 𝐼 and ‘R’ is the resistance in ohms.

9) 𝐸 ‘E’ is e.m.f in volts; r is the internal resistance of cell in ohm,


𝐼=
𝑅+𝑟 R is the external resistance in ohms and I is the current in
Amp.

10) 𝑅 (𝐸 − 𝑉 ) ‘r’ is the internal resistance of cell; ’R’ the external


𝑟=
𝑉 resistance of circuit; ‘E’ is the e.m.f of cell and ‘V’ is the
potential difference.

11) (𝐸 − 𝑉) ‘R’ is the internal resistance of cell; ’E’ is the e.m.f ‘V’ is the
𝑟=
𝑉 p.d and I is current.

12) E – V = Ir (E-V), the drop in potential is the product of current and


internal resistance of cell.

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13) 𝐼= in series ‘N’ is the number of cell in series ’E’ the e.m.f, ’R’ the
external resistance ‘r’ the internal resistance and I ,the
current in circuit

14) 𝐼= in Parallel ‘N’ is the number of cells in parallel; ‘E’ the e.m.f of each
cell, ‘R’ the internal resistance ‘r’ is the internal resistance
of each cell and i the current circuit

15) Electrical energy E= (I)2 Spent per second


RT

If a cell of emf ɛ and internal resistance r sends a current I in an external resistance R, then

 Total Resistance of the circuit = R+ r.


ɛ
 Current dream from the cell 𝐼 =

ɛ
 Terminal voltage of the cell 𝑉 = 𝑇𝑅 =

ɛ
 Voltage drop inside the cell, 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑟 =

 E.m.f of the cell, ɛ = V+ v =IR+ Ir = I(R+ r)

ɛ
 Internal resistance of a cell, 𝑟 = − 1 𝑅.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

POINTS TO REMEMBER
1) Current:

 S I unit of current is ampere (A)


 Bigger units are kilo ampere(kA=103A) & mega ampere [MV=106A]
 small units are milliamp ere(mA=103A) & Micro ampere (A=10-6A)

2) Potential difference:

 S.I unit of potential difference is volt(v).


 Bigger units are kilovolt(kV=103) and megavolt ( MV=106V)

3) Resistance:

 S.I unit of resistance is ohm(Ω).


 Bigger units are kilo-ohm(kΩ =103Ω) and mega ohm (MΩ = 106Ω) and
Giga Ohm (G Ω) = 109 Ohm.

4) Specific Resistance:

 S.I unit of specific resistance is ohm-meter (Ω-m)


 C.G.S unit of specific resistance is ohm-cm (Ω- cm)

5) Unit of electric charge: The unit of electric charge is coulomb one coulomb is equivalent
to total change 6.25* 1018 Electrons.

6) The charge on one electrons is equivalent to 1.6*10-19C.

7) Potential difference: Potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is the
amount of work done to move certain amount of change from one point to another
point.

Potential difference (v) = Work done(w)


Amount of charge (Q)

Potential difference measured in volts.

One Volt is the potential difference, if one joule of work is done in moving a charge of
one coulomb.

8) The current in series circuit is a constant quantity. There is a continuous drop in


potential all along in series circuit, but potential difference goes on increasing. Total
potential difference (p.d) in series circuit is equal to the sum total of p.d across the
terminals of individual resistors.
i.e. V= V1+ V2+V3.

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9) Parallel circuit: When a number of resistors are connected such that they have a
common positive and a common negative terminal then resistors are said to be in
parallel circuit.

The potential difference in a parallel circuit is a constant quantity


The current divides in parallel circuit in the inverse ratio of resistance
Total current flowing through parallel circuit is equal to the sum total of current flowing
through individual resistors.
i.e. I=I1+I2+I3

10) Conductivity: The reciprocal of resistivity is called conductivity. It is abbreviated by the


symbol σ, called Sigma.

SI Unit is Ohm-1M-1 or Siemen metre-1.


σ= =

11) Conductance The reciprocal of resistance is called conductance.

Conductance =

Its unit is mho or Siemen.

12) Q when do we join resistors in (a) series (b) parallel

(a) In order to increase the resistance of a circuit resistors are connected in series.
R1 R2 R3

Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

(b) When we have to decrease the resistance of a circuit in order to pass heavy current,
resistors is connected in parallel.

1 1 1
𝑅𝑝 = + +
𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3

(c) Special Cases : If two resistors are connected in parallel then

𝑹𝟏𝑹𝟐
𝑹𝒑 =
𝑹𝟏 + 𝑹𝟐

Rp = Product of two resistors


Sum of two resistors

If I is the current drawn from the battery current I, flowing in


resistor R, is given by

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

I1 =( )I

Whereas current I, flowing in resistor R2 is given by ;

I1 =( )I

If ‘n’ identical resistors are connected in parallel, the equivalent resistor Rp is given by

= + − + ⋯ 𝑛 times

or = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑝 = = Value of one resistor


No. of resistors

13) Relation between resistivity and conductivity of a conductor:


Conductance X

14) Relation between E.M.F; P.D; Internal Resistance and External Resistance:

1. Internal Resistance= External resistance X Drop-in potential across terminals of all


P.D across of Ext. Resistance
( )
𝑟=

2. Drop in potential at the terminal of cell is the product of current drawn from the cell and
internal resistance of cell.
E-V = Ir

3. If a large current is drawn from cell i.e. external resistance is low then drop in potential is
very large.

(E.M.F – E, P.D- v, internal resistance-r & external Resistance R)

15) Cells in series can give a large current only if their internal resistance is so small that it
can be neglected is negligible with respect to external resistance.
Current in external circuit= Total E.m.f
Total resistance of circuit ⇒ 𝐼 =
If ‘r’ is so small that it is negligible, them 𝐼 = 𝑛

It is for this reason that lead acid accumulators are connected in series.

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16) Cell can give maximum current in parallel only if external resistance is very small and
internal resistance is large. 𝐼 =

17) Melting point of tungsten is about 30000C.

18) The number of electrons contained in one coulomb of charge is 1.6 X 10-19.

19) Value of specific charge on an electron is 6.25* 10-18C.

20) The SI units for electric intensity are NC-1.

21) 1 KWh is equivalent to 3.6 X 106J.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

IMPORTANT PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS


1) An experiment is performed to verify ohm’s law observations and tabulated and follows.
Current (I) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
(In Amperes)
Potential difference 1.2 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0
(V) (In Volts)

(i) From the data, plot a V-I graph


(ii) Show that the graph confirms the Ohm’s law
(iii) Find the resistance of the resistor used

(i) The required graph is Shown.

(ii) We observe that the graph drawn potential


difference verses current is a straight line. This
confirms the Ohm’s law.

(iii) The slope of straight line on v-I graph gives the


resistance of the resistor.

.
Resistance = = .

.
= = 12Ω [ANS]
.

2) What should be the length of nichrome wire of resistance 5 Ω if the length of similar wire
is 60 cm and resistance 2.5 Ω?

Ʀ1 = 5Ω , L2 = 60 cm, R2 = 2.5 Ω, L1 = ?

As = , L 1= ∗ 𝐿2 = .
= 120 cm (am) [ANS]

3) Calculate the equivalent resistance between point A and C, as show in figure.

Resistance of 4 Ω and 12 Ω are


connected in parallel between point
B and C let R1 be their equivalent
resistance
= + = = , R1 = 3 Ω
Now equivalent resistance R1 in series with 6 Ω resistance let R be the equivalent resistance of
circuit.
Ʀ = 6+3 = 9 Ω [ANS]

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4) An in candescent lamp of resistance 80 Ω draws a current of 0.75 A find the line voltage.

I = 0.75 A, R = 80 Ω V=? , by ohm’s law = , V= IR = 0.75/80 = 60 Volts. [ANS]

5) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the following combination of resistors r1, r2, r3 and
r4

The resistors r3 and r4 are in parallel if r is equivalent resistance of resistors r3 and r4 then

= + = or 𝑟 =

Now resistors r1, r2, and r3 are in series equivalent resistance


Ʀ = 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 + [ANS]

6) The equivalent resistance of the following circuit diagram is 4 Ω calculate the value of ‘X ’.
Resistance of 5 Ω and X Ω are in series.
Similarly, resistance of 8 Ω and 4 Ω are in
series.
Equivalent resistance.

R1 = (5 +) Ω,
R2 = 8+4 = 12 Ω
Now R1 and R2 are in parallel
combination

= +

or = +

or − =

or =

or =

or 5+𝑥 = 6 or

𝑥 = 6-5 =1 Ω [ANS]

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7) Calculate the resistance between the points X and Y in the given figure below.

We can draw the given circuit as shown here

Fig. 1 Fig.2
The resistors of 3 Ω and 2 Ω are in series
Their equivalent resistance = 3 Ω + 2 Ω = 5 Ω Now the resisters of 5 Ω, 1 Ω and 5 Ω are in parallel
as shown in alongside fig (ii)
Their equivalent resistance = + 1 + = =
Or Ʀ = 71 Ω
Hence the resistance between X and Y is 0.71 Ω. [ANS]

8) Calculate the specific resistance of the material of a wire 1.1 m long 0.4 mm in diameter
and having a total resistance of 4.2 ohm?

Specific resistance =? = 1.1m

Diameter = 0.4 mm,


.
r= mm = 0.02 cm
R= 4.2 ohm

P=RX =RX ohm.m

. ( . )
P= = 47.9 X 10-6 Ohm cm. [ANS]

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9) Two resistances of 2 ohm and 4 ohm are first connected to each other in series and then in
parallel. Find the resistance of the combination in each case.

R1 = 2 ohm, r2 = 4 ohm, Rp =? , Rs =?
(i) In series Rs = r1 + r2
Rs= 2+4 =6 ohm
(ii) In parallel
= + = + = 𝑅𝑝 = = 1.33 ohm [ANS]

10) A wire of resistance ‘r’ ohm is doubled up by connecting its free ends together. What will
be the resistance of wire in its new shape?

Let ‘r’ be the resistance of wire (fig-a) as its free ends are joined together, it becomes a
combination of two wires each of resistance connected in parallel with each other (fig-b)

(Fig-a)

(Fig-b)

If ‘R’ is the resistance of the combination, = +


Here 𝑟1 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟2 =
So = + = + = R=
/ /
Resistance of wire in its new shape will be Ohm. [ANS]

11) Calculate the number of electrons passing per second through a conductor to give a
current of 1 amp. Charge on an electron = 1.6 X 10-19C.

Let ‘n’ be the number of electrons passing per second through the conductor when 1
ampere current passes , then Total change passing per second = ne

Current I =
Here e = 1.6 X 10-19 C, t =1 sec I = 1emp, n =?

N= = . ∗
= 6.25 X 1018 . [ANS]

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12) Given fig shows a circuit diagram having a battery of 24V and negligible internal
resistance. Calculate the (a) reading of ammeter and
(b) Readings of V1 , V2 and V3
E = 24 V

Resistance of 6 Ω and 3 Ω are in parallel. Their equivalent resistances,


= + = = = or R1 = 2 Ω
Now resistances of 1.5 Ω, R1 and 8.5 Ω are in series
Total resistance = 1.5 + R1+ 8.5
= 10 + R1 = (10+2) Ω
= 12 Ω
(a) Current drawn from cell (ammeter reading)

𝐼= = = 2 𝐴 [ANS]

(b) P. D. across 1.5 Ω resistor


V1= IR = 2 X 1.5 = 3V

P.D. across 2 Ω (Combination of 6 Ω and 3 Ω in parallel) resistor.

V2 = IR = 2 X 2 = 4V

P.D across 8.5 Ω resistor

V3 = IR = 2 X 8.5 = 17 V

Thus, the values of V1 , V2 and V3 are 3 V, 4 V and 17 V. [ANS]

13) Calculate the resistance of Eureka wire 110 cm long and 0.2mm in diameter. Given specific
resistance of Eureka = 49= 10-8 ohm-m.

Here L= 110 cm = 1.10m,

r=0.1 mm= 10-4 m,

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p= 49 X 10-8 ohm .m

∗ .
Now R = ( )
= 17.6 ohm [ANS]

14) Four cells each of 1.5 volt e.m.f and 20 ohm internal resistance are used to send a current
through a wire of 20 ohm resistances. The cells are arranged (i) all in series (ii) all in
parallel. Calculate the current in the wire in each case
.
(i) Cells connected in series I = = = = 0.6 amp
Current = 0.6 amp [ANS]

.
(ii) Cells connected in parallel, 𝐼 = = = = 0.6 𝑎𝑚𝑝
Current = 0.6 amp [ANS]

15) There resistors of 6 Ω , 3 Ω and 2 Ω are connected in parallel the combination of above
resistors is connected in series to a resistance of 4 Ω and then to a cell of e.m.f 1.5 V If the
internal resistance of cell is negligible
(i) Draw the circuit diagram
(ii) Calculate the current in main circuit
(iii) Calculate the current in each of the resistor in parallel

(i)

(ii) Equivalent resistance of 6 Ω, 3 Ω and 2 Ω in parallel


= + + = = 1 R1 = 1 Ω

So total equivalent resistance in series = 1+4= 5 Ω


.
Current in main circuit 𝐼 = = = 0.3 𝐴 [ANS]

(iii) p.d. across parallel circuit; V = IR = 0.3 X 1 = 0.3 V

Current in 6 Ω resistor
.
I1 = = = 0.05 𝐴 [ANS]

Similarly current in 3 Ω resistor

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.
I2 = = = 0.10 𝐴 [ANS]
Current in 2 Ω resistor

.
I3 = = = 0.15 𝐴 [ANS]

16) Two resistors are connected in series as shown in the diagram.


(i) What is the current through the 5 ohm resistor?
(ii) What is the current through R?
(iii) What is the value of R? And
(iv) What is the value of V?

Given
Potential difference across 5 ohm resistor = 10 V
Potential difference across R ohm resistor = 6 V
Value of resistance R1= 5 ohm

I =? , R =? And V =?
By Ohm’s law the current through resistor of 5 ohm is

(i) 𝐼 = = = 2𝐴 [ANS]

(ii) Since the two resistors are connected in series therefore the current through resistor R is
also 2 ampere [ANS]

(iii) Therefore value of R can be obtained as follows.


R= = = 3 𝑂ℎ𝑚 [ANS]

(iv) Since the resistors are in series therefore, net resistance of the circuit is
R=R1+R2=5+3=8 Ω
Hence by the expression of V=IR we have V= 2X8= 16V [ANS]

17) A letter A consist of a uniform wire of resistance 1 ohm per cm the sides of the letter are
each 20cm long and the cross piece in the middle is 10 cm long (P-8.50). Find the
resistance of the letter between points (i) BD and (ii) AB

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Clearly AE= EC=CD=DE=BD=10 CM


Therefore R1= R2 =R3 =R4 = R5 =10 Ω
As R2 and R3 are in series therefore their combined resistance is 10+10=20 Ohm
This combination is in parallel with R5.

(i) Hence, resistance between points B and D is


= + = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = = 6.67Ω [ANS]

(ii) Now resistance R1, R and R4 are in series therefore resistance across AB is
R1= R+R1+ R4= + 10 + 10 = 26.67Ω [ANS]

18) A circuit is made by connecting three resistances of 4 Ω,8 Ω and 10 Ω their total resistance
is more than 10 Ω but less than 14 Ω show the circuit arrange on a diagram and calculate
the equivalent resistance(1989 type)

We connect the resistance of 4 Ω and 8 Ω in parallel to each other and then connect this
parallel combination to the 10 Ω resistance in series the required arrangement is as shown in
Fig. the equivalent resistance of 4 Ω and 8 Ω in parallel is given by
1 1 1 2+1 3 8
= + = = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = Ω = 2.67 Ω
𝑅 4 8 8 8 3
Thus, the total resistance of the setup is (2-67+10) Ω = 12.67 Ω [ANS]
Fig

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19) What is the equivalent resistance between the point X and Y for the network show given
figure?

We can redraw the given circuit as

Hence, the required equivalent resistance R given by


= + + = = =

R= 2 Ω [ANS]

20) What is the usual color code followed for connecting live neutral and earth wires? Why is
it so important?

The following is the color code.


Live wire- red, Neutral wire – black and earth wire – Green. This color code of electric
wire must be followed, so that even a layman will be able to identify the correct
connecting wire.

21) What is the resistance of an ideal ammeter?

The resistance of an ideal ammeter is zero.

22) Which one has more resistance – a 100 Walt bulb or 60 Walt bulbs?

The resistance of a 60 Walt bulb is more than the resistance of a 100 Walt bulb.

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23) (a) What happens to the electrical resistance when mercury is cooled to 4.12 k? (b) What
name is given to this phenomenon?

(a) When mercury is cooled to 4.12 k the electrical resistance of mercury disappears
completely and becomes zero.

(b) This phenomenon of loss of electrical resistance of a substance on cooling it to an


extremely low temperature is known as super conductivity.

24) Derive the formula for electric power which is used only when voltage V and resistance R
are known to us.

We know that P= V X 1

From Ohm’s law, we have

= 𝑅 … … … (𝑖 )

Or V= IR

Or 𝐼 = … … … . (𝑖𝑖)

Substituting the value of 1 in equation 1


We get P = 𝑉𝑋 or Power P =

25) A battery of emf 12V and internal resistance 2Ω is connected with two resistances A and B
of resistance 4 Ω and 6 Ω respectively joined in series.

Find:
i. current in the circuit
ii. The terminal voltage of the cell
iii. The potential difference across 6 Ω Resistor
iv. Electrical energy spent per minute in 4 Ω resistors.
(2016)

(i)Total resistance = (4.0+6.0+2.0) Ω = 12 Ω


Current in the circuit = = = 1𝐴 [ANS]

(ii) Terminal voltage of the cell V=IR = 1 X 10= 10V [ANS]

(iii)The potential difference across 6 Ω


Resistor = I X R = 1A X 6 Ω =6 V [ANS]

(iv) E= I2 RT = 1 X 4 X 60 – 240 I [ANS]

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26) Find the equivalent resistance between point A and B. (2015)

12 Ω, 6 Ω And 4 Ω are connection in parallel

Then = Ω
+ Ω
+ Ω
= = Ω Rp =2 Ω

Now 2 Ω, 2 Ω and 5 Ω are combined in a series


Then equivalent resistance between point A and B, R= (2+2+5) =9 Ω [ANS]

27) A cell of E.m.f 2v and internal resistance 1.2 Ω is connected with an ammeter of resistance
0.8 Ω and two resistors of 4.5 Ω and 9 Ω as shown in the diagram below. (2015)

(i) What would be the reading on the ammeter?

(ii) What is the potential difference across the terminals of the cell?

Given E= 2V, r = 1.2 Ω


Resistance of resistor A= 0.8 Ω
Resistance of resistor B= 4.5 Ω
Resistance of resistor C=9 Ω
The resistors B and C are in parallel.
If the equivalent resistance is Rp then = . Ω
+ Ω
= Ω
= Ω
rp = 3Ω
The resistor A is in series with resistance Rp
R= 0.8+3=3.8 Ω
Total resistance current draw from the battery = 3.8+1.2 = 5 Ω

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𝐼= = 𝐴 I = 0.4 A

(i) The reading of Ammeter i= 0.4 A [ANS]

(ii) Terminal voltage of the cell V= IR = 0.4 X 308V = 1.52 V [ANS]

28) Find the equivalent resistance between points A and B?

1 1 1 1 3
= + + = =1
𝑅 3 3 3 3

R1 = 1 Ω

1 1 1 5
= + =
𝑟3 4 6 12

R3 = = 2.4Ω

Equivalent resistance = (1+5+2.4) Ω = 8.4 Ω (Am) [ANS]

29) Two resistors of 4 Ω and 6 Ω are connected in parallel to a cell to draw 0.5 A current from
the cell (2014)
(i) Draw a labeled circuit diagram showing the above arrangement

(ii) Calculate the current in each resistor.

(i)

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(ii) Let current through 4 Ω resistance is ‘i’

Then current through 6 Ω resistance is(0.5-i)

i X 4 = (0.5-i) X 6 or

4i=3-6i

Or 10i = 3 or i =0.3A

Current through 4 Ω resistance = 0.3 A and current through 6 Ω


= 0.5-0.3= 0.2 A (Am) [ANS]

30) A metal wire of resistance 6 Ω is stretched so that its length is increased to twice it original
length, calculate its new resistance?

Volume of a metal wire remains same

A1 l1 = A2 l2

𝑙2 𝐴1 𝑙2
= , 𝑅1 = 𝑝
𝑙1 𝐴2 𝑙1

New resistance, 𝑅2 = 𝑝

𝑅2 𝑙2 𝐴1 𝐿2 𝐴1 𝑙2 𝐿2 𝑙2
= 𝑋 = 𝑋 = 𝑋 =( )
𝑅1 𝐴2 𝐿1 𝐿1 𝐴2 𝑙1 𝐿1 𝑙1

Now R2 = 𝑅1 2 = 𝑅1 2 = 4𝑅1 = 4 𝑋 6 = 24Ω (Am) [ANS]

31) Calculate the equivalent resistance between the points A and B for the following
combination of resistance

R1 = 4+4+4 = 12 Ω
R2 = 2+2+2 = 6 Ω

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1 1 1 1 1+3+2 6 1
= + + = = =
𝑅3 12 4 6 12 12 2
R3 = 2 Ω

Resistance between A and B R=5+2+6= 13 Ω


Hence equivalent resistance between A and B = 13 Ω [ANS]

32) An electrical application is rated at 1000 KVA, 220 V if the application is operated for 2
hours calculate the energy consumed by the application in (i) kwh (ii) joule.

(i) E = power X Time=


1000 X 2 = 2000 kwh [ANS]

(ii) E = 2000 X 3.6 X 106 J


= 7.2 X 109 J [ANS]

33) Calculate the equivalent resistance between P and Q from the following diagram?

The two 10 Ω resistors are in series & parallel to 5 Ω equivalent resistance


= + = = = R=4Ω
Resistance between P and Q = 3+4+2= 9 Ω [ANS]

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34) At what voltage is the alternating current supplied to our house?

220 to 240 V

35) Three resistors are connected to a 6 V batter as shown in the given figure (2011)
(i) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit
(ii) Total current in the circuit
(iii) Potential difference across the 7.2 Ω resistor

(i) 8 Ω and 12 Ω are in parallel, then equivalent resistance


= + = R= 4.8
Now total resistance = 4.8+7.2= 12 Ω [ANS]

(ii) Let V= IR 𝐼 = = = 0.5 𝐴 [ANS]

(iii) P.D across 7.2 Ω = 0.5 X 7.2= 3.6 V [ANS]

36) Calculate the equivalent resistance between A and B from the following diagram. (2011)

Let R be the equivalent resistance between A and b

= + + = + + = = = (from the diagram)

R=3Ω
The equivalent resistance between A and B is 3 Ω [ANS]

37) Three resistors are connected to a 12 V battery as shown in the Fig. given below.
(a) What is the current through the 8 Ohm resistance?

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(b) What is the potential difference across the parallel combination of 6 Ohm and 12 ohm
resistor?
(c) What is the current through the 6 Ohm Resistor? (2011)

Let 12 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are in parallel.


Their effective resistance = = = 4Ω
Total resistance of the circuit = 8+4 = 12 Ω
So current drawn = = 1A

(a) Current through 8 Ω resistor = 1 A [ANS]

(b) P.D. across 8 Ω resistor = 1 X 8=8 V


P.D. across the parallel combination of resistors = 12-8= 4 V
The resistances are in parallel they have the same P.D each i.e., 4 V [ANS]

(c) Current through the 6 Ω resistor = 𝐴 = 0.67 𝐴 [ANS]

38) (a) An electric bulb is marked 100 250 V what information does this convey?
(b) How much current will the bulb draw if connected to a 250 v supply?

(a) It means that if a bulb is given a 250 volt supply, It will consume 100 J of energy in each
second

(b) Let P = VI
I= = 0.4 A [ANS]

39) Five resistors of different resistance are connected together as show in the figure A 12 v
battery is connected to the arrangement calculate:
(a) The total resistance in the circuit
(b) The total current flowing in the circuit (2010)

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(a) Here R1 and R2 are parallel = + = + = = = R= 8 Ω

R3, R4, and R5 are in parallel = + + = + +


2+3+1
=
60

= =

R1= 10 Ω

Total resistance = R+R1 = 8+10 = 18 Ω [ANS]

(b) Total current = = = = 67 𝐴 [ANS]

40) Six resistance are connected together as shown in the figure calculate the equivalent
resistance between the point A and B.

Equivalent resistance between A and B is = 2+R+5

Where = + = = R= 5 Ω

Equivalent resistance between A and B = 2+5+2= 12 Ω [ANS]

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41) The equivalent resistance of the following circuit diagram is 4 Ω calculate the value of 𝑥.

1 1 1
= +
𝑅 𝑅1 𝑅2

1 1 1
= = +
4 5+𝑋 8+4

1 1 1
= − =
4 12 5 + 𝑋

1 1
= =
6 5+𝑋

=5+𝑥 = 6

X = 6-5 = 1 Ω [ANS]

42) Three resistors of 6.0 Ω, 2.0 Ω and 4.0 Ω respectively are joined together as shown in the
figure the resistors are connected to an ammeter and to a cell of e.m.f 6.0 V.
(2007)
Calculate:
(a) Effective resistance of the circuit
(b) Current drawn from the cell

(a) Resistance R2 and R3 are in series so their


effective resistance
R1 = 6 Ω

R1 and R1 are in parallel so = + = + =


R = 3 Ohm [ANS]

(b) V= IR or 6+ I X 3

I = = 2 amp. So current drawn from the cell is 2 amp. [ANS]

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43) Calculate the value of the resistance which must be connected to a 15 Ω resistance to
provide an effective resistance of 6 Ω

Resistance decrease in parallel combination so let R resistance is connected to 15 W


resistances in parallel to make resultant 6 W

Now, = +

1 1 1
𝑜𝑟 = −
𝑅 6 15

5−2
=
30

3
=
30

1
=
10

R = 10 Ω [ANS]

44) A cell of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 1.0 w is connected to two resistors of 4.0 W
and 20.0 in series as shown in the figure (2006)

(i) Calculate the current in the circuit


(ii) Potential difference across the 4.0 Ohm resistor
(iii) Voltage drop when the current is flowing
(iv) Potential difference across the cell.

E.m.f of a cell = 1.5 volt


Internal resistance = 1.0 Ohm (r)
External resistance = r1+ r2( in series)

R= 4+20 = 24 Ω

. .
(i) Current I = or 𝐼 = = = .06 𝑎𝑚𝑝 [ANS]

(ii) P.D across 4 Ω resistor = 4 X .06 = .24 Volt [ANS]

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(iii) Voltage drop when the current is flowing = Ir = 06 X 1 = .06 Volt [ANS]

(iv) Potential difference across the cell = RI = 24 X .06 = 1.44 volt [ANS]

45) In the figure below, the ammeter A reads 0.3 A. Calculate:


(i) The total resistance of the circuit
(ii) The value of R
(iii) The current flowing through R. (2006)

(i) Since V= IR

.
R= = .
= 20 Ω

Total resistance = 20 Ω [ANS]

(ii) Given that resistance are in parallel

= + 𝑜𝑟 = −

= =

𝑅= = 30 Ω [ANS]

(iii) Since v= IR and potential (V) is equal at the two ends i.e. A and B

Let I be current flowing through R then (0.3-1) is current flowing through 60 Ωresistances

Now V= V  I1 R1 = I2 R2

I1 X 30 = (0.3- I1) X 60

I1 = 0.6 – 2 I, or 3 I1 = 0.6

.
or I1 = = 0.2

Current flowing through R= 0.2 A [ANS]

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46) A Wire of uniform thickness with a resistance of 27 Ω is cut into three equal pieces and
they are joined in parallel. Find the resistance of the parallel combination.

Resistance of a given wire = 27 Ω

Resistance of each small wire = =9Ω

Let Rp be the equivalent resistance for parallel combination

Then = + + = + +

= 𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑝 = = 3Ω

Resistance of the parallel combination = 3 Ω [ANS]

47) Mention two factor on which the resistance of wire depends (2005)

Resistance of a wire depends on


 length of a wire
 area of a cross- section of a wire

48) Four resistances of 2.0 Ω, each are joined end to end, to from a square ABCD. Calculate the
equivalent resistance of the combination between any two adjacent corners.

The diagram indicates a square ABCD formed by joining four resistance of 2 Ω each end to
end let us calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination between the two adjacent
corner C and D

Let us calculate the equivalent resistance of the combination between the two adjacent
corners C and D. Arms DA AB and BC are joined in series so their equivalent resistance=
(2+2+2) Ω - 6 Ω now resistance of 6 Ω and 2 Ω are in parallel The equivalent resistance of
the combination is R Then, = + = =

R= Ω = 1.5 Ω [ANS]

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49) In the fig given alongside A, B and C are three ammeters. The ammeter B reads 0.5 A (All
the ammeter have negligible resistance )
Calculate:
(i) The reading in the ammeters A and C
(ii) The total resistance of the circuit

(i) P.D. across 6 Ω = P. D. across 3 Ω or 6 X 0.5 = 3 X i.e

.
Or i c i.e., current passing through the ammeter c is = 1.0 ampere [ANS]

(ii) Here = + = = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = 2 Ω

Total resistance of the circuit = 2 Ω + r = 2 Ω + 2 Ω = 4 Ω

Current through A = Current passing through B+ current passing through C


Current through A = 0.5 +1.0 = 1.5 ampere. [ANS]

50) An electric bulb rated 220 V,60 W is working at fall efficiency


(i)State the resistance of the coil of the bulb
(ii) Another identical bulb is connected in series with the first one and the system is
connected across the main as shown in alongside.
 State the rate of conversion of energy in each bulb
 Calculate the total power
 What will be the total power if the bulbs are connected in parallel?

Given that potential difference = 220 V and power = 60W

Current I = = = amp
.

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(i) Resistance of the bulb (R) = /


= 806.7 [ANS]

(ii) When another bulb is connected in series, then total resistance of two bulb becomes
twice and current passing through the circuit

I1 = = amp

 Energy conversion in each bulb


= I 2R = 2 𝑋( )

= 15 watt [ANS]

 Energy conversion in the circuit in series combination


= V X I1 = 220 X = 30 watt [ANS]

 In parallel each bulb will consume 60 watt independently hence power consumption
will be = 60+60= 120 watt. [ANS]

51) A cell of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 10 Ohms is connected to a resistance of 5
Ohms, with an ammeter in series what is the reading of the ammeter?

E= i (R+ r)

.
1.5 = I (5+10) or i = .

I = 0.1 A [ANS]

52) Four cells each of e.m.f 1.5 V and internal resistance 2.0 Ohms are connected in parallel.
The battery of cells is connected to an external resistance of 2.5 Ohms. Calculate:
(i) The total resistance of the circuit
(ii) The current flowing in the external circuit and
(iii) The drop in potential across the terminals of the cells

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(i) As the four cells are connected in parallel their internal resistance i.e. r = 2 Ω will also be
connected in parallel therefore, total internal resistance

= + + + = = =2,

rp= = 0.5 Ω

Total resistance of the circuit R1

R + rp= 2.5 Ω + 0.5 Ω = 3.0 Ω [ANS]

(ii) The current flowing in the external circuit in parallel combination of the cells, the effective
e.m.f of any number of cells is equal to the e.m.f due to a single cell.

𝑖= Where E=1.5 V and R1 = 3.0 Ω


.
Current i = . Ω
= 0.5 A [ANS]

(iii) The drop in potential across the terminal of a cell V= E- irp

= 1.5 V – 0.5 A X 0.5 Ω


= 1.5 V -0.25 V = 1.25 V [ANS]

Which is same across the terminal of every cell as the other specification of different cells
are same
. . . . Ω
Or 𝑉 = = . Ω . Ω = . Ω
= 1.25 𝑉 (𝐴𝑚) [ANS]

53) In the figure shown below calculate (2000)


(i) The value of combined resistances of 40 Ohm and R using the reading of the two
meters
(ii) The value of R
(iii) The current flowing through R

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Given V= 4.0 V and I =0.4 A


.
(i) Therefore the total resistance of the circuit is R= = = 10 𝑜ℎ𝑚 [ANS]
.

(ii) Now R and 40 Ohm are connected in parallel and their combined resistance is 10 Ohm
therefore we have = + solving for R we have R = = 13.3 𝑜ℎ𝑚

(iii) Current flowing through R = .


= 0.3 A [ANS]

54) Define the e.m.f (E) of a cell and the potential difference (V) across a resistor (R) in terms
of the work done in moving a unit charge
State the relating between these two works and the work done in moving a unit charge
through a cell connected across the resistor. Take the internal resistance of the cell as ‘r’
hence obtains expression for the current ‘i’ in the circuit

E.M.F of a cell is generally define as the amount of work done (or the energy spent) in taking
a unit positive charge around the complete circuit of the cell. It is also defined as the
potential difference between the terminals of a cell when no current is drawn from it (or
when the cell is an open circuit)

Potential difference (P .D) or the terminal voltage of a cell is generally defined as the
amount of work done in carrying a unit positive charge round the circuit connected across
the terminals of the cell.
If ‘W’ is the amount of work done (in J) in moving a test change ‘q’ between the terminals of
a cell through a resistor ‘R’ then the
P.D = i.e., work done in moving a unit positive change across the terminals of the cell.

Relation between ‘E’, ‘V’ external resistance ‘R’ and the internal resistance ‘r’ Applying Ohm’s
law to external resistance only ; I = . . . . . 1

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Again applying Ohm’s law to complete circuit I = .....2

Comparing Value of I in 1 and 2

We have =

Or ER = v (R + r) = VR + Vr

ER-VR=Vr

Or R (E- V) = Vr

( )
Or 𝑟 = =

(V= IR)

Or I =

55) A battery of e.m.f 9 V and internal resistance 0.6 ohm connected to three resistors A,B and
C. (1995)
Calculate:
(i) The combined resistance B and c
(ii) The total resistance of A,B and C
(iii) The total resistance of the circuit
(iv) The current in each of the three resistance A,B and C

(i) Let R be the combined resistance of B and c which are connected in parallel we than
have
= + −= Or r= 2.4 ohm [ANS]

(ii) Now R and A are connected in series therefore the total resistance,
say Y of A, B and c is given by Y= A + R =(2+2.4)=4.4 ohm [ANS]

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(iii) The total resistance say Z of the circuit, is given by


Z = (Y+06) Ω = (4.4+0.6) Ω = 5.0 Ω [ANS]

(iv) The current flowing in the circuit is


I= = = 1.8 𝐴

This is also the current through the resistor A

Thus IA = 1.8 A

Now current through B and C is obtained by using the formula

.
IB= = = 0.72𝐴

.
IC = = = = 1.08𝐴 [ANS]

56) Four cells each of e.m.f 2 V and internal resistance 0.1 Ohm are connected in series. The
combination is connected in series to an ammeter of negligible resistance, a 1.6 Ohm
resistor and an unknown resistor R1 the current in the circuit is 2A
(1996)
Draw a labeled circuit diagram for the above arrangement and calculate:
(i) The total resistance in the circuit
(ii) The total e.m.f
(iii) The value of R1 and
(iv) The potential difference across R1

(i) Total resistance = 1.6+0.1 X 4+R1


= 1.6+0.4+R1 (2+R1) Ω

⸫ Total Resistance = R1+2 (2+2) Ω = 4 Ω. (solved after finding out R1) [ANS]

(ii) Total e.m.f = 2+2+2+2 =8V [ANS]

. .
(iii) Here I = or 2 =

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Or, 2R1+4 =8 or 2R1 = 4 or R1=2 Ω. [ANS]

(iv)Potential difference across R1 = IR1 = 2 X 2 = 4V [ANS]

57) Two resistors of resistance 2 Ohm and 3 Ohm in parallel are connected to a cell of e.m.f
1.5 v and internal resistance 0.3 Ohm. Draw a labeled circuit diagram showing the above
arrangement and the current drawn from the cell. (1997)

The circuit diagram is as shown below:

If total resistance between A and b id R, then

𝐼 1 1 5 6
= + = 𝑜𝑟 𝑅 = = 1.2 𝑂ℎ𝑚
𝑅 2 3 6 5

Now total resistance of the circuit is RT = R + 0.3


= 1.2 + 0.3 =1.5 Ohm

.
Hence current in the circuit is 𝐼 = = .
= 1𝐴 [ANS]

58) Circuit diagram is given in which three resistances 1 Ohm, 2 Ohm and 3 Ohm are
connected to cell of e.m.f 2 v and internal resistance 0.5 ohm
(i) Calculate the total resistance of the circuit (ii) what is the reading of the ammeter?
(iii) What will be the ammeter reading if an exactly similar cell is connected in series
with the given cell? (1994)

(i) The resistance 1 Ω and 2Ω are in series, 1 Ω +2 Ω = 3 Ω

The combination is in parallel with the resistor of 3 Ohm


or = +
R1 = = 1.5 Ω
Total resistance is the circuit R = R1 + r = (1.5 + 0.5) Ω = 2.0 Ω [ANS]

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(ii) I = V/R = 2/2 = 1A [ANS]

(iii) EMF of the cells = 4V


Total internal resistance of the cells = 1 Ω
Ammeter reading = 4/2.5= 1.6 A [ANS]

59) A cell supplies a current of 0.6 A through a 2 Ohm coil and a current of 0.3A through a 8
Ohm coil Calculate the e.m.f and the internal resistance of the cell.

Given I1= 0.6A, R1= 2Ω,


I2= 0.3 A, R2= 8 Ω, r =?
Using I =
1) 0.6 = and 2) 0.3 =

From the above two we have


As same cell is used

E is same so (i) = (ii)

0.6(2 + r) = 0.3 (8+ R)

Or 0.3r = 1.2 or r = 4Ohm

E= 0.6(2+4) (putting the value of r in eq. (i)

= 3.6 V [ANS]

60) From the given figure above calculate (1996)


(i) The equivalent resistance between P and Q
(ii) The reading of the ammeter
(iii) The electrical power between P and Q

(i) if equivalent resistance is R, then

1 1 1 3+2 5
= + = =
𝑅 4 6 12 12
Equivalent resistance R = = 2.4Ω [ANS]

(ii) From diagram E= 2 X 2 = 4 V and R=2.4 Ω


But E = IR
4 = I X 2.4
I= . = 1.66 𝐴 [ANS]

(iii) P = I2R = ( .
)2 X 2.4 = 6.66 watts [ANS]

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61) Write an expression for the resistance of a conducting wire in terms of its length and area
of cross section
R= 𝑃 , where r = resistance

L= length and
A = Area of cross section of the wire
P = resistivity or specific resistance of the material of the wire.

62) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the following combination of resistors : r1 , r2 , r3, r4

Resistance of r3, r4 in parallel is given by

1 1 1 𝑟4 + 𝑟3
= + =
𝑟 𝑟3 𝑟4 𝑟3𝑟4

R=

Now resistance r1, r2 and r4 are in series their combined resistance R is given

( ) ( )
R = r1 , r2 + = [ANS]

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 4 – ELECTROMAGNETISM

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Primary e.m.f: The e.m.f of an alternating current connected to primary coil is called primary
e.m.f

2) Secondary e.m.f: The e.m.f induced in the secondary coil is called secondary e.m.f

. . .
3) =
. . . .

Or =

.
4) =
. .

Or =

5) What is LORENTZ force?


A moving charge in magnetic field not parallel to the field experience a force called “LORENTZ
FORCE” and since moving charge is called current then conductor carrying a current in magnetic
field experiences
Force F = BIL in other words this force

F X B (Magnetic field)
F X I (current)
F X L (length of conductor inside the field)

S.I unit of magnetic field B = = = NA-1 m-1

Or unit is tesla (T)

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IMPORTANT PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

1) A transformer lowers e.m.f from 220V to 15V. If the number of turns in primary is 3220, how
many turns are in secondary coil?

Given: Ep = 220 V
Es = 15 V
NP = 3520, NS =?

𝐸𝑠 𝑁𝑠
=
𝐸𝑝 𝑁𝑝

15 𝑉 𝑁
=
220 𝑉 3520
∴ NS = = 240 𝑣

Number of turns in secondary coil are = 240 [ANS]

2) A transformer lowers e.m.f from 220V to 15 V. If 400 W power is given in primary.


Calculate:
1. The current in primary coil
2. The current in secondary coil

1. We know that Power = IP X EP


400 = IP X 220
∴ IP = 1.8A
So current in primary coil is 1.8A

2. IP X EP = Is X Es
𝐼𝑝 𝑋 𝐸𝑝
∴ Is = 𝐸𝑠
.
∴ Is = = 26.4 𝐴
So, the current in secondary coil is 26.4 A [ANS]

3) In which position of coil is the magnitude of induced e.m.f


1. Maximum?
2. Minimum?

1. At 92° and 270°


2. At 180° and 360°

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

UNIT 5 – HEAT

IMPORTANT FORMULAS

1) Heat capacity =

Heat capacity C = J /°c or J° 𝑐 or 𝐽𝐾


(∆T = Rise or change in temperature & Q = Amount of heat)

2) Specific Heat Capacity, C =

C= ∆

J Kg-1 K-1 or J Kg-1° C or Cal g-1 ° c-1

Or Q = mc ∆T Joule

3) Heat Capacity = Mass X Specific Heat Capacity

C = mc

4) Heat Energy gained or lost

= Mass of the substance X Specific heat capacity X Change in temperature.

=mc (T2 – T1) where


m = Mass in kg, T2 = Higher temperature in ° c, T1 = Lower temperature in °c.

5) Heat lost by the hot body = Heat gained by the cold body
m1 c1((T1 – T) = m2 c2 ( T – T2)

6) Specific latent heat of a substance =

Or L = where L = specific latent heat


Q = Quantity of heat and m = mass of the substance.

7) The amount of heat absorbed or liberated for the change of phase, Q= L x M

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POINTS TO REMEMBER

1) Water has the highest specific heat capacity. i.e 4.2 J/g°c.
In other words, every 1gm of water will absorb 4.2 joules of heat energy, when its
temperature rises by 1°c only.

2) Ice has the highest specific latent heat. Its experimental value is 336 X 103J kg-1 in S.I
System.

3) Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam: It is the amount of heat energy required to
change 1 kg of water at 100°c, into 1 kg of steam at 100°c, without any rise in
temperature. It is 226 X 104 J kg -1. Steam has the highest specific latent heat capacity of
vaporization.

4) 1 calorie = 4.2 J.

5) 1 Kilocalorie = 4200 J

6) Heat → Joule

7) Specific heat capacity:

In C.G.S system → °
𝑜𝑟 𝐽𝑔 °
𝐶

In S.I system → 𝑜𝑟 𝐽𝐾𝑔 𝐾

8) Thermal capacity

In C.G.S system → J° 𝐶

In S.I System → 𝐽𝐾

9) Specific latent heat:

In C.G.S system → J 𝑔

In S.I system → J 𝐾𝑔

10) Specific latent heat of vapourisation

In C.G.S system → J 𝑔

In S.I system → J 𝐾𝑔

In old system → calories 𝑔

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Symbols Used In Problems

H = Heat

m = Mass

C’ = Heat capacity

C or S = Specific heat capacity

L = Specific Latent heat of fusion of ice.

∆ T or  = Rise or change in temperature

t or T = Final temperature

t1 = lower temperature

t1 = Higher temperature

Q = Amount of heat

P = power

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

IMPORTANT PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

1) A certain amount of heat Q will warm 1 gram of material ‘X’ by 3 degree Celsius and 1g of material
‘ Y’ by 4°c. Which material has a higher specific heat capacity?

Let CX and CY be the specific heat capacity of X and Y respectively

Then m1 CX ∆ t1 = m2 CY ∆ t2

1 X CX X 3 = 1 X C Y X 4

3 CX = 4Cy

= = CX  CY

Hence, Material X has the higher specific heat capacity.

2) Calculate the mass of ice required to lower the temperature of 300g of water at 40°c to water at
0°c(specific latent heat of ice = 336 J/g, Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g°c)

Let ‘m’ be the mass of ice. Heat energy required to melt to lower the temperature = m X L = m X 336

Heat energy imparted by the water in fall of its temperature from 40°c to 0 °c = mass of the water X
specific heat capacity X fall in temperature = 300 X 4.2 X 40°c

If there is no loss of heat m X 336J/g = 300 g X 4.2 J/g °c X 40°c

.
m =

m = 150g.

So mass of ice required is 150g. [ANS]

3) A copper vessel of mass 100g contains 150g of water at 50°c. How much ice is needed to cool it to
5°c?

Given: Specific heat capacity of copper = 0.4 Jg-1 °c -1


Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 °c -1
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g-1

Substance Mass SHC/SLH Initial temp Final Temp


Ice ?X 336j g-1 0°c = 5° c
Water 150g 4.2 Jg-1 °c-1 50°c QR = 5-0 =5
Vessel 100g 0.4 J-1 °c-1 50°c QF = 50° - 5° =45°c

Let mass of ice required be 𝑥

Heat gained by ice to form water at 0°c = mL = 𝑥 X 336 = 336𝑥

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Heat gained by water formed from ice = mc QR =𝑥X 4.2 X 5 = 21𝑥

Total heat gained = 336𝑥 + 21 𝑥 = 357𝑥

Heat lost by water at 50° c = mc F = 150 X 4.2 X 45 = 28350 J

Heat lost by vessel at 50°c = 100 X 0.4 X 45 = 1800 J

Total heat lost = 1800 + 28350 = 30150 J.

Heat lost = Heat gained.

357𝑥 = 28350

𝑥= = 85.45g [ANS]

4) A refrigerator converts 100g of water at 20°C to ice at -10°c in 35 minutes. Calculate the average
rate of heat extraction in terms of watts.

Given: Specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 Jg-1 ° c-1

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 °c-1

Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g-1

[ANS]According to question m= 100g, t1 = 20°C,

t2 = -10° C , T = 35 minutes = (35 X 60) sec

C Water = 42 J/g 1°c

C ice = 2.1 J/g 1°c

L = 336 J/g , P = =?

Heat drawn in cooling water from 20°c to 0°c

∆ Q1 = mc ∆ t = 100 X 4.2 X 20 J

Heat drawn in converting 100gm of water at 0°c to ice at 0°c

∆ Q1 = mc ∆ t

= 100 X 4.2 X 20 J

= (420 X 20) J = 8400 J

Heat drawn in converting 100g water at 0°c to ice at -1°c

∆Q2 = mL + mc ∆ t

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= 100 X 336 + 100 X 2.1 X 10

= (33600 + 2100) J = 35700 J

∆ Q = ∆ Q 1 + ∆ Q2

= (8400 + 35700) J = 44100 J

T = 35 X 60 sec = 2100 sec

The average rate of heat extraction in terms of watts


= = = = 21

= 21 watts [ANS]

5) Heat energy is supplied at a constant rate to 100gm of ice at 0°c. The ice is converted to water at
0°c in 2 minutes. How much time is required to raise the temperature of water from 0°c to 20°c?
Given:
Sp. Heat capacity of water is 4.2 J g -1 ° c-1
Sp. Latent heat of ice = 336 Jg-1

Given m = 100g, t = 2min = 120sec.

Heat energy taken by ice at 0°c to convert to water at 0°c

Q = mL = 100 X 336 = 33600 J

P= = = 280

The heat energy required to convert water at 0°c to 20°c.

Q = m C ∆ t = 100 X 4.2 X 20 = 8400 J.

Q=PXt

8400 = 280 X t

t= = 30𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 0.5 𝑚𝑖𝑛

Time required to raise the temperature of water from 0°c to 20° c is 0.5 min [ANS]

6) How much heat energy is released when 5gm of water at 20°c changes to ice at 0°c?
[Sp. Heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1 °c -1
Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g -1]

Heat energy released = mc ∆T + mL

= 5 X4.2 X 20 + 5 X 336

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= 420 + 1680

= 2100 Joule [ANS]

7) 50 gram of metal piece at 27°c requires 2400° J of heat energy so as to attain a temperature of
327°c. Calculate the specific heat capacity of metal

Given m = 50g

∆t = (327-27) ° c = 300°c

Q = 2400 J

Now, Q = mc ∆ t

2400 = 50 X C X 300

C = 0.16 J/g °C [ANS]

(m= mass, ∆t = rise in temperature and Q = heat energy, C = specific heat capacity)

8) A hot solid of mass 60g at 100°c is placed in 150g of water at 20°c. The final steady temperature
recorded is 25°. Calculate the specific heat capacity of solid.

[Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 °C-1]

Heat gained by water = 150 X 4.2 X 5 (∆t =25-20 = 5°c)

Heat lost by hot solid = 60 X C X 75 (∆t = 100 -25 = 75°c)

By the law of mixtures, if no heat is lost to the surroundings,

Heat gained by cold water = Heat lost by hot solid.

150 X 4.2 X 5 = 60 X C X 75

Specific heat capacity of the solid,

.
C=

= 0.7 J g-1 ° C-1 [ANS]

9) 40g of ice at 0°c is used to bring down the temperature of a certain mass of water at 60°c to 10°c.
Find the mass of water used.
[Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 °C-1]
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J Kg-1]

Let ‘M’ be the mass of water. Then, Heat lost by water = M.C. ∆T

= M X 4.2 X (60-10)

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= M X 4.2 X 50 ….. [1]


Heat gained by ice = Heat gained for melting + heat gained to come to temperature 10°c

= ML + Mc ∆ T

= (40 X 336) + (40 X 4.2 X 10) …. [2]


If no heat is lost to the surrounding, Heat gained by ice = Heat lost by water or M X 4.2 X 50 = (40 X
336) + 1680= 13440 + 1680= 15120

⸫M = = 72 𝑔𝑚. [ANS]

10) 200g of water at 80°c is added to 300g of cold water at 10°c. Calculate the final temperature of the
mixture of water. Consider the heat taken by the container to be negligible. The specific heat
capacity of water is 4200 J Kg-1 °C-1.

Let the final temperature be T °c, Then, Heat lost by hot water = 0.2 X 4200 X (80-T) J

Heat gained by cold water = 0.3 X 4200 X (T – 10) J

According to the principle of mixture;


heat lost = heat gained

0.2 X 4200 X (80-T) = 0.3 X 4200 X (T-10)

= 0.2 X (80-T) = 0.3 X (T-10)


= 16 – 0.2 T = 0.3 T -3

Or 0.3 T + 0.2 T = 16 + 3

Or, 0.5 T = 19

Or T = = 38° 𝑐
.

Hence the final temperature of the mixture of water is 38° c [ANS]

11) 50g of ice at 0°c is added to 300g of a liquid at 30°c. What will be the final temperature of the
mixture when all the ice has melted? The specific heat capacity of the liquid is 2.65 J g-1 ° C -1 While
that of water is 4.2 J g-1 ° C-1 Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J g-1.

Let ‘t’ be the final temperature then,

Heat given by liquid = Heat taken by ice to change the state + heat taken by water to increase the
temperature.

Or, 300 X 2.65 X (30- t) = (50 X 336) + (50 X 4.2) X (t-0)

Or, 23850-795 t = 16800 + 210 t

Or, 1005 t = 7050

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Or, t = 7.01 °C

Hence, the final temperature of the mixture is 7.01 °c [ANS]

12) 40g of water at 60°c is poured into a vessel containing 50g of water at 20°c. The final temperature
recorded in 30°c calculates the thermal capacity of the vessel. Take specific heat capacity of water
as 4.2 J g-1 °c -1.

Heat lost by water to change its temperature from 60°c to 30°c = mc ∆t = 40 X 4.2 X 30 J = 5040 j

Heat gained by water = (50 X 4.2 X 10) J

According to the principle of calorimetry or, Heat gained = Heat lost 2100J + Heat of vessel = 5040J

Or, Heat of vessel = (5040-2100) J = 2940J

⸫ Heat capacity =

= ° = 294 𝐽 ° C-1

So thermal capacity (heat capacity) of the vessel is 294 J °C-1 [ANS]

13) A piece of ice of mass 40g is dropped into 200g of water at 50° c . Calculate the final temperature
of water after all the ice has melted.
(Specific heat capacity of water = 4200J/Kg °c, Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J/kg)

Let ‘t’ be the final temperature then heat given by water = m X C X ∆t

= [200 X 10-3 X 4.2 X 103 (50-t)

= (42,000 – 840t) J

Heat taken by ice to change into water at 0° c = 40 X 10-3 X 336 X 103 = 13,440J

Heat taken by water to change its temperature from 0°c to t °c = (40 X 10-3 X 4.2 X 103 X t) J

= 168t J

Total heat taken by water = (13,440 +168 t) According to the principle of calorimetry.

Heat given = Heat taken

Or, 42000 – 840 t = 13440 + 168 t

Or, 840 t + 168 t = 42000 – 13440

Or, 1008t =28560

Or, t = 28.33 °c

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Final temperature of water is 28.33 °c [ANS]

14) An electric heater raises the temperature of 5000g of a given liquid from 25°c to 31°c in 120 s. If
the power of the heater is 1 Kw, Calculate (a) the heat capacity of the liquid. (b) The specific heat
capacity of the liquid.

Let ‘s ‘be the specific heat capacity of the liquid. Heat used in raising the temperature of the liquid
from 25°c to 31°c.

= 5000 X S (31-25) J

= 5000 X S X 6 J …..[1]

Heat produced by the electric heater is 120S = 1000 watt X 120s

= 120000 J …. [2]
 From 1 & 2

5000 X S X 6 = 120000 or s = = 4 g-1 ° C-1

Heat capacity of the liquid = 5000 X 4 = 20000 J

So heat capacity of the liquid is 4 g-1 ° C-1 and specific heat capacity is 20,000J.

15) Some hot water was added to three times its mass of cold water at 10°c and the resulting
temperature was found to be 20°c. What was the temperature of the hot water?

Let the temperature of the hot water be t°c and mass of hot water = m gm

Mass of cold water = 3m gm

Temperature of cold water = 10°C

Final temperature of mixture = 20°c

Heat taken by cold water = 3m X C X (20-10)

Heat given by hot water = m X C X (t-20)

Heat given = Heat taken

m X C X ( t -20) = 3m X C X 10

= t-20 = 30

⸫t = 30 + 20 = 50° C

So temperature of hot water was 50°C [ANS]

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16) Calculate the heat energy that will be released when 5.0 Kg of steam at 100°c condenses to form
water at 100°c. Express your answer in SI unit. (Specific latent heat of vaporization of steam is
2268 KJ Kg-1)

Heat energy released = mL

= 5.0 X 2268 = 11340 KJ

= 1134 X 104 J [ANS]

17) 10125 J of heat energy boils off 4.5g of water at 100°c to steam at 100°c, Find the specific latent
heat of steam

Specific latent heat of stem is given by S=E/m = 10125/4.5 X 10-3

= 2250 X 103 J Kg-1 [ANS]

18) m1 g of steam, at 100°c, is condensed to form water at 100°c. If there is no heat loss to the
surroundings, the heat released in this process is used to convert m2g of ice at 0°c into water at
0°c.
i. Find the heat lost by steam in terms of m1 and the heat gained by ice in terms of m2
ii. Form a heat equation and find the ratio of m2 : m1 from it. (Specific latent heat of vapourization
of steam= 2268 KJ Kg-1
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 KJ Kg-1
Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg -1 ° C.

i. Heat lost by steam = m1 L v

= m1 X 2268 KJ Kg-1

Heat gained by ice = m2 L f = m2X 336 KJ KG-1 [ANS]

ii. Now, heat lost by steam = heat gained by ice. m1 X 2268 = m2 X 336

Or m2: m1 = 2268 / 336 = 27:4

So the ratio is 27:4 [ANS]

19) Calculate the amount of heat released when 5.0g of water at 20°c is changed into ice at 0°c

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g °c


Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g)

5g water at 20°C 5g water at 0°c → 5 g ice at 0°c

⸫ Amount of heat released = mc + mL

= 5 X 4.2 X (20° - 0°) + (5 X 336)

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= 21.0 X 20 + 1680 = 42.0 + 1680

= 2100 Joule [ANS]

20) A piece of iron of mass 2.0 Kg has a thermal capacity of 966 J/ °C.
i. How much heat is needed to warm it by 15°c?
ii. What is its specific heat capacity in S.I units?

i. Given that: M = 2.0 Kg,

Thermal capacity = 966 J /°C and rise in temperature = 15°c

Thermal capacity, C =

⸫ Heat required = 966 X 15

= 14490 J [ANS]
ii. Specific heat capacity C =

= .
=

= 483 J/Kg/°C [ANS]

21) A thermos flask of negligible heat capacity contains 100g of ice and 30g of water.
a. Calculate the mass of steam at 100°c needed to condense in the flask to just melt the ice.
b. Calculate the amount of water in the flask after condensation.
Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam=2260 J/g.
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J/g
Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g °c

a. M (ice) X L (ice) = M(gas) X L (gas)

100 X 336 = M X 2260

Or Mass of steam, M =

= 14.86 gm [ANS]

b. Amount of water in the flask after condensation = mass of (water present + Melted ice +
Condensed steam)

=30 + 100 + 14.86 = 144.86 gm [ANS]

22) In a laboratory experiment for finding specific latent heat of ice, 100g of water at 30° was taken in
a calorimeter made of copper and of mass 10g. When 10g of ice at 0°c was added to the mixture
and kept within the liquid till the ice melted completely the final temperature of the mixture was
found to be 20°c.
i. What is the total quantity of water in the calorimeter at 20°c?

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ii. Specific heat capacities of water and copper being 4.2 J/g °c and 0.4 J/g°C respectively, what
quantity of heat would each release in cooling down to 20°c from the initial stage?
iii. Write an expression for the heat gained by ice on melting.
iv. Calculate the value of the latent heat of fusion of ice form the data discussed above.

i. Total water in calorimeter = 100g + 10g = 110g [ANS]


ii. Heat lost by water + Heat lost by calorimeter in cooling down to 20°c

= m1 C1  t + m2 C2  t

= 100 X 4.2 X (30-20) + 10 X 0.4 X (30-20)

= 4200 + 40 = 4240J [ANS]

iii. Heat gained by ice = Q2= ML = (10 x L) J [ANS]


iv. 10L + 10 x 4.2 X (20-0) = 4240

10 L + 840 = 4240,

10 L = 3400

⸫L = = 340 𝐽/𝑔

So latent heat of fusion of ice is 340 J/g [ANS]

23) A vessel of negligible heat capacity contains 40g of ice in it at 0°c. 8g of steam at 100°c is passed
into the ice to melt it. Find the final temperature of the contents of the vessel.
[Sp. Latent heat of vaporisation of steam = 2268 J/g.
Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 J /g &
Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g°C]

Let ‘T be the final temperature of the contents of the vessel.


Heat given out by 8g of steam (at 100°c) in condensing into water at 100°c

= mL = 8 X 2268 J = 18144 Heat given out by this 8g of water (at 100°c) in cooling down to the final
temperature of T°c.
= 8 X 4.2 X (100-T) = 33.6 X (100 – T) J

Total heat given out = [18144 + 33.6 (100-T)] J

= (18144 + 3360 – 33.6 T)

= (21504 – 33.6 T) J
Also heat needed by 40 g of ice (at 0°c) into melting into water (at 0°c) = mL = 40 X 336 J = 13440J

Heat needed by this 40g of water (at 0°c) in getting heated upto the final temperature of T°c.

= 40 X 4.2 X (T-0) = 168 T J

Total heat taken in (13440 + 168 T) J

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By principle of calorimetry

Heat lost = heat gained


(21504-33.6T) j = (13440-168 T) J

Solving for T we have T = 40°C

Final temperature attained by the contents of the vessel is 40°c [ANS]

24) In a laboratory experiment to measure specific heat capacity of copper 0.02 Kg of water at 70°c
was poured into a copper calorimeter with a stirrer of mass 0.16 Kg initially at 15°c. After stirring,
the final temperature reached to 45°c. Specific heat of water is taken as 4200 JKg-1 ° c -1
i. What is the quantity of heat released per Kg of water per 1°c fall in temperature?
ii. Calculate the heat energy released by water in the experiment in cooling form 70 °C to 45 °c
iii. Assuming that the heat released by water is entirely used to raise the temperature of
calorimeter from 15 °c to 45 °c, Calculate the specific heat capacity of copper.

i. The heat energy released by 1 kg of water per 1 °c fall in its temperature is the magnitude of the
specific heat capacity of water i.e. 4200J [ANS]
ii. The heat energy H1 released by water in the experiment is given by
H1 = 0.02 X 4200 X (70-45) = 2100 J [ANS]
iii. Let H2 be the heat needed by the calorimeter + stirrer for getting heated.

Then H2 = 0.16 X S X (45-15) = 4.8 SJ

Or 4.8 S = 2100 or S = 2100/4.8

⸫ S = 437.5 J Kg-1 °C-1

Hence specific heat capacity of copper is 437.5 Jkg-1 ° C-1 [ANS]

25) A hot solid of mass 60g at 100°C is placed in 100g of water at 18°c. The final steady temperature
recorded is 20°c. Find the specific heat capacity of the solid.

Heat lost by solid = mc1 θ

= 60 X C1 X 80 J
Heat gained by water = mc θ

= 100 X 4.2 X 2J
By principle of calorimetry we have heat cost = Heat gained

60 X C1 X 80 = 100 X 4.2 X 2

Solving for C1 we have C1 = 0.175 J g-1 ° C-1 [ANS]

26) Calculate the mass of steam at 100 °c that must be passed into 8.4 Kg of water at 30 °c to raise the
temperature of water to 80 °c.

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Let the mass of steam at 100 °c be ‘m’ g

1. Heat given out by steam in condensing into water at 100 °c = ml

= m X 2268 J

= 2268 MJ
2. Heat given out by water at 100 °c (obtained from the condensation of steam) in cooling down to
80 °c

=mXCXt

= m X 4.2 J/g ° C X (100-80) °C

= m X 4.2 X 20 = 84 m J

Hence, total quantity of heat given out by steam.

= (2268m + 84m) J

= 2352 m J.

Heat taken up by 8.4 kg of water

= 8400 g of water in raising its temperature from 30 °c to 80 ° c i.e. by 50 °c = 8400 g X


4.2 J lg °C X 50 ° C = 1764000 J.

Since heat given out by stem = Heat taken up by water 2352 m = 1764000

⸫ m = 1764000 / 2352 g = 750g.

⸫ Mass of steam required = 750g.

27) 2 Kg of ice melts when a jet of steam at 100 °c is passed through a hole drilled in a block of ice.
What mass of steam was used?
Given:
Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/Kg °C
Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 X 103 J/Kg.
Specific latent heat of vaporisation of steam = 2268 X 103 J /Kg.

Let ‘m’ Kg of steam be required

Heat given out by steam to condense into water at 100 °c=mL.

= m (2,268 X 103) J

Heat given out by m Kg of water so cool from 100 °c to 0 °c


= mc ∆T

= m X 4200 J/Kg °c X (100-0) °C

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS
= m X 42 X 104 J
Total heat lost = m (2268 X 10 ) + m (42 X 104)
3

= m X 2688 X 103 J.

Heat gained by 2 kg of ice in melting at 0 °c


= 2 X (336 X 103) J = 672 X 103 J.

Heat lost = Heat gained


 m X 2688 X 103 = 672 X 103
Or m =

Or, m= 0.25 Kg.

 0.25 Kg of steam was used [ANS]

28) 10g of ice at 0 °c absorbed 5460 J of heat to melt and change into water at 50 °c. Calculate the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice. Given specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J Kg-1 ° C-1
Quantity of heat required to melt ice = 10 X L
Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0 °C to 50 °C = 10 X 4.2 X 50

According to the question 5460 = 10 X L + 10 X 4.2 X 50


Solving for L we have L = 336 J g-1

So specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 336 Jg-1 [ANS]

29) In an experiment to determine the specific Latent heat of vaporisation of steam L, the following
measurements were taken:
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer = 𝒙 𝒌𝒈
Mass of water = y kg
Initial temperature of water = T1 °C
Final temperature of mixture = T2 °C
Given: Specific heat capacity of calorimeter and water are S1 and S2 respectively. Express L in terms
of above data.

Heat lost by steam to condense = m X L


Heat lost by water to lower its temperature T2 = m X s2 (100-T2)
Heat gained by water = y X S2 (T2 – T1)
Heat gained by calorimeter = 𝑥 X S1 (T2- T1)

Total heat gained = y X S2 (T2 – T1) + 𝑥 X S1 (T2 – T1)

Now, Heat lost by steam = Heat gained by water + Heat gained by calorimeter
Therefore, mL + mS2 (100 – T2) = y X S2 (T2 – T1) + 𝑥 X S1 (T2 – T1)

( )( ( )
Or, L = )
[ANS]

30) A piece of metal at 10 °C has a mass of 50g. When it is immersed in a current of steam at 100 °c,
0.7 g of steam is condensed on it. Calculate the specific heat of the metal. (Given: Latent heat of
steam = 540 Cal/g)

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Mass of metal = 50g


Initial temperature = 10 °c

Final temperature = 100 °c

Let ‘c’ be the specific heat in cal/g °C. Then heat gained by metal = 50 g X C X (100-10) °C

= 50 X 90 X C Cal.
Mass of steam condensed = 0.7g

Specific latent heat of steam = 540 cal/g

Heat lost by steam = mL = 0.7 X 540 Cal.


Heat lost by steam = Heat gained by a piece of metal
But, 50 X C X 90 = 0.7 X 540

.
C= = 0.084 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔 -1 °C-1

⸫ Specific heat of metal = 0.084 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔-1 °C-1 [ANS]

31) A 30g ice cube at 0 °C is dropped into 200g of water at 30°C. Calculate the final temperature of
water when the entire ice cube is melted. Given: Latent heat of ice is 80 cal g-1
Specific heat capacity of water = 1 cal 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔-1 °C-1

Given: mice = 30g

MW = 200g, T1 = 0°C, T2= 30°C, T =?

L ice = 80 cal g-1, S =1 𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑔-1 °C-1

Heat lost by 200g water in cooling from 30°C to 0°C = 200 X 1 X (30 – T)

= 200 (30-T) cal.


This heat is used by 30g of ice in getting just completely melted and in raising the temperature of
melted water to T°c. Now heat needed to just melt 30g of ice = 30 X 80 = 2400 cal.
Heat needed to raise the temperature of 30g of water from 0°C to T°C = 30 X 1 X (T – 0) cal = 30 T
cal

Thus in equilibrium we have 2400 + 30 T = 200 (30-T) = 6000 -200T

= 200 T + 30 T = 6000-2400
= 230 T = 3600,
=T= = 15.65 °c
⸫ Final temperature of water = 15.65 °c [ANS]

32) 1 Kg of ice at 0 °c is being continuously heated through an electric heater of 1 KW. Assuming that
all the heat is transmitted to ice, calculate the time intervals in seconds for water to get heated
from 0 °c to 100 °c.
(Given: Specific latent heat of ice = 3,336,000 J Kg-1
Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg-1 K -1)

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Rate of heat energy supplied by the 1 KW electric heater = 1000 J s-1


i. Amount of heat required to completely melt 1 kg of ice at 0 °C
= Specific latent heat of ice
= 336000 J
Hence, time required = 336000 / 1000 = 336 sec [ANS]

ii. Amount of heat required by 1 Kg of water at 0 °c, in getting heated to 100 °c = 1 X 4200 X 100 J =
420000 J.
Hence time needed =
S = 420 sec [ANS]

33) A metal of mass 250g is heated to a temperature of 65 °C. It is then placed in 50g of water at 20 °C.
The final steady temperature of water becomes 25 °C. Neglecting the heat taken by the container;
calculate the specific heat capacity of the metal.

Given: m= 250g, T1= 65°C, mW = 50g, T2 = 20 ° C, T = 25 ° C, C= ?


Let ‘c’ be the required specific heat capacity then heat lost by the metal = 250 X C X (65-25) =
10,000CJ

Heat gained by the water = 50 X 4.2 (25-20) 1050J

 Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 ° C -1


10000 CJ = 1050 J
⸫C = ,
= 0.105 Jg-1 ° C-1

So specific heat capacity of metal is 0.105 J g-1 ° C -1 [ANS]

34) Calculate the heat given out when a piece of iron of mass 50g and specific heat capacity 460 J Kg-1
° C-1 cools from 100 °c to 40 °c

Mas of the piece of iron m =50g = 0.05 kg


Specific heat capacity of iron, C = 460 J Kg-1 ° C-1
Change in temperature ∆T = (100-40) °C = 60 °C
⸫ Heat energy = m X C X ∆T

= 0.05 X 460 X 60 = 1380 J


Hence, the heat given out by the iron piece is 1380 J [ANS]

35) Calculate the heat energy gained when 5 Kg of water at 20 °C is brought to its boiling point.
(sp. Heat capacity of water = 4200 J Kg-1 ° C-1)

Rise or change in temperature ∆ T = 100-20 = 80 °C


⸫ Heat energy gained = mc ∆T
= 5 X 4200 X 80
= 1680000J [ANS]

36) 0.085 Kg of copper of sp. Heat capacity 100 cal kg-1 °C-1 and at 20 °C is heated by a burner for one
minutes, which supplies heat energy at a rate of 12 calories/sec. calculate the final temperature of
copper.

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

Let rise in temperature = ∆ T


Heat supplied to copper = 𝑋 60𝑠

= 720 Cal.
Heat supplied = mc ∆T

720 cal = 0.085 Kg X 100 Cal Kg-1 °c-1 X ∆ T

⇒∆T = .
°C = 84.70 °C

⸫ Final temperature of copper = 20°C + 84.70°C

= 104.70 ° C [ANS]

37) Calculate the total amount of heat required to convert 100g ice at 0°C to steam at 100°c
(Specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 Jg-1)
(Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1)

Heat required to convert 100g ice at 0°C to water at 0°C = Mass X Specific latent heat of fusion of ice

= 100 X 333 = 33300 J


Heat required to raise the temperature of 100g water from 0°C to 100 °C

= Mass X Sp. Heat capacity of water X rise in temperature

= 100 X 4.2 X (100-0) = 42000 J


⸫Total amount of heat required = 33300 + 42000 = 75300J [ANS]

38) 2000 cal of heat is supplied to 200g of water. Find the rise in temperature.
(Take specific heat of water = 1 cal g-1 ° C -1)

Quantity of heat supplied, Q = 2000 cal.


Mass of water, m = 200g
Sp. Heat of water, C = 1 Cal g-1 ° C-1

Rise in temperature = ∆T
We know Q = m X C X ∆T
⇒∆T= = = 10°C [ANS]

39) Calculate the current flowing in a nichrome wire immersed in 500 g of turpentine oil at 20° C. Such
that the temperature of the oil rises to 70°C 5 minutes when the wire is connected to a battery of
emf 24V. The specific heat capacity of the oil is 750 J Kg-1°c-1

Heat supplied by heating coil = V X I X T


= 24 X I X 5 X 60 J.
Heat gained by turpentine = m X S X t = 500 X 0.75 X 50J

Heat lost = Heat gained

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So 24 X I X 5 X 60 = 500 X 0.75 X 50.


⸫ Current flowing = I = 2.60 A [ANS]

40) A refrigerator converts 100g of water at 20°C into ice at -10°C in 1 hr. Calculate the quantity of
heat extracted per sound.
Given: Sp. Latent heat of ice = 336 J/g
(Specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 J/g°C, Sp. Heat capacity of water = 4.2 J/g °C)

Total heat extracted per hour = heat lost by water (being cooled from 20°c to 0°c + freezing to 0°C +
in reducing the temperature of ice to -10°c

= mCw ∆ t + mL + mcice + ∆t1

=m [Cw ∆ t + L + Cice ∆ t1]

= 100g [4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1X (20-0) ° C + 336 Jg-1 + 2.1 Jg-1 ° C-1 X {0- (-10) ° C} ]

= 100 [84 + 336 + 21] J

= 44100 J

⸫ Heat extracted per second =

= 12.25 j/s

= 12.25 W [ANS]

41) 0.5 Kg of ice at -10 °C is heated until whole of it evaporates. Find the amount of heat required.
Given: Latent heat of ice = 336 X 103 J/Kg
Latent heat of steam = 2268 X 103 J/Kg and specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 X 103+ J/kg °c

Amount of heat required to evaporate 0.5 Kg of ice at -10 °C = Heat required to (raise temperature
of ice from - 10 °C to 0 °C + melt ice + raise the temperature of water from 0 °C to 100 °C + vaporize
the water)

= [m Cice ∆ t + mLice + MCW ∆ t1 + mL stem]


= m[Cice ∆ t + Lice+ CW ∆t1 + L steam]

= 0.5[{2.1 X 103 X (0-(-10)} + 336 X 103 + 4.2 X 103 X (100-0) + 2268 X 103]

= 0.5 [21 X 103 + 336 X 103 + 420 X 103 + 2268 X 103] = 1.5225 X 106 J [ANS]

42) A copper vessel contains 200g of water at 24 ° C. When 112g of water at 42°C is added the
resultant temperature of water is 30°c. Calculate thermal capacity of calorimeter.

Let thermal capacity of calorimeter is (m XS) J°C-1

Heat gained by the calorimeter = [m X s X (30 – 24)] J

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS
=6 (m X S) J
Heat gained by the water at 24°c
= 200 X4.2 X (30-24) J

= (200 X4.2 X 6) J = 5040 J

Total heat gained by the water + calorimeter = [6 X (m X S) + 5040] J

Heat lost by the water at 42°c = 112 X 4.2 X (42-30) J = 5644.8/J

Heat gained = Heat lost = 6 X (m X S) + 5040 = 5644.8

= 6 X (m X S) = 5644.8 – 5040

.
=mXS= = 100.8 𝐽 ° 𝐶 -1
⸫ Thermal capacity of calorimeter = 100.8 J°C-1 [ANS]

43) A vessel of mass 80g (sp. Heat capacity = 0.8 J g -1 ° C-1) contains 250g of water at 35°C. Calculate
the amount of ice at 0°c, which must be added to it, so that final temperature is 5°c
[sp. Latent heat of ice = 340 J g -1]

Let amount of ice required is ‘m’ g.


Heat required to change ice at 0°C to water at 0°C = m + 340 = 340m J.

Heat required to change ice at 0°C to water at 5°C water = m X 42 X (5-0) J

= 21 mJ
Total heat gained = (340 m + 21m) = 361 mJ
Heat lost by the water at 35°C to 5° C

= [250 X 4.2 X (35-5)]


= 1050.0 X 30 = 31500 J

Heat lost by the calorimeter = (80 X0.8 X 30 ) J = 1920 J

Total heat lost = (31500 + 1920) J

= 33420 J
According to the question 361 m = 33420

Or, m = = 92.57 𝑔

∴ The amount of ice = 92.57g [ANS]

44) Calculate the final temperature when 2 kg of cold water at 5°c is mixed with 0.4 Kg of hot water at
95°C.

By the principle of calorimetry heat lost = Heat gained

Let 𝑥 be the final temperature

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS
 0.4 X 4200 X (95-𝑥) = 2 X 4200 X (𝑥 − 5)

= = .
=5

= 95 − 𝑥 = 5𝑥 − 25

= 5𝑥 + 𝑥 = 95 + 25

= 6𝑥 = 120

=𝑥 =

= 20

⸫ Final temperature = 20°C [ANS]

45) A hot solid mass 60gm and at 100°c is placed in 120gm of water at 20°c when final temperature
recorded is 22°c. Find the heat capacity of solid.

Heat lost by hot body = Heat gained by cold body


60 X C X (100-22) = 100 X 4.200 X (22-20)

. .
C= = = 0.179 J/g°c
⸫ Heat capacity of solid is 0.179 J/g°C [ANS]

46) 8000 J of heat is given to 200g of copper at 20°c. What is the final temperature if the specific heat
capacity of copper is 0.4 J g -1 °C -1 ?

Let the final temperature of copper be T° C


Then heat required to raise the temperature of 200g of copper from 20°c to T°C

= 200 X 0.4 X (T-20) J


Heat given = 8000J

According to the principle of calorimetry heat gained = Heat lost

Or, 200 X 0.4 X (T-20) = 8000

Or (T-20) = .
= 100

Or, T = 100 + 20 = 120°c

So final temperature of copper is 120°c [ANS]

47) A drill of power 400 W makes a hole in a lead cube of specific heat capacity 0.13 Jg-1 ° C-1 in 80s. If
the temperature of lead rises from 25°c to 325°, calculate the mass of lead cube.

Let the mass of lead cube is ‘m’ g .


Heat energy required to heat the lead to raise the temperature from 25° to 325°c = [ m X 0.13 X
(325°c-25°c)] J

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ICSE CLASS 10 PHYSICS – NUMERICALS

According to the question


m X 0.13 X (325 – 25) = 400 X 80 or m X 0.13 X 300 =32000 or m= or m =
820.5g
So mass of the lead cube is 820.5g [ANS]

48) Which contains more heat 1gm of ice at 0°c or 1 gm of water at 0°c?
1 g of water at 0°c contains more heat. Heat contained by 1gm ice converted from 1gm of water at
0°c = (1 X 336) J = 336 J or heat given out by 1gm of water at 0°c converted from 1gm of ice at 0°c =
336 J

1 gm of water contains more heat than 1gm of ice at 0°c [ANS]

49) A vessel contains 100g of ice and 100g of water at 0°c. Steam at 100°c is passed into this vessel
until whole of the ice melts and the temp of the contents is raised by 10°c. Neglecting the heat
gained by the vessel, calculate the mass of steam used.
(Sp. Latent heat of fusion of ice is 336J g -1
Sp. Latent heat of vaporisation of steam is 2260 Jg-1
Specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 Jg-1)

Heat lost by steam = mL + mst


= m X 2260 + m X 4.2 X 90
= 2638 mJ

Heat gained by ice = mL + mst


= (100 X 336) + (100 X 4.2 X 10)
= 33600 + 4200.0 = 37800 J

Heat gained by water = mst


= 100 X 4.2 X 10 = 4200 J

Heat lost = heat gained


2638 m = 37800 + 4200 = 42000 or m = 42000/2638 = 15.92g.
⸫ Mass of steam used = 15.92g [ANS]

50) An electric immersion heater is switched on for 10 minutes. The heat supplied by it raises the
temperature of 400gm of water from 10°C to 90°C Calculate the power of heater in watts.

Time = 10 min = 600 sec


Let power of heater = P

Energy supplied by heater = P X t = P x 600S

ALSO RISE IN TEMPERATURE OF WATER = ϴR = (90° - 10°) = 80°c


Heat energy absorbed by water = mc ϴR
= 400g X 4.2 Jg-1 ° C-1 X 80°C
= 134400 J
⸫By the law of conservation of energy P X 600s = 134400J

⸫P = = 224 = 224 𝑊

Hence the power of heater is 224 watts [ANS]

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