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Principles of Medical Laboratory Science 2

Circulatory System

Circulatory system- transportation system for body to transfer substances and waste

Vasculature- blood vessels

Capillaries- connection of artery and vein

Pulmonary system- blood through lungs ; oxygenated blood ; CO2 removed

Systemic system- circulate in tissues to distribute gases ; supplies cells with oxygen, fats, carbs, and energy sources

Hematopoiesis or hemopoeisis- formation of cells from undifferentiated stem cells ; slowly decreasing in size

Stem cells- pluripotential or multipotential ; undifferentiated

Hematopoietic stem cell- forms RBC, WBC, platelet ; formed in bone marrow and lymph nodes

Baby- stem cell in umbilical cord

Formed elements- RBC, WBC, platelet

Serum- blood removed from body, it clots, liquid portion

Blood- separate according to density

White in blood- buffy coat ; platelets and WBC

Erythrocytes- RBC ; distribute O2 in body ; consist of membrane that encases hemoglobin (iron-containing pigments of
RBC ; holds O2)

Membrane of RBC- antigens that determine blood type

Leukocytes (WBC) - monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil ;bone marrow and lymph nodes ;
greatest to least (Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas) ; from blast cells

Platelets- thrombocytes ; smallest ; fragments of cells that break off from megakaryocyte (bone marrow)

Pus- dead WBC

CBC- differential count is part ; contains WBC, RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit ; all general screening of patient's
health

RBC, H&H low- anemia

Arteries- carry O2 blood ; thicker walls than vein because of pressure by heart ; leaves heart ; constantly expanding
and contracting

Tunica media- smooth muscle and external elastic membrane


Veins- return to heart ; de-O2 blood ; contains valves (keeps blood flowing in one direction ; assure unidirectional flow
of blood)

Capillary- single layer of simple squamous epithelium ; to facilitate gas exchange

Aorta- largest artery

Vena cava- largest vein

Clot- fibrin mass

STEPS IN BLOOD CLOTTING: Ca2+ dependent

1. Endothelium of vessel damaged, expose connective tissue, platelets adhere


2. Platelets form plug
3. Sear reinforced by clot of fibrin

STEPS TO A CLOT:
1. Uncoagulated blood
2. Calcium utilized
3. Prothrombin to thrombin
4. Fibrinogen to fibrin
5. Clot formation with serum extracted

CLOTTING FACTORS FROM:

1. Platelets
2. Damaged cells
3. Plasm (Ca2+ and Vitamin K)

Thrombus (clot)- platelet pa lang

Fibrin cut- platelet and plasma protein ; to stabilize ; remain until wood heals

Plasma protein- coagulation factors ; participate in clotting process

No clotting happens- prothrombin and fibrinogen

Thrombin and fibrin- during clotting mechanism

Thrombin- from prothrombin

Fibrin- from fibrinogen

Plasma- uncoagulated ; fibrinogen present ; contains antibodies reacting with antigen

Serum- no fibrinogen ; coagulated


Red top- clot ; serum

EDTA- prevents clotting ; plasma ; bind to Ca2+

SEPARATION OF PLASMA/SERUM:

1. Centrifuge- spins and separates blood into layers depending on weight of each layer
 serum- removed from clot
 Plasma- removed from formed elements

Heart- keeps blood flowing to different parts of body

FOUR CHAMBERS:

1. R. Atrium
2. R. Ventricle- for oxygenating blood to lungs ;
3. L. Atrium
4. L. Ventricle- pumping blood to body

Septum- muscular wall dividing right and left sides of heart

Atrium- blood enters

Ventricles- blood leaves

Tricuspid valve- right

Mitral valve- left

De-O2 blood- right side of heart ; from heart, from the pulmonary artery to lungs for oxygenation

O2 blood- returns to heart from lungs through PV to left side of heart

Atherosclerotic plaque- thicken blood vessels ; fats

Pulmonary artery-de-O2 ; to lungs

Pulmonary vein- O2 ; from lungs

BLOOD FLOW CHART:

1. Superior / inferior vena cava

2. Right atrium

3. Tricuspid valve
4. Right ventricle

5. Pulmonary valve

6. Pulmonary artery to lungs

7. Pulmonary vein from lungs

8. Left atrium

9. Mitral valve

10. Left atrium

11. Left ventricle

12. Aorta

13. Arteries

14. Arterioles

15. Capillaries

16. Venules

17. veins

HEART TISSUES:

1. Endocardium- innermost
2. Myocardium- muscles ; cardiac muscles
3. Epicardium- outermost
4. Pericardium- encloses heart

Endocarditis- infection of endocardium ; mitral valve open, bacteria enters

Coronary arteries- supply blood to heart muscle

Coronary vein- remove waste products

Acute myocardial infarction- coronary arteries occluded ; heart attack ; high cholesterol

ELECTRICAL STIMULI:

1. Sinoatrial (SV) node- heart's pacemaker ; controls beating of heart


2. Atrioventicular (AV) node- causes atria to contact ; because to push ventricle
3. Bundle of HIS- AV bundle ; carry electrical impulse to ventricle
4. Purkinjie fibers- receive impulse and causes ventricle contract
Blood pressure- ratio of S/D ; 120/80 ; recorded in mmHg

 Systolic pressure- contracts


 Diastolic pressure- heart relaxed
 If close- smaller time for heart to rest

VEINS AND ARTERIES:

1. Antecubital fossa- draw blood


1.1. Median cubital- center of AF ; majority of time ; well-anchored
1.2. Cephalic vein- 2nd choice
1.3. Basilic vein- 3rd choice ; more difficult and is rolling ; brachial artery and median cutaneous nerve underlay
basic vein ; inner
2. Alternative
2.1. Superficial veins
2.2. Arteries in arm
2.2.1. Brachial artery- brachial region of arm
2.2.2. Radial and ulnar arteries in wrist
2.3. Veins of feet- physician's permission needed before drawing blood from veins of legs and feet

Bone marrow- primary factory for production of blood cells


Lymph nodes, thymus, spleen- other cites
Function of blood- carry O2 to tissues and remove CO2
2.5% blood- during one blood draw
45%- formed elements
55%- plasma
Consist of mature cells- when cells leave bone marrow and enter bloodstream
Hematologic problem- immature cells

WBC RBC PLATELET

Function - Body defense - Transport of O2 - Stoppage of


- Immunity and CO2 bleeding
(intravascular) - Clotting

Formation - Bone marrow - Bone marrow - Bone marrow


- Lymphatic tissue
Shape / size - 9-16 micrometers - 6-7 mm - 1-4 mm
- Diff size, shape, - Biconcave disc - Fragments of
color - No nucleus megakaryocytes
- Nucleus (core)
Life span - Varies - 100 to 120 days - 9-12 days
- 24 hours to years
Reference values - 3,500 – 11,000 - 3.8 – 5.9 / cubic mm - 150,000 – 400,000 /
cubic millimeters cubic mm

Removal - Bone marrow - Bone marrow - spleen


- Liver - Liver
- Spleen - Spleen

Type and cross match- determining if person will react after transfusion
White blood cell differential count- leukocytes classified according to percentage of cell types
Indices of RBC- hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBCs
Arteries – arterioles – capillaries – venules – veins

Anticoagulant- prevents blood from clotting by preventing fibrinogen to fibrin


Sphygmomanometer- measures BP