Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 57

# Framed Structures 2

Objectives:

Differentiate between perfect, imperfect and redundant frames. To compute the member forces in
a frame by graphical method. To compute the forces in a truss by method of joints. To compute
the forces in a truss by method of sections. To compute the forces in a truss by method of tension
coefﬁcients.

## 2.1 PLANE FRAMES

The plane trusses are here by termed as plane frames. In this chapter, pin jointed plane frames
which are statically determinate are considered. A statically determinate frame can be completely
analysed by using statics. The number of unknown forces is the same as the number of equations
obtained from static equilibrium. The main methods in analysing statically determinate pin jointed
plane frames are (i) Graphical solution – Force diagram (ii) Method of resolution at joints (iii)
Method of sections and (iv) Tension coefﬁcient method. The ﬁrst three methods are used in plane
frames (trusses) and the fourth method is used for analysing the space frame.
A truss is an assemblage of three or more members which are hinged or pinned. A load applied
on the truss is transmitted to all joints so that the members are in pure compression or tension.
Consider a simple truss made up of three members hinged at the ends to form a triangle. A load
W is acting at the apex of the triangle and due to symmetry, the reactions are W/2 at each support.

W
B

A C
W/2 W/2
FIG. 2.1

Due to the application of the load, the joint A and C pulls the member out and for equilibrium at
joint A there should be an equal and opposite force should move away from joint A. In otherwords,
member AC in tension. Due to the downward load W, the joint B is pushed vertically downwards.
The forces in the members AB and BC are in compression as the joint B is pushed. A force in the
36 • Basic Structural Analysis
Framed Structures • 35

member AB should counteract this force and hence this member force act towards the joint. Hence,
the effect of the application of the load results in pure compression or tension.

W
B

A C
W/2 W/2
FIG. 2.2

It should be noted that the member forces marked in the above ﬁgure are the internal forces. It can
be remembered as, when the force is acting towards the joint it is compressive in nature. When the
force is acting away from the joint, it is tensile in nature. The compression members are called as
strut while tension members are called as tie.

## 2.2 PERFECT, IMPERFECT AND REDUNDANT PIN JOINTED FRAMES

2.2.1 Perfect Frame
A perfect frame has just sufﬁcient number of members to prevent the frame being unstable. The
simplest perfect frame is in the form of a triangle as shown in Fig. 2.2. It has three members and
three joints, namely A, B and C. If two more members are added to form another triangle, then one
more joint has been added. The frame will remain as a perfect frame as long as any number of
triangles are added. Thus, the frame will remain as a perfect frame. In essence, the ﬁrst three joints
or pins require three bars to connect them. While the remaining ( j − 3) joints require 2( j − 3) extra
bars. If m is the total number of bars or members required to connect j joints together.

m − 3 = 2( j − 3)
m = 2j−3

i.e., number of members to form a perfect frame = Twice the number of joints–3.

## 2.2.2 Imperfect Frame

An imperfect frame is one where the number of members is less than (2 j − 3). In Fig. 2.3 the
number of joints are 4 and the number of members are four and hence
Framed Structures • 37
Framed Structures • 37

## The combined force diagram is drawn as follows:

1. Starting from the force AB, the known forces, viz. AB, BC and CA working clockwise round
the frame, are set down in order and to scale as ab, bc and ca.
2. Consider the apex joint ab the centre of the clock, and the letters are read clockwise around
this centre.
3. Therefore, from the letter ‘b’ draw a line parallel to B1 and from the letter ‘a’ draw a line
parallel to 1A and both intersect at the point 1. From the force diagram, the magnitude of
the forces are obtained. The member force A1 = Member force B1 = 5.7 × 5 = 28.5 kN.
Member force C1 = 2.8 × 5 = 14 kN.
4. Consider the joint at the left hand support reaction. Read clockwise in the frame diagram.
Member A1 is inclined and in the force diagram a to 1 is downwards and hence mark the
arrow correspondingly in the force diagram from 1 to C it is towards right mark this direction
at that joint.
50 kN

A 1 B

60° 60°
C
25 25
FIG. 2.6 Frame diagram

5. Consider the apex joint. Read clockwise B1 is inclined member. In the force diagram, b to 1
is upwards and hence mark the arrow upward for member B1 at the apex joint. Member 1A
is a sloping member. From the force diagram, 1 to a is upwards. Therefore, mark the arrow
upwards at the apex joint. (compression).
a
cm
5.7

1 c Scale 1 cm = 5 kN

b
FIG. 2.7 Force diagram
38 • Basic Structural Analysis
42 • Basic Structural Analysis

A 50 kN B 25 kN
4m 4m

D 2 3

6m
1
C

FIG. 2.16

2
a

Re 1
ac
tio
na
tt
he
b to
3 ph
in
ge

## c Reaction at the roller d

FIG. 2.17

Force in kN
Member Strut Tie
A2 − 36
B3 − 36
C3 43 −
C1 86 −
12 − 41.5
1D − 50.0
23 50 −
Reaction at hinge 103 −
Reaction at roller 66 −

## 2.4 METHOD OF JOINTS

In the method of joints, the member forces are determined using the equilibrium conditions at
that particular joint. In this resolution of forces at the joint, the free body diagram at that joint is
considered. The procedure is explained as follows:
38 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 39

6. Consider the right hand support reaction and again read clockwise. 1B is inclined member.
In the force diagram 1 to b is downwards. Therefore, mark the arrow downwards at joint.
7. To determine the member force C1, from the force diagram it is noted that the force is acting
from c towards left to 1. Mark the arrow C1 in the same direction in frame diagram.
The ﬁnal forces are listed below.

Forces in kN
Member Strut Tie
A1 28.5 −
B1 28.5 −
C1 − 14.0

E XAMPLE 2. 1: Determine the forces in the members graphically.

20 kN
D
10 kN 10 kN
C E

A B
3m F 3m G 3m

FIG. 2.8

S OLUTION
Due to Symmetry:
10 + 20 + 10
VA = VB = = 20 kN
2
Using the Bow notations
20 kN

10 kN B C 10 kN

A 2 3 4 D
1 5
3m 3m 3m
20 kN E 20 kN
FIG. 2.9
40 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 39

## The combined force diagram is drawn as follows:

1. The loads AB, BC, CD, DE and EA are marked to scale.
2. Start with a joint of the left hand reaction. Draw a line through the point ‘a’ a line parallel to
A1 and from the point ‘e’ draw a horizontal line parallel to 1E.
They intersect at a point and is marked as 1.
3. Move to the next joint where 10 kN load is acting; Through ‘b’ draw a line parallel to B2 and
from 1 draw a line parallel to 12. These two lines intersect at the point 2.
4. After locating point 2 in the force diagram. Consider the joint where the members 1 − 2, 2 −
3, 3 − E and E − 1 meet. The point 3 is located on intersection of line e1 and a line drawn
through point 2 and parallel to 2 − 3 of the frame diagram.
5. The point 4 is located by drawing a line through 3 and parallel to 3 − 4 in the load diagram
which intersects the line drawn from ‘C’ in the force diagram and parallel to C − 4.
6. The point 5 is marked from point 4. Draw a line parallel to 4 − 5 of the frame diagram from
point 4 and this cuts the horizontal line through ‘e’.
7. Using the force diagram, the magnitude of the forces and the directions are obtained.
8. It is to be remembered that the arrows indicate not what is being done to the member but
what the member is doing at the joint at each end. Hence, if the arrow is acting towards the
joint it is compression and if the arrow is acting away from the joint then it is tensile force.
Force in kN
Member Strut Tie
A1 D5 36.5 −
B2 C4 31.5 −
E1 E5 − 31.0
12 45 8.25 −
23 34 − 8.25

20 kN a

10 kN B C 10 kN
2 4 b
A 3 D 4
1 5
3m 3m 3m
5,1 3
E e
FIG. 2.10 Frame diagram
2 c

d
FIG. 2.11 Force diagram
Framed Structures •
Framed Structures 41
• 41

Force in kN
Member Strut Tie
A1 12.5 −
B3 12.5 −
12 11.8 −
23 11.8 −
1E − 24.0
2D − 18.5
3C − 24.0

## 2.3.3 Numerical Example on Cantilever Frames

E XAMPLE 2. 3: Use the graphical method and determine the member forces and the reaction at
the supports.

50 kN 25 kN
4m B 4m
6m

FIG. 2.15

In the force diagram of the cantilever truss, these is no need of reactions before starting of the same.

1. The load line is drawn as in the previous examples. a − b, b − c, start with a joint at the free
end and reading clockwise, draw line from b parallel to B3 of the frame diagram and from
point C draw line parallel to C3 and the intersection of the above lines give point 3.
2. The point 2 is located as follows. From the point 3, draw a line parallel to 23 and from ‘a’
draw a line parallel to A2. The intersection gives the point 2.
3. The point 1 is obtained as follows. A line is drawn from point 3, parallel to 3 −C and from
point 2 draw line parallel to 21 and the intersection of 1.
4. After marking the points 1, 2 and 3 the member forces and their nature are tabulated here.
40 •
42 Basic Structural
• Basic Structural Analysis
Analysis

2.3.2 Numerical Example on Frame with Loads Suspended from the Bottom Chord
E XAMPLE 2. 2: Find the forces in all the members of the truss graphically

20 kN
3m 3m
60° 60°

3m
10 kN 10 kN
FIG. 2.12

## 1. The loads AB, BC, CD, DE and EA are marked to scale.

2. Start with the left support joint. Read clockwise and draw. Draw a line from ‘a’ parallel to
A − 1 in the load diagram. Draw another line e from the load diagram and parallel to the 1E
of the frame diagram. They intersect at the point 1.
3. The point 2 is located by considering the joint adjacent to the left support. Draw a line from
point 1 parallel to 1 − 2 of the frame diagram. From the load diagram, draw a horizontal line
through d and the line intersect at point 2.
4. From the point 2 draw a line parallel to 2 − 3 of the frame diagram and from point ‘e’ draw
a horizontal line and the intersection of above two lines give point 3.
5. Determine the magnitude and nature of the forces from the forces diagram and tabulate.

20 kN 1 a,c
A B

1 3
20 20
E 2 C
2 d

D
10 10
FIG. 2.13 Frame diagram
3 b,e
FIG. 2.14 Force diagram
Framed Structures •
Framed Structures 43
• 43

## 1. Check the stability and assess its determinacy of the truss.

2. If the truss is of cantilever type, the reactions need not be computed in general. If the truss
is stable and determinate where one support is hinge and the other support is on rollers;
compute the reactions at the supports.
3. Draw the free body diagram at each joint and analyse the member forces at a joint where
only two members meet. Then, consider the adjacent joint where only two unknown forces
to be determined. This process is repeated till the analysis of all joints are completed.
4. The results are tabulated along with magnitude of member forces and the nature of forces.
The forces are tensile if they are pulling (acting away) the joint. The forces are compressive
in nature if they are pushing (acting towards) the joint.

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE
E XAMPLE 2. 4: Analyse the truss shown in Fig. 2.18 by method of joints. (May 2010, RVCE)
70 kN

20 1 2 3

3m

4 3m 3m
6
H4 5

V4 V6
FIG. 2.18

S OLUTION
The reactions at the supports are found out by summing up the forces in horizontal and vertical
directions and also by taking moments of applied forces about the hinge support.

∑ H = 0; 20 − H4 = 0
H4 = 20 kN

∑ V = 0; V4 +V6 = 70 kN

∑ M4 = 0; 20 × 3 + 70 × 3 − 6V6 = 0
V6 = 45 kN

∴ V4 = 25 kN
36 •
44 • Basic
BasicStructural
StructuralAnalysis
Analysis

nm < 2n j − 3 nj = 4
4 < (2 × 4) − 3 D nm = 4
4<5 A C

FIG. 2.3
2.2.3 Redundant Frame
A redundant frame is one where the number of member or members are more than (2 j − 3). In
Fig. 2.4, the number of joints are
B

nm > (2n j − 3) nj = 4
6 > (2 × 4) − 3 D nm = 6
6>5 A C

FIG. 2.4

## 2.3 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION-FORCE DIAGRAMS

Consider the perfect frame in Fig. 2.5. The forces include the applied load and the reactions at
P and Q.
50 kN

A 1 B

P Q
C
FIG. 2.5

Due to symmetry the reactions are 25 kN at joint P and Q respectively. In graphical method the
loads and reactions are read clockwise. They are represented by capital letters written on either side
of the force, commonly known as ‘BOW’S Notation’. They are denoted with letters A, B,C and the
space inside the member is denoted by numbers. Note that the letters A, B,C are marked in the mid-
dle length of the members and not at the joints. The load at the apex 50 kN is denoted as ‘load AB’.
The reaction at the right support is denoted as ‘load BC’. The reaction at the left support 25 kN is
denoted as ‘load CA’. The member force in the horizontal member is denoted as ‘force 1C’.
44 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 45

Joint 4

F14

∑ H = 0;
F45 − 20 = 0
4 F45
F45 = 20 kN 20
∑ V = 0;
− F14 + 25 = 0 25 kN

F14 = 25 kN

Joint 1

20 kN 1
F12
45°
∑ V = 0;
F15
25 − F15 sin 45 = 0
F15 = 35.4 kN 25 kN

∑ H = 0;
20 − F12 + F15 cos 45 = 0
20 − F12 + 35.4 cos 45 = 0
F12 = 45.03 kN

Joint 2

70 kN

2
45.03 − F23 = 0
45.03 F23
F23 = 45.03 kN
∑ V = 0; F25 = 70.0 kN F25

Joint 5

35.4 70 kN F53 ∑ V = 0;
45°
F53 cos 45 + 35.4 sin 45 − 70 = 0
45°
F53 = 63.61 kN
20 5
48 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 47

∑ MA = 0;
2(1.5) + 4(4.5) − 6VD = 0
VD = 3.5 kN
VA = 2.5 kN

Consider Joint A

FAB ∑V = 0
FAB sin 60 = 2.5
FAB = 2.89 kN

60°
∑H = 0
A FAE = FAB cos 60
FAE
= 2.89 cos 60
2.5 kN = 1.45 kN

Joint D

FCD ∑V = 0
FCD sin 60 = 3.5
FCD = 4.04 kN

60°
∑H = 0
D FCD cos 60 − FDE = 0
FDE
FDE = 4.04 cos 60 = 2.02 kN

3.5 kN

Joint E

FEB FEC ∑V = 0
FEC sin 60 + FEB sin 60 = 0
FEC = −FEB

60° 60°
∑H = 0
2.02 + FEC cos 60 − 1.45 − FEB cos 60 = 0
1.45 kN E 2.02 kN
2.02 − FEB cos 60 − 1.45 − FEB cos 60 = 0
0.57 = 2FEB cos 60
FEB = 0.57; FEC = −0.57
50 •
48 • Basic
BasicStructural
StructuralAnalysis
Analysis

Joint C

25 kN ∑V = 0
FCD sin θ = 25
FBC C
θ 25 25
FCD = = = 41.67 kN
sin θ 0.6
∑H = 0
FCD − FBC + FCD cos θ = 0
− FBC + 41.67 × 0.8 = 0
FBC = 33.34 kN

Joint B

50 kN ∑H = 0
B
− FAB + 33.34 = 0
33.34
FAB = 33.34 kN
FAB
FBD
∑V = 0
FBD − 50 = 0
FBD = 50 kN

Joint D

## 50 kN 41.67 cos θ = 4/5 = 0.8

sin θ = 3/5 = 0.6
θ1 sin θ1 = 4/5 = 0.8
θ cos θ1 = 3/5 = 0.6
θ D

FDE

∑H = 0

## − 41.67 cos θ + FDE cos θ − FAD sin θ1 = 0

− 41.67(0.8) + FDE (0.8) − 0.8 FAD = 0
FDE − FAD = 41.67 (2.1)
50 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 49

Joint C

4 kN ∑ H = 0;
FBC FBC − FCE cos 60 − FCD cos 60 = 0
C
FBC − FCE cos 60 = 4.04 cos 60
60° 60°
∑ V = 0;
− 4 − FCE sin 60 + 4.04 sin 60 = 0
FCE = −0.57 kN

FBC = 1.73 kN

2 kN 4 kN
1.73
B C

## 2.89 0.57 0.57 4.04

A D
1.45 E 2.02
FIG. 2.23

E XAMPLE 2. 7: Determine the magnitude and nature of forces in all the number of the pin jointed
plane truss shown in Fig. 2.24 by method of joints. (VTU, June 08)
25 kN 50 kN 25 kN

A 4m 4m
B C

6m
D

E
FIG. 2.24
52 • Basic Structural Analysis
54 • Basic Structural Analysis

E XAMPLE 2. 9: Determine the forces in members and tabulate neatly. Use method of joints.
(VTU, Dec. 06)

8 kN
H

8 kN 8 kN
F G 4m

2m
4 kN 4 kN
θ B
A
3m C 3m D 3m E 3m
FIG. 2.28

S OLUTION
2(4) + 3(8)
Due to Symmetry: VA = VB = = 16 kN
2
Joint A

FAF ∑V = 0
− 4 − FAF sin θ + 16 = 0
4 kN
12 − 0.555 FAF = 0
θ
A A FAF = 21.62 kN
FAC
16 kN ∑H = 0
FAC − FAF cos θ = 0
FAC = 21.62 × 0.832 = 18.0 kN

Joint C

∑ H = 0;
FCD = 18.0 kN
18.0
C FCD
Framed Structures • 53
Framed Structures • 51

∑ V = 0;

## −50 − 41.67 sin θ + FAD cos θ1 + FDE sin θ = 0

−50 − 41.67(0.6) + 0.6FAD + 0.6FDE = 0
FDE + FAD = 125 (2.2)

## Solving Eqns. (1) and (2);

FDE = 83.3 kN, FAD = 41.67 kN

Joint E

## FAE tan θ2 = 8/6

sin θ2 = 0.8
θ2 83.3 cos θ2 = 0.6

## ∑ V = 0; FAE = 83.3 cos θ2 = 50 kN

25 kN 50 kN 25 kN

A 33.3 B 33.3 C

41.67 50 41.67

50
D

8.33
E
FIG. 2.25
58 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 57

Joint D

30 kN ∑V = 0
FDB sin θ1 − 30 = 0
FDB 30
FDB = = 42.43 kN
θ1 0.707
120 D FDE ∑H = 0
− 120 + FDE + 42.43 cos θ1 = 0
+120
FDE = −42.43 × 0.707 + 120 = −30 kN
90 kN

60 kN

B
30 kN 30 kN
134.17

G H
2.50 m
134.17 30
42.43 1.25 m

A C
120 D 90 E F
FIG. 2.30

E XAMPLE 2. 11: Determine the forces in all members of all Bollman truss by method of joints.
(VTU, July 2005)

20 kN 20 kN 20 kN
10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m
A B
θ 1 θ2 C D E

10 m
θ3

F G H
FIG. 2.31
Page 23
58 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures •  • 59
movement with respect to horizontal direction. Hence, this phenomenon o
water tank can be considered as a single degree of freedom/kinematic i
S OLUTION Consider another example wherein a rigid body is resting on three spring
Due to Symmetry springs can be through two degrees of freedom, i.e., the displacement
3(20)
and the rotation also. In real situations like an aeroplane in the sky, ca
VA =
body
V = = 30
withB no external
kN
constraints. It has three displacement componen
2
rotation components wx, wy and wz. This rigid body in space has six d
From geometry body in a coplanar system has three degrees of freedom; two translatio
10
y directions
tan θ1 = tan θand a rotation.
2 = 10/20 tan θ3 = 10/10
30
sin θ1 = 0.316 sin θ2 = 0.447 sin θ3 = 0.707
0.949 26
cos θ1 =Page cos θ2 = 0.895 cos θ3 = 0.707
Joint C, D, E 20 kN
When the same system is considered as a deformable system shown in Fig
FCF = 20 kN, FDG = 20 kN, FEH = 20 kN
beam moves from its initial position of the
C undeformed position. Thus, th
number of degrees of freedom. The beam is discretized and the nodes
beam has four degrees of freedom neglecting the horizontal displacem
FCF displacements at the nodes.
nodes. Figure 1.22(b) refers to the vertical

Joint F
Page 28
20 kN ∑ H = 0;
number of equation to be solved− Fare a few, then we can be use Crame
FA cos θ3 + FFB cos θ1 = 0
FFA coefcients, Gauss elimination methods, Gauss Seidel iteration method,
− 0.707FFA + 0.949FFB = 0
FFB method, Cholesky’s method
inversion and Crout’s method. If the numbe
θ3 θ1we have to use other V 0;
∑ computing tools, viz., MATLAB package.
=
F 20 can
For a linear structural system,−we + FFA sin θ3the
apply FB sin θ1 =
+ Fprinciple of 0superpos
stresses and strains can be evaluated.
0.707FFA + 0.316FFB = 20

## on solving the above equations

Page 59
FFA
FA
= 21.22 kN
=
FFB
FB
= 22.37
= 15.81 kN
Joint G

20 kN ∑ H = 0;
− FGA cos θ2 + FGB cos θ2 = 0
FGA
FGB FGA = FGB
θ2 θ2
∑ V = 0;
G − 20 + FGA sin θ2 + FGB sin θ2 = 0
2 FGA sin θ2 = 20
2 FGA (0.447) = 20
FGA = 22.37 kN
60 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 61

Joint C

60
∑H = 0
∴ FBC = 0

60 kN

A 50 kN

78.1 kN
60.0 kN

D E

78.1 kN
60.0 kN

B C

FIG. 2.33

E XAMPLE 2. 13: Find the forces in the members of the truss in Fig. 2.34. Tabulate your results
neatly. (VTU, July 2004)
kN
10

D
kN
20

C G
kN
10

30° 60° H
A B
4m E F
4m 4m
10 kN
FIG. 2.34
64 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures •
• 65

## S.No Member Force (kN) Nature

1 AC 42.20 Compressive
2 CD 42.20 Compressive
3 DG 25.77 Compressive
4 GB 29.76 Compressive
5 BF 25.77 Tensile
6 FE 25.77 Tensile
7 AE 51.55 Tensile
8 CE 20.00 Compressive
9 ED 29.24 Tensile
10 FD 0.00 —
11 FG 0.00 —
Page 65
E XAMPLE 2. 14: Analyse
XAMPLE 2.14: Analysethethetruss
trussshown
shownininFig.
the 2.35
Fig. by
2.35method
by method of joints(VTU,
of joints. checkAug.
the forces
2000)
in the members AC, AD & BD by the method of sections. (VTU, Aug. 2000)

10 kN E F

3m

20 kN C D

3m

A 4m B

FIG. 2.35

Joint E

10 kN E FEF ∑H = 0 ∑V = 0
10 − FEF = 0 FEC = 0
FEC FEF = 10 kN
64 •
Page 64
66 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 63

Joint C

20 kN ∑H = 0
20 cos 60 − FCD cos 30 − FCE cos 60 + 42.2 cos 30 = 0
FCD FCD cos 30 + FCE cos 60 = 46.55
60° 30° 0.866 FCD + 0.5 FCE = 46.55
30° C 60°
∑V = 0
42.2 − 20 sin 60 − FCD sin 30 + FCE sin 60 + 42.2 sin 30 = 0
FCE
− 0.5 FCD + 0.866 FCE = −3.78
FCD = 42.20 kN
FCE = 20.00 kN

Joint G

FGD ∑H = 0
FGD cos 30 − FGB cos 30 + FGF cos 60 = 0
30° G 0.866 FGD − 0.866 FGB + 0.5 FGF = 0
30° 0.866 FGD + 0.5 FGF = 0.866 × 29.76
60°
0.866 FGD + 0.5 FGF = 25.77
FGB = 29.76
∑V = 0
FGF − FGD sin 30 + FGF sin 60 + 29.76 sin 30 = 0
Page 65 − 0.5 FGD + 0.866 FGF = −14.88
E XAMPLE 2.14: Analyse the truss shown in Fig. 2.35 by method 25.77
FGD = of kN, FGF
joints. = 0 Aug. 2000)
(VTU,

Joint D

10 kN ∑ V = 0;
− 10 sin 60 + 42.20 sin 30 − FDE sin 60 + 25.77 sin 30 = 0
60°
D FDE = 29.24 kN
30° 30°

60°

FDE

## g. 2.35 by method of joints. (VTU, Aug. 2000)

Framed Structures • 67
70 • Basic Structural Analysis

Resolving vertically,

FEF sin θ1 = 40
40
FEF = = 50 kN
0.8

## FDE = FEF cos θ1 = 50 × 0.6 = 30 kN

Joint F
The truss is supported on rollers at the joint F. Only one reaction will be acting perpendicular to
the base of the roller. Hence,

FGF
FDE
FFE = 50 kN ∑ H = 0;
FGF cos θ − 50 cos θ1 = 0
θ θ1
FGF = 50 × 0.6/0.832
FGF = 36.06 kN
F
∑ V = 0;
110 kN 110 − 36.06 sin θ − 50 sin θ1 + FDF = 0
FDF = 36.06(0.555) + 50(0.8) − 110
= −50 kN

The −ve sign indicates that we have to change the nature of the force in FDF and hence FDF is
compressive.

Joint B
29.95 kN B FBC

FBH

Resolving all the forces meeting at the joint in the vertical direction and as no forces are acting in
the vertical direction; FBH = 0. Resolving the forces at the joint B along the horizontal direction
FBC = 29.95 kN
70 • Basic Structural Analysis
Framed Structures • 71

Joint H

FCH

36 kN

FHC

A, H and G are on the same line. Hence, resolving the forces meeting at the joint H, A HG
Resolving all the forces along the line, FHG = 36 kN
Joint C

29.95 kN C FCD

FCG

## Resolving all the forces in the vertical direction: FCG = 0

Resolving all the forces in the horizontal direction: FCD = 29.95 kN
Joint G

FGD

36 kN
G

FGF

Resolving all the forces meeting at the joint G, along the line HGF and perpendicular that line;

FGD = 0;
FGF = 36 kN
Framed Structures • 71
72 • Basic Structural Analysis

## The computed forces are shown in Fig. 2.40.

50 kN 40 kN
A 30 kN B 30 kN C 30 kN D 30 kN E

36 kN
H
36 kN 50 kN 50 kN 4m

36 kN
F

FIG. 2.40

## 2.5 METHOD OF SECTIONS

A statically determinate frame can be completely analysed by static methods. The number of
unknowns is the same as the number of equations obtained from static equilibrium conditions.
In method of sections, we isolate a portion of a frame by a section. This section causes the inter-
nal force appear to act as external forces in the isolated portion. The unknown forces are evaluated
by using equations of equilibrium. The three equations of equilibrium are used to evaluate the
unknowns. Thus, the section should cut only three members. (which include the one whose force
is to be determined) and take moments about a point through which the lines of action of other two
members intersect. The work is made simple by judicious of choice of such sections.
This method is not desirable if used to determine all the forces in the members of a frame. However,
it is readily useful to determine the forces in selected members of the truss.

## 2.5.1 Application of Method of Sections

Consider a truss shown in Fig. 2.41. It is required to calculate the force in the member GF of the
bottom boom.
X
B C D

4m

A
8m G 8m F 8m E
X
FIG. 2.41
Framed Structures • 73
74 • Basic Structural Analysis

The reaction at A is 66.7 kN acting upwards and hence it is taken as negative. The applied
load at G is 50 kN and is acting downwards and therefore it is positive. The vertical compo-
nent due to FGC is downwards, i.e., FGC sin 45. This is negative.
Summing up all the above forces in the vertical direction and equating upward forces to
downward forces.

## FGC sin 45 + 50 = 66.7

∴ FGC = 23.62 kN.

## This is compressive as the force is acting towards the joint.

8. It must be remembered that the arrows must be considered in respect to the nearest point of
that portion of the frame which remains after the cut has been made.

## 2.5.2 Numerical Problems

E XAMPLE 2. 17: Determine the nature and magnitude of forces in members DE, DI
and HI of the truss shown in Fig. 2.45 by using method of sections.

3 kN 6 kN 6 kN X 3 kN
B C D E

A 60° 60° F
6m G 6m H 6m I 6m

VA X VF
6 kN 12 kN 6 kN
FIG. 2.43

S OLUTION

∑V = 0 VA +VF = 42
∑ MA = 0 3(3) + 6(9) + 6(15) + 3(21) + 6(6) + 12(12) + 6(18) − 24VF = 0
VF = 21 kN
∴ VA = 21 kN
76 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 75

E XAMPLE 2. 18: Determine the forces in the members BC, FC and FG by method of sections.
30 kN 60 kN 30 kN
A B C D E

3.6
4.8 m

F H

G
4.8 4.8 m 4.8 4.8
FIG. 2.45

S OLUTION
Due to symmetry, the reactions
30 + 60 + 30
VA = VE = = 60 kN
2
To determine the forces in BC, FC and FG cut a section X-X as shown in Fig. 2.48
Consider left part of the truss and analyse the equilibrium.

30 kN
A 4.8 B 4.8 C
θ θ
3.6
60 kN

θ
F θ1

X
FIG. 2.46

To determine the force in BC, take moment about ‘F’ where other two members of the cut
section FC and FG meet.
60 × 4.8 = FBC × 3.6
FBC = 80 kN
78 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 77

## θ2 = ∠CFG = θ + θ1 = 50◦ 54

C C
sin θ2 =
6
C C = 6 sin θ2 = 4.66 m

## FFG (4.66) − 30(4.8) + 60(9.6) = 0

FFG = 92.7 kN (Tensile)

## E XAMPLE 2. 19: Determine the forces in CD, CG and FG by method of sections.

2.5 kN
C
5 kN
2.6 m
D
B
2.5 kN 2. 6m
30° E
A
3m F 3m G 3m
HA
VA E
FIG. 2.49

S OLUTION
The reactions at A, i.e., VA and HA and the reaction at E; i.e., VE are found using equilibrium
equations.

## ∑ V = 0; VA +VE = 2.5 sin 60 + 5 sin 60 + 2.5 sin 60

VA +VE = 8.66
∑ H = 0; 2.5 cos 60 + 5 cos 60 + 2.5 cos 60 − HA = 0
HA = 5 kN
∑ MA = 0; 5(2.6) + 2.5(5.2) − 9VE = 0
VE = 2.88 kN
VA = 5.78 kN
80 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 79

E XAMPLE 2. 20: Find the forces in the members ED, EF and FG. Use method of sections.
(VTU, Aug. 2004)

10 kN
D
20 kN
G
C
10 kN
30° 60° 60°
A B
4m E H F
4m 4m
10 kN
FIG. 2.51

S OLUTION
The length of panel AC, CD are found using geometry.

= 6.93 m
∴ AC = CD = AD/2
= 3.46 m

## The reactions VA , HA and VB are determined using the equilibrium equations.

∑ H = 0;
10 cos 60 + 20 cos 60 + 10 cos 60 − HA = 0
HA = 20 kN

∑ V = 0;
VA +VB = 10 sin 60 + 20 sin 60 + 10 sin 60 + 10
VA +VB = 44.64 kN

∑ MA = 0;
20(3.46) + 10(6.92) + 10(4) − 12VB = 0
VB = 14.87 KN

To determine the forces in the members CD, DE and EF cut a section through these members and
for convenience consider the right part of the truss.
82 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 81

∑ MB = 0
FFG × GB = 0
∴ FFG = 0

E XAMPLE 2. 21: Determine the forces in the members FE, FD, CD of the truss shown in Fig.
2.54

50 kN
F

E
3m

A B
3m C 3m D 3m

FIG. 2.54

S OLUTION
The reactions are found out by using equilibrium equations.

VA +VB = 50

50 × 3 − 9VB = 0
VB = 16.7 kN; VA = 33.3 kN

To determine the forces in FE, FD and CD, cut a section through these members and consider the
right-hand portion of the truss.

FCD × 3 = 16.7 × 6
FCD = 33.4 kN

To determine the force FFE ; take moment about D; where other two members of the cut truss,
FFD and FCD meet.
82 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 83

F
FFE

FFD
E
D′
3m

FCD θ
B
D 3m
6m
16.7 kN
VB
FIG. 2.55

tan θ = 3/6
i.e. θ = 26◦ 33 54 .
In ∆ BDD
DD
sin θ =
DB
∴ DD  = 3 sin 26◦ 33 54 .
= 1.34 m.
FEB × 1.34 = 16.7 × 3
FEB = 37.4 kN
To determine the force in FD, take moment about B where other two members of the cut
section, viz. FFE and FCD meet.
Extend FD downwards to B such that BB is perpendicular to the projected line of FD. Considering
the ∆DBB ;
BB
sin θ =
3
BB = 3 sin θ = 3 × sin 26◦ 33 54 .
BB = 1.34 m

∑ MB = 0; FFD × BB = 0
FFD = 0
84 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 85

FDE

θ E
FEF
15 kN

Consider Joint F

FFD

FFG F 59.8

At joint F, there is no vertical force acting. Hence, resolving the forces in the vertical direction
FFD = 0. Resolving the forces in the horizontal direction,

∑ H = 0; FFG − 59.8 = 0
FFG = 59.8 kN

Consider Joint D

## FDC At joint D; resolving the forces perpendicular to

the line CDE, FDG = 0 as the forces FDC and
D FDE cannot give components in the perpendic-
ular direction. Resolving the forces along the
line of forces. FDE the force FDC is obtained as
FDG FDE = 61.73 FDC = 61.73 kN.

Joint G

## FGC Resolving the forces in the vertical direction at

joint G; FGC = 0 and resolving the forces in the
horizontal direction FAG = 59.8 kN.
FAG G 59.8
86 •
88 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 87

E XAMPLE 2. 23: A truss of 10 m span is loaded as shown in Fig. 2.58 ﬁnd the forces in the
Page 88
members of the truss by using method of sections.

25 kN
B

30 kN
C

## 60° 60° 60° 30° D

A
F E G
10 m
FIG. 2.58

Page 93
S OLUTION

AB
∑V = 0 sin 30 =
10
VA +VD = 25 + 30 AB = 10 sin 30
VA +VD = 55 kN AB = 5 m
BD
∑ MA = 0 cos 30 =
10
25 × 5 cos 60 + 30 × 6.25 − 10VD = 0 BD = 8.66 m
Page 138
VD = 25 kN BC = CD = 4.33 m
VA = 30 kN Ê 1 1 ˆ 1 AF = 5 cos 60
tC / A = Á ¥ 3 ¥ 30 ¥ ¥ 3˜ = 45 / EI
Ë2 3 ¯ EI AG = 10 − 4.33 cos 60
AG = 6.25 m
Page 170
In ∆CGD
CG
sin 30 =
CD
CG = CD sin 30 = 4.33 sin 30 = 2.165 m
Framed Structures • 89
88 • Basic Structural Analysis
25 kN
B

5m
A
E 60° D
30 kN

D'
FIG. 2.60

DD
sin 60 =
ED
DD = 5 sin 60 = 4.33

∑ MD = 0
30 × 10 − 25 × 7.5 − FBE × 4.33 = 0
FBE = 26 kN

## 30 × 2.5 − FAE × 4.33 = 0

FAE = 17.32 kN

Joint A

FAB ∑V = 0
− FAB sin 60 + 30 = 0
FAB = 34.64 kN
A 60°
FAE
30 kN
90 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 89

Joint D

FCD ∑V = 0
25 = FCD sin 30
30°
D FCD = 50 kN
FED

25 kN

25 kN
B

35

30 kN
34.6 kN 26 kN
C
50
26 kN
60° 60° 60° D
A
17.32 kN E 43.3 kN
10 m
FIG. 2.61

E XAMPLE 2. 24: Figure 2.62 shows a pinjointed truss supported by a hinge at A and roller at G.
Determine the force in each of the ﬁve members meeting at joint B.

B C D E F

4m

45º L 45º
A
K J I H G
4m 180 kN 125 kN
6@4m
FIG. 2.62
92 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures •
• 93
91

To determine the force in BJ, cut a section through CD, BJ and KJ.

X
B C

Page 88 FBJ

L 45° K θ
A
X J
233.3 180 kN 125 kN
FIG. 2.63

tan θ = 4/8
sin θ = 0.4472

In the cut truss, two cut members, viz. CD and KJ are horizontal. They do not give any vertical
component of the force. Hence to maintain equilibrium in the vertical direction, the force FBJ which
is indirect at an angle θ should give a vertical component to balance the effect due to the vertical
reaction at A and the applied downward loads. Hence resolving vertically.

## FBJ sin θ + 233.3 − 180 − 125 = 0.

FBJ = 160.33 kN

Using method
Page 93 of joints at joint B (as shown in Fig. 2.64)

B FBC
θ 45°
106.33
FBK
329.9
180
FIG. 2.64

## Page 138 ∑ H = 0; 329.99 cos 45 − FBC + 160.33 cos θ − FBK cos 45 = 0

FBC + 0.707 FBK = 376.74
Ê1 1 ˆ 1
tC / A = Á ¥ 3 ¥ 30 ¥ ¥ 3˜ = 45 / EI
Ë2 3 ¯ EI
92 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 93

## ∑ V = 0; 329.99 sin 45 − 180 + FBK sin 45 − 163.33 sin θ = 0

FBK = 26.07 kN
FBC = 358.31 kN
E XAMPLE 2. 25: Determine the forces in the members BC, GC and GF of the truss shown in
Fig. 2.65 by method of sections. VTU, Dec. 2006
10 kN
60°
C

20 kN

B D 60°

10 kN

## 30° 60° 60°

A
G F E
3@3m=9m
FIG. 2.65
S OLUTION
The reactions are found using equilibrium equations

## ∑ H = 0; HE − 10 cos 60 − 20 cos 60 − 10 cos 60 = 0

HE = 20 kN
∑ V = 0; VA +VE − 10 sin 60 − 20 sin 60 − 10 sin 60 = 0
VA +VE = 40 sin 60
VA +VE = 34.64 kN
∑ ME = 0; 20(2.6) + 10(5.2) − 9VA = 0

VA = 11.55 kN
VE = 23.09 kN
To determine the forces in FBC , FCG and FGF cut a section X − X as shown in Fig. 2.66.
The force FGF is obtained by taking moment about C.
11.55 × 4.5 = FGF × 4.5 tan 30
To determine the force in GC, take moment about A
FGC Z = 0
94 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 93

X C

B 4.56 tan 30

30° 60°
A
G FGF
X
Z

4.5 m
11.55
H
FIG. 2.66

∴ FGC = 0
To determine the force in BC, take moment about G.

FBC × BG = 11.55 × 3
FBC × (3 sin 30) = 11.55 × 3

FBC = 23.1 kN

## 2.6 METHOD OF TENSION COEFFICIENTS

The method of tension coefﬁcients was developed by Southwell (1920) and is applicable for plane
and space frames. Contemporily this was developed by Muller Breslau independently.
B
TAB ( xB ,yB ,zB )
z

A
( xA ,yA ,zA )

x
FIG. 2.67
94 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 95

Let AB be any member of a truss having length LAB and the tensile force be TAB . The force TAB can
be expressed as
TAB = tAB LAB

where tAB is a tension coefﬁcient, LAB is the length of member AB. The component of TAB in
the direction of x axis is tAB (xB − xA ) and similarly the components in the direction of y axis is
tAB (yB − yA ) and in z direction it is tAB (z B = −z A) respectively.
If at the joint A, let the components of the external loads be XA ,YA and ZA acting in x, y and z
directions respective then for equilibrium of the joint where the members AB, AC and AQ meet

## tAB (xB − xA ) + tAC (xC − xA ) + · · · + tAQ (xQ − xA ) + XA = 0

tAB (yB − yA ) + tAC (yC − yA ) + · · · + tAQ (yQ − yA ) +YA = 0
tAB (zB − zA ) + tAC (zC − zA ) + · · · + tAQ (zQ − zA ) + ZA = 0
At each joint, a similar set of three equations are formed for each joint and the tension coefﬁcients
are determined. The force in the member is obtained by multiplying this tension coefﬁcient with
the corresponding length of the members.
This is known as method of tension coefﬁcients. The procedure is as follows:
1. Mark the positive directions of x, y and z axis.
2. Assume all the members are in tension, i.e., the force is moving away from the joint.
3. Write down the equilibrium equations at each joint.
4. Solve the equations for unknown tension coefﬁcients.
5. Calculate TAB = LAB tAB .

## 2.6.1 Numerical Problems

E XAMPLE 2. 26: The Fig. 2.68 shows a Warren type cantilever truss along with the imposed
loads. Determine the forces in all the members using the method of joints / tension coefﬁcients.
(Anna-Univ, Dec. 2008)

3 kN 3 kN

A B C
60°

60° 60°
E D
2 kN 2 kN
FIG. 2.68
96 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 95

Joint D

FDC ∑V = 0
FDC sin 60 − 2 = 0
2
FDC = = 2.31
60° sin 60
FDE
D ∑H = 0
2 kN FDE − FDC cos 60 = 0
FDE = 2.31 cos 60
FDE = 1.16 kN

Joint C

3 ∑V = 0
FCB C − 3 − 2.31 sin 60 + FCE sin 60 = 0
60° 60° FCE = 5.77 kN
∑H = 0
FCE FCD = 2.31 − FCB + 5.77 cos 60 + FCD cos 60 = 0
FCB = 4.04 kN

Joint E

FEB
5.77 ∑V = 0
FEB sin 60 − 5.77 sin 60 − 2 = 0
60° 60° FEB = 8.08 kN
FEF E 1.16 ∑H = 0
2 kN
FEF − 8.08 cos 60 − 5.77 cos 60 − 1.16 = 0
FEF = 8.08 kN

Joint B

FAB
3 kN
B
∑V = 0
4.04 − 3 − 8.08 sin 60 + FFB sin 60 = 0
60° 60°
FFB = 11.54 kN
∑H = 0
FFB 8.08 4.04 + 8.08 cos 60 + 11.54 cos 60 − FAB = 0
FAB = 13.85 kN
96 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 97

3 kN 3 kN
A 13.85 B 4.04 C

D
F 8.08 E 1.16
2 kN 2 kN
FIG. 2.69

## Using tension coefﬁcient method

3 kN 3 kN
A (16,6.93) B (12,6.93) C (4,6.93)

E
D (0,0)
(8,0) x
F(16,0)
2 kN 2 kN
FIG. 2.70

At Joint D

## ∑ H = 0, tDC (xC − xD ) + tDE (xE − xD ) = 0

tDC (4 − 0) + tDE (8 − 0) = 0
4tDC + 8tDE = 0

6.93tDC + 0 = 2

∴ tDC = 0.2886
tDE = −0.1443
Joint C

## ∑ H = 0; tCD (xD − xC ) + tCE (xE − xC ) + tCB (xB − xC ) = 0

0.2886(0 − 4) + tCE (8 − 4) + tCB (12 − 4) = 0
4 tCE + 8 tCB = 1.1544
98 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 97

## ∑ V = 0; tCD (yD − yC ) + tCE (yE − yC ) + tCB (yB − yC )−3 = 0

0.2886(0 − 6.93) + tCE (0 − 6.93) + tCB (6.93 − 6.93) = 3

tCE = −0.7215
tCB = +0.5051
Joint E

## ∑ H = 0; tEC (xC − xE ) + tEB (xB − xE ) + tEF (xF − xE ) + tED (xD − xE ) = 0

−0.7215(4 − 8) + tEB (12 − 8) + tEF (16 − 8) − 0.1443(0 − 8) = 0
4tEB + 8tEF = −4.04

## ∑ V = 0; tEC (yC − yE ) + tEB (yB − yE ) + tEF (yF − yE ) + tED (yD − yE ) − 2 = 0

tEC (6.93 − 0) + tEB (6.93 − 0) + tEF (0 − 0) + tED (0 − 0) = 2
6.93 tEB + 6.93 tEC = 2.00
6.93 tEB + 6.93 × 0.7215 = 2.00
Solving the above two equations:
tEB = 1.0101
tEF = −1.0100
Joint B

## ∑ H = 0, tBA (xB − xA ) + tBF (xF − xB ) + tBE (xE − xB ) + tBC (xC − xB ) = 0

tBA (16 − 12) + tBF (16 − 12) + tBE (8 − 12) + tBC (4 − 12) = 0
4tBA + 4tBF − 4tBE − 8tBC = 0
4tBA + 4tBF = 4(1.0101) + 8 × 0.5051
tBA + tBF = 2.0203

## ∑ V = 0, tBA (yA − yB ) + tBF (yF − yB ) + tBE (yE − yB ) + tBC (yC − yB ) − 3 = 0

tBA (6.93 − 6.93) + tBF (0 − 6.93) + tBE (0 − 6.93) + tBC (6.93 − 6.93) − 3 = 0
−6.93tBF − 6.93(1.0101) = 3
tBF = −1.443
tBA = 3.463
TAB = 3.463 × 4 = 13.85 TFB = −1.443 × 8 = −11.54
TBC = 0.5051 × 8 = 4.04 TBE = +1.0101 × 8 = +8.08
TCD = 0.2886 × 8 = 2.31 TCE = −0.7215 × 8 = −5.77
TDE = −0.1443 × 8 = −1.15 TEF = −1.0101 × 8 = −8.08
98 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 99

3 kN 3 kN
A 13.85 B 4.04 C

## 11.54 8.08 5.77 2.31

D
8.08 E 1.15
F
2 kN 2 kN
FIG. 2.71

E XAMPLE 2. 27: Analyse the space truss shown in Fig. 2.72 using tension coefﬁcient method.
(Anna Univ, 2009).

y
200 kN
C 50 kN

7m

A 3m B x
1m 8.3 m
1m

4.5 m
z D

FIG. 2.72

Joint x y z
A 0 0 0
B 8.3 0 0
C 3.0 7 1
D 3 0 4.5
100 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 99

## tCA (xA − xC ) + tCD (xD − xC ) + tCB (xB − xC ) + 50 = 0

tCA (0 − 3) + tCD (3 − 3) + tCB (8.3 − 3) + 50 = 0
−3tCA + 5.3tCB = −50 (1)

## tCA (yA − yC ) + tCD (yD − yC ) + tCB (yB − yC ) − 200 = 0

tCA (0 − 7) + tCD (0 − 7) + tCB (0 − 7) = 200
−7tCA − 7tCB − 7tCD = 200 (2)

## tCA (zA − zC ) + tCD (zD − zC ) + tCB (zB − zC ) = 0

tCA (0 − 1) + tCD (4.5 − 1) + tCB (0 − 1) = 0
−tCA + 3.5tCD − tCB = 0 (3)
−3 5.3 0  tCA 
    
−50
∴  −7 −7.0 −7.0  tCB =  200 
−1 −1.0 +3.5 tCD 0
 







## TCA = tCA LCA = −62.71 (Compression)

TCB = tCB LCB = −65.78 (Compression)
TCD = tCD LCD = −49.71 (Compression)

E XAMPLE 2. 28: Figure 2.73 shows an elevation and plan of tripod having legs of unequal
lengths resting without slipping on a sloping plane, if the pinjointed apex carries a vertical load
of 100 kN. Calculate the force in each leg.
100 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 101

2m

B 2.7 m 1.35 m D

1.3 m 0.7 m

B D

1.3 m y 1.3 m

x
A

1.3 m

C
FIG. 2.73

Joint x y z
A 0 0 0
B −2.7 +1.3 −2
C 0 −1.3 −3.3
D 1.35 +1.3 1.6

## tAB (xB − xA ) + tAC (xC − xA ) + tAD (xD − xA ) = 0

tAB (−2.7 − 0) + tAC (0 − 0) + tAD (1.35 − 0) = 0
102 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 101

## tAB (yB − yA ) + tAC (yC − yA ) + tAD (yD − yA ) = 0

tAB (1.3 − 0) + tAC (−1.3 − 0) + tAD (1.30 − 0) = 0
1.3tAB − 1.3tAC + 1.3tAD = 0

## tAB (zB − zA ) + tAC (zC − zA ) + tAD (zD − zA ) = 0

tAB (−2 − 0) + tAC (−3.3 − 0) + tAD (2.6 − 0) − 100 = 0
−2 tAB − 3.3 tAC + 2.6 tAD = 100
0 1.35  tAB  0
    
−2.7
 +1.3 −1.3 1.3  tAC = 0 
 

## tAB = −14.925; tAC = −44.776; tAD = −29.851

LAB = 2.72 + 1.32 + 22 = 3.602 m






## TAB = tAB LAB = 53.76 (Compressive)

TAC = tAC LAC = 158.82 (Compressive)

E XAMPLE 2. 29: Figure 2.74 shows plan and elevation of a symmetrical statically determinate
space truss supporting a vertical load of 75 kN at D. Determine the forces in the members DE and
EF.

A E,F

3m

B,C D x
Elevation 75 kN
102 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 103

C E

3m

D
x
A
y

3m

B F
3m 3m
FIG. 2.74

Joint x y z
A +6 0 +3
B +6 +3 0
C +6 −3 0
D 0 0 0
E +3 −3 +3
F +3 +3 +3

## tDE (zE − zD ) + tDC (zC − zD ) + tDB (zB − zD ) + tDF (zF − zD ) − 75 = 0

tDE (3 − 0) + tDC (0 − 0) + tDB (0 − 0) + tDF (3 − 0) = 75
3tDE + 3tDF = 75
tDE + tDF = 25

tDE = tDF

and hence
tDE = 12.5
104 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 103

## tEC (yC − yE ) + tEA (yA − yE ) + tEF (yF − yE ) + tED (yD − yE ) = 0

tEC (−3 + 3) + tEA (0 + 3) + tEF (3 + 3) + tED (0 − 3) = 0
3tEA + 6tEF − 3 × 12.5 = 0
3tEA + 6tEF = 37.5

## tEC (zC − zE ) + tEA (zA − zE ) + tEF (zF − zE ) + tED (zD − zE ) = 0

tEC (0 − 3) + tEA (3 − 3) + tEF (3 − 3) + tED (0 − 3) = 0
−3tEC − 3tED = 0
tEC = tED

## tEC (xC − xE ) + tEA (xA − xE ) + tEF (xF − xE ) + tED (xD − xE ) = 0

tEC (6 − 3) + tEA (6 − 3) + tEF (3 − 3) + tED (0 − 3) = 0
3tEC + 3tEA − 3tDE = 0
3(−12.5) + 3tEA − 3 × 12.5 = 0
3tEA = 75

tEA = 25

## Substituting in the equation:

3 × 25 + 6 tEF = 37.5
tEF = −6.25

## LDE = (xE − xD )2 + (yE − yD )2 + (ZE − ZD )2

32 + 32 + 32 = 5.2m

=

## (3 − 3)2 + (3 + 3)2 + (3 − 3)2 = 6m

=
∴ TDE = tDE LDE = 12.5 × 5.2 = 65 kN (Tensile)
TEF = tEF LEF = −6.25 × 6 = −37.5 kN (Compressive)
104 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 105

## E XAMPLE 2. 30: A space frame shown in ﬁgure is supported at A, B, C and D in a horizontal

plane through ball joints. The member EF is horizontal and is at a height of 3 m above the base.
The loads at the joints E and F shown in Fig. 2.75 act in a horizontal plane. Find the forces in all
of the members of the frame. (Anna Univ, 2004)
A D

3m

E F
10

15 kN 20 3m
y

x B C
2m 3m 2m
FIG. 2.75

Joint x y z
A 0 6 0
B 0 0 0
C 7 0 0
D 7 6 0
E 2 3 3
F 5 3 3

## tEA (xA − xE ) + tEB (xB − xE ) + tEF (xF − xE ) + 10 = 0

tEA (0 − 2) + tEB (0 − 2) + tEF (5 − 2) + 10 = 0

## tEA (yA − yE ) + tEB (yB − yE ) + tEF (yF − yE ) + 15 = 0

tEA (6 − 3) + tEB (0 − 3) + tEF (3 − 3) + 15 = 0
3tEA − 3tEB = −15

## tEA (zA − zE ) + tEB (zB − zE ) + tEF (zF − zE ) + 0 = 0

tEA (0 − 3) + tEB (0 − 3) + tEF (3 − 3) = 0
−3tEA − 3tEB = 0
106 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 105

## Solving the equations

−2 −2 +3  tAE 
    
−10
 3 −3 0  tEB =  −15 
−3 −3 0 tEF 0
 

## tAE = −2.5, tEB = +2.5, tEF = −3.33

LAE = (0 − 2)2 + (6 − 3)2 + (0 − 3)2 = 4.69 m






## TAE = tAE LAE = −2.5 × 4.69 = −11.725 (Compressive)

TEB = tEB LEB = +2.5 × 4.69 = +11.725 (Tensile)
TEF = tEF LEF = −3.33 × 3.00 = −9.99 (Compressive)

## tFE (xE − xF ) + tFD (xD − xF ) + tFC (xC − xF ) = 0

−3.33(2 − 5) + tFD (7 − 5) + tFC (7 − 5) = 0
2tFD + 2tFC = −10
tFD + tFC = −5

## tFE (yE − yF ) + tFD (yD − yF ) + tFC (yC − yF ) + 20 = 0

−3.33(3 − 3) + tFD (6 − 3) + tFC (0 − 3) = 0
3tFD − 3tFC = 0

## tFD = −2.5, tFC = −2.5

LFD = (7 − 5)2 + (6 − 3)2 + (0 − 3)2 = 4.69 m




## TFD = tFD LFD = −11.73 kN

TFC = tFC LFC = −11.73 kN
106 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 107

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Remembrance:
2.1 Deﬁne plane and space truss?
2.2 What are the different types of analysis of trusses?
2.3 List the assumptions made in truss analysis?
2.4 Explain the steps involved in method of joints?
2.5 Explain the steps involved in method of sections?
2.6 Explain the method of tension coefﬁcients?
2.7 What type of analysis is used in determining the forces of a space truss?
2.8 For what kind of trusses can be analysed by method of joints and method of sections?
2.9 Deﬁne Tension coefﬁcient?
2.10 Which method is preferable to ﬁnd out the forces in a few members of a truss?
2.11 What is the primary function of a truss?
2.12 What is the minimum numbers of elements to make a simple truss?
Understanding:
2.1 Distinguish between a simple truss, compound truss and complex truss?
2.2 What kind of stresses developed if the loads are not applied at the joints?
2.3 What are the limitations of method of joints?
2.4 Identify the truss members having zero forces joints?
Framed Structures • 107

108
10 kN 10 kN 40 kN 80 kN 40 kN

A B C E D C 10 kN B C

## Basic Structural Analysis

3m 4m 4m
3m

A B A D
F 3m E 3m D 3m F 3m

A D C
A C
D 3m
3m
E
B
F E F
B 3m I 2m H 2m 3m 3m 3m
2m G
40 kN P=20 kN

F G

H
4m

A C
E B D
3m 3m 4m 5m
100 kN
108 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 109

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

2.1 Find the forces in all the members of the truss shown in ﬁgure. (Anna Univ, April, 2008)

C 4 kN

1.5 m

A θ
B
2m D 2m

6 kN

## (Ans AC = 2.5 kN, CB = −7.5, BD = +6, DA = +6.0, DC = +6.0)

2.2 Determine the forces in the members of the truss as shown in ﬁgure by method of joints.
(VTU, Dec. 2008)

B
20 kN

3m

A C
4m D 4m

30 kN

## (Ans AD = +30 kN, DC = +30, BD = +30, AB = −12.5, BC = −37.5)

2.3 Determine the nature and magnitude of forces induced in all the members of the frame loaded
as shown in ﬁgure by method of joints. (VTU, Feb. 2002)
110 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 109

20 kN 10 kN
D E
5 kN

A 60° 60°
B
3m C 3m

## (Ans AD = −22.75, DE = −11.16, EB = −11.9, AC = 11.38, CB = 10.95, DC = −0.43,

EC = −0.43)
2.4 Determine the forces in all the members of the following truss by method of joints. (VTU,
Feb. 2003)

2 kN
B C 2 kN

45°
A D
3m F 3m E 3m

## (Ans AB = −0.95 kN, BC = −0.658, CD = −1.88, DE = +1.33, EF = 1.3 AF = +2.67 kN,

BF = −1.33, FC = +1.88, CE = 0)
2.5 Determine the forces in all the members by method of joints.

B C D

4m

A E
8m G 8m F 8m

50 kN 100 kN

## (Ans AB = −94.3, BC = −133.36, CD = −166.6, DE = −117.8, CG = −23.55,

AG = 66.7, GF = 149.93, FE = 83.3, BG = +94.3, CF = 23.55, FD = 117.8 kN)
110 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 111

2.6 A plane truss of 6 m span is subjected to a point load of 30 kN as shown in ﬁgure. Determine
the forces in CD, DE and FE by method of sections. (MSRIT-2009)

C 3m

A F E
B
2 2m 2m
30 kN

## (Ans CD = 7.46 kN, FE = 20, CE = 18.86 kN)

2.7 Determine the forces by using method of joints.
50 kN 30 kN
B 3m C

A D
6m

## (Ans AB = −57.66 kN, BC = −28.83, CD = −40.4, AB = +20.2, AC = +9.97)

2.8 Determine the forces by method of joints.

3m
F 50 kN
D
3m
A C
4 B 4m
112 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 111

## (Ans AD = +18.75, DE = 15.63, EF = 15.63, CF = −18.75, BC = 0, AB = 50,

BD = −15.63, BF = 46.88)
2.9 Determine the magnitude and nature of forces in all the members of the plane truss shown in
ﬁgure. (Anna Univ. Dec 2008)
20 kN 40 kN
30° E D

A 60° 60°
C
4m B 4m

## (Ans AE = −11.55, ED = −23.1, DC = −46.18, AB = 23.1, BC = +23.1, BE = 0,

BD = 0)
2.10 Find the forces in all members of the pinjointed plane truss shown in ﬁgure. Use method of
joints. (VTU, July 2007)
20 kN
D
10 kN 10 kN
C E

A 30° 30° B
3m F 3m G 3m

2.11 Find the forces in all members of the truss shown in ﬁgure by method of joints. (VTU, Dec
2007)
20 kN
A 3m B 3m C
60° 60°

E D
3m
10 kN

## (Ans AE = 20.21, ED = 14.43, CD = 14.43, AB = −10.11, BC = −7.22, BE = −8.66,

BD = −14.43 kN)
114 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 113

R 10 kN

20 kN
T
S

3m

T Q
6.92 m

## (Ans RS = −1990 kN, T Q = −9.96 kN, ST = +20 kN)

2.15 A plane truss is subjected to point loads as shown in ﬁgure. Find the forces in the member
EH and EC by method of sections. (MSRIT-2009)

40 30 kN
D H

2.7 2.7

A B
3.6 E 3.6 C 3.6

## (Ans EH = 5.5 kN; EC = 44.4 kN)

2.16 Figure shows a pin jointed frame which is hinged to the foundation at A and is resting on
rollers at B. Determine the magnitude and nature of force in BC.
116 • Basic Structural Analysis Framed Structures • 115

2.18 Figure shows a plan of a tripod, the feet A, B and C being in the same horizontal plane and
apex D being 3.75 m above the plane. Horizontal loads of 100 kN and 150 kN are applied
at D in the directions shown. Find the forces in the members assuming that the joints are
pin-joints. (Anna Univ, June 2009).

5.4 m 3.6 m
A x

3m

D C
15
3m
10 kN