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GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

REVISION DATE REASON(S) FOR REVISION


0 4/1/2017 Initial release
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

FIG. 5-1
Nomenclature
a = sonic velocity, ft/sec
A = required discharge area of the valve, sq in. Use valve with the next larger standard orifice size/area
AB = bellows area, sq in.
A' = discharge area of the valve, sq in., for valve with next standard size larger than required discharge area
AD = disk area, sq in.
AN = nozzle seat area, sq in.
AP = piston area, sq in.
AW = total wetted surface area of vessel, sq ft
A3 = vessel area exposed to fire, sq ft
B = liquid expansion coefficient, 1/oF, at relieving temperature [or (Vol/Vol)/oF]
C = drag coefficient
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure, BTU/(lb•oF)
Cv = specific heat at constant volume, BTU/(lb•oF)
C1 = coefficient determined by the ratio of specific heats of the gas or vapor at standard conditions
d = flare tip diameter, inches
D = particle diameter, ft
f = correction factor based on the ratio of specific heats
F = environment factor (see Fig. 5-18)
F' = relief valve factor, dimensionless
F* = Fraction of heat radiated
F2 = coefficient for subcritical flow (Fig. 5-14)
FS = spring force, pounds
gpm = flow rate, gallons per minute at flowing temperature and pressure

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/sec2


gc = gravitational constant, 32.2 (ft•lbm)/(lbf•sec2)
G = specific gravity of gas referred to air = 1.00 at 60 oF and 14.696 psia; or, if liquid, the specific gravity of
liquid at flowing temperature referred to water = 1.00 at 60 oF
hL1 = enthalpy of saturated liquid at upstream pressure, Btu/lb
hL2 = enthalpy of saturated liquid at downstream pressure, Btu/lb
hG2 = enthalpy of vapor at downstream pressure, Btu/lb
r = ratio of downstream pressure to upstream pressure, P2/P1
R = distance from flame center to point X, ft
Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless)
Ro = universal gas constant (10.73) (psia•ft3)/(lbmol•oR)
S = specific heat, Btu/(lb •oF)
t = temperature, oF
T = absolute temperature of the inlet vapor, oR
Tn = normal operating gas temperature, oR
T1 = gas temperature, oR, at the upstream pressure
Tw = vessel wall temperature, oR
Ud = maximum allowable vapor velocity for vertical vessel, ft/sec
V = gas velocity, ft/sec
Vex = exit velocity, ft/sec
Vw = wind velocity, ft/sec (= 1.47 V'w)
V'w = wind velocity, mph
W = flow, lb/hr
Whc = hydrocarbon flow, lb/hr
FIG. 5-1
Nomenclature
H =
Hl =
HS =
I =
k =
Kb =
Kc =
Kd =
Kn =
Ksh =
Kv =
Kw =
L =
L/D =
Lf =
M =
MW =
MABP =
NHV =
P =
PCF =
Pn =
P1 =

P1g =
P2 =
Pb =

ΔP =
ΔPw =
Q =
Qr =
Qv =
Wstm =
Wf =
Wr =
xi =
X =
Xc =
Yc =
Z =
GREEK
Δ =
ε =
ρL =
ρv =
θ =
μ =
µs =
FIG. 5-1
menclature
height of vapor space of vessel, ft
latent heat of the liquid exposed to fire, Btu/lb
flare stack height, ft
radiation intensity at point X, Btu/(hr • ft2)
specific heat ratio, Cp/CV (see Section 13)
capacity correction factor due to back pressure
combination correction for rupture disk = 0.9 = 1.0 no rupture disk installed
coefficient of discharge, obtainable from the valve manufacturer
correction factor for Napier steam equation
correction factor due to the amount of superheat in the stream
capacity correction factor due to viscosity
capacity correction factor due to back pressure (Fig. 5-16)
drum length, ft
length to diameter ratio of pipe
length of flame, ft
Mach number at pipe outlet
molecular weight of gas or vapor
maximum allowable back pressure, psig
net heating value of flare gas, Btu/lb
set pressure, psig
critical-flow pressure, psia
normal operating gas pressure, psia
upstream relieving pressure, psia. This is the set pressure plus the allowable overpressure plus the atmospheric
pressure
upstream relieving pressure, psig. This is the set pressure plus the allowable overpressure
downstream pressure at the valve outlet, psia
back pressure, psig

pressure drop, psi


pressure drop, in. of water
heat input, Btu/hr
heat released, Btu/hr
flow through valve, scfm
steal flow, lb/hr
flare gas flow rate, lb/hr
vapor rate to be relieved by the relief valve, lb/hr
weight fraction of component i in total stream
distance from the base of the stack to another point at the same elevation, ft
see Fig. 5-21
see Fig. 5-21
compressibility factor at flowing conditions

prefix, indicates finite increment


fraction of heat radiated
density of liquid, lb/cu ft
density of vapor, lb/cu ft
angle of flare flame from vertical, degrees
viscosity at flowing temperature, centipoise
viscosity at flowing temperature, Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU)
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-1&3 -- Size the safety valves in gas or vapor service (Critical Flow)

Given Data:
Line Size, D = 4.026 in
Flow, W = 2,500 lb/hr
Gas Temperature, T1 = 520 o
R
Compressibility Factor, Z = 0.980
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.975
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 200.0 psia
Capacity Correction Factor, Kb = 1.00 See Fig. 5-12 and 5-13
Combination Correction, Kc = 1.00 correction for rupture disk
Molecular Weight of Gas or Vapor, MW = 32.00 g/mole
Specific Heat Ratio, k = 1.26

To determine the approximate size of the safety valve, the C 1 (coefficient determined by the
ratio of specific heats of the gas), must be determined using Eq. 5-3
k 1
2 k 1
C1 = 520 k ( )
k 1

W (T1 )( Z )
A =
(C1 )( K d )( P1 )( K b )( K c ) MW
CALCULATIONS
C1 = 343
A = 0.149 sq in.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq. 5-3

Eq. 5-1

amples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing i
culation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA
f accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose
cluding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to
ulation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditio
a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Pr
mation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Refer
fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
he use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other leg
ns, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process cond
dited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
ness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trad

ty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
0.9 Rupture Disk
1 No Rupture Disk

ss, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommend

set-point dead-band limitations.


imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-2 -- Size the safety valves in gas or vapor service

Given Data:
Line Size, D = 4.026 in
Flow Through Valve, Qv = 1,500 scfm
Gas Temperature, T1 = 520 o
R
Compressibility Factor, Z = 1.00
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.975
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 14.7 psia
Capacity Correction Factor, Kb = 1.00 See Fig. 5-12 and 5-13
Combination Correction, Kc = 1.00 correction for rupture disk Kc
Molecular Weight of Gas or Vapor, MW = 32.00 g/mole
Specific Heat Ratio, k = 1.40

To determine the approximate size of the safety valve, the C 1 (coefficient determined by the
ratio of specific eats of the gas), must be determined using Eq. 5-3
k 1
C1 2 k 1
= 520 k ( )
k 1

A = Qv (T1 )( MW )( Z )
(6.32)(C1 )( K d )( P1 )( K b )( K c )

CALCULATIONS
C1 = 356.06
A = 6.00 sq in.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
0.9 rupture disk
1 no rupture disk

Eq. 5-3

Eq. 5-2

s published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing industr
on spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and G
racy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or no
g without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or rel
n based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc
rvice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Proce
on is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference
ness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal th
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditio
d in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
s of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradem

contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
o account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendatio

point dead-band limitations.


ly endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-4&5 -- Calculate the relief valve orifice area and the Critical-flow Pressure (Subcritical Flow)
Flow is Subcriticial if P2 > PCF
Given Data:
Flow, W = 2,500 lb/hr
Gas Temperature, T1 = 520 o
R
Compressibility Factor, Z = 0.98
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.975
Combination Correction, Kc = 1.00 correction for rupture disk
Downstream Pressure at Outlet, P2 = 57.0 psia
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 100 psia
Molecular Weight of Gas or Vapor, MW = 32.00 g/mole
Specific Heat Ratio, k = 1.40

To determine the relief valve orifice area, F 2 must be determined first using Fig 5-12.
Also, to determine the Critical-flow Pressure, use Eq. 5-5.

P2
r =
P1
k 1
2 ( )
F2 = k ( ) 1 r k
( )*r k
[ ]
k 1 1 r

W ZT1
A =
(735)( F2 )( K d * K c ) MW ( P1 )( P1  P2 )

k
PCF 2 k 1
= P1 ( )
k 1
CALCULATIONS
r = 0.57
F2 = 0.74
A = 0.29 sq in.
PCF = 52.8 psia

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Kc 0.9 rupture disk
1 no rupture disk

From Fig. 5-12

From Fig. 5-12

Eq 5-4

Eq 5-5

s published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing indust
on spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA and
uracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or no
g without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or rel
n based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions etc
to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors
voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference here
or a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
nability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory
rial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, f
cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
uch information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark, a
act, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
ount actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
vice by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or
t dead-band limitations.
dorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-6&7 -- Estimate the required area for safety-relief valves in steam service

Given Data:

Flow, W = 1,500 lb/hr


Correction Factor, Ksh = 1.00 See Fig. 5-15 for superheated steam service
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.975
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 2000 psia
Capacity Correction Factor, Kb = 1.00 See Fig. 5-12 and 5-13
Combination Correction, Kc = 1.00 correction for rupture disk

W
A =
(51.5)( P1 )( K sh )( K d )( K c )( K n )( K b )

Kn 0.1906 P1  1000
=
0.2292 P1  1061

To determine the area for safety-relief valves in steam service, K n is determined using
Eq. 5-7, when 1500 < P1 > 3200 psia. Kn = 1 where P1 < 1500 psia.

CALCULATIONS
A = 0.015 sq in.
Kn = 1.027

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
eated steam service

Kc 0.9 rupture disk


1 no rupture disk
Eq. 5-6

Eq. 5-7

xamples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing
alculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the G
of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpos
including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference
culation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site condi
service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Pro
ation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Referen
itness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
e use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other lega
s, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process condi
ited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
ess of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trade

y, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
nto account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommenda

et-point dead-band limitations.


mply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-8 -- Size the conventional and balanced bellows relief valves in liquid service

Given Data:
Flowrate, gpm = 250
Specific Gravity, G = 1.2000 at 60 oF
Set Pressure, P = 150 psig
Back Pressure, Pb = 50 psig
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.65
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 114 psia
Capacity Correction Factor (viscosity), Kv = 0.95 See Fig. 5-17
Combination Correction, Kc = 1.00 correction for rupture disk
Capacity Correction Factor (backpressure), Kw = 0.85 See Fig. 5-16

( gpm) G
A =
(38)( K d )( K c )( K w )( K v ) ( P1  Pb )

CALCULATIONS
A = 1.72 sq in.
% Gauge Back Pressure for Fig. 5-16 = 33.3

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Kc 0.9 rupture disk
1 no rupture disk

Eq. 5-8

les published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing indu
ation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA an
curacy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
ding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or
on based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions
e to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processor
s voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference he
for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theor
erial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions,
cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark,

ract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
count actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
rvice by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or

nt dead-band limitations.
ndorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-9 -- Determine the Reynolds number

Given Data:
Flowrate, gpm = 250
Specific Gravity, G = 0.700 at 60 oF
Discharge area of the valve, A' = 0.75 sq in
viscosity at flowing temperature, μ = 0.0105 centipoise

( gpm )( 2800 )( G )
Re =
 A'

CALCULATIONS
Re (5-9) = 5.389E+07

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq. 5-9

ples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing indu
ation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA an
ccuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
ding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or
ion based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions
rvice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Proces
on is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference
ess for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
se, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal th
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditio
d in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
s of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradema

contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
o account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
r service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendatio

point dead-band limitations.


ly endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-10 -- Determine the Reynolds number

Given Data:
Flowrate, gpm = 250
Discharge area of the valve, A' = 0.75 sq in
viscosity at flowing temperature, μS = 0.068 Saybolt Universal Seconds

(12700)( gpm)
Re =
 s A'
CALCULATIONS
Re (5-10) = 5.391E+07

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq. 5-10

ples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing indu
ation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA an
ccuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
ding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or
ion based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions
rvice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Proces
on is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference
ess for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
se, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal th
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditio
d in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
s of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradema

contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
o account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
r service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendatio

point dead-band limitations.


ly endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-11 -- approximate relieving rates of liquids expanded by thermal forces where no vapor is generated

Given Data:
Specific Gravity, G = 0.5840 at 60 oF
Heat Input, Q = 550000 btu/hr
Liquid Expansion Coefficient, B = 0.0011 1/oF at relieving temperature
Specific Heat, S = 0.5692 Btu/(lb•oF)

gpm = ( B)(Q)
500(G )( S )

CALCULATIONS
gpm = 3.64 gpm

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
no vapor is generated

Eq. 5-11

examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processi
calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the G
es of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purp
(including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, referenc
alculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site con
as a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Ga
formation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Re
lity, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
m the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other
itions, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process c
nd edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
meliness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name,

rranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
king into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitatio
ocess, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recomm

trol set-point dead-band limitations.


e or imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-12 -- API RP 521 expresses relief requirements in terms of heat input from the
fire to the vessel where adequate drainage and fire fighting equipment exists.

Given Data:
Environment factor, F = 1
Total wetted surface area of vessel = 55 sq ft
Upstream Relieving Pressure = 114 psia
Molecular Weight of Gas or Vapor = 32 g/mole

The F factor is determined from Fig. 5-16. Wetted surface is the surface wetted by liquid
when the tank is filled to the maximum operating level.

Q = ( 21,000)( F )( Aw ) 0.82

CALCULATIONS
Q = 561457 Btu/hr

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq 5-12

amples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing
lculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA
of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose
cluding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to
ulation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditi
vice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Process
n is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference
ess for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
e, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal the
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process condition
in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradema

ontract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation

point dead-band limitations.


y endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-13 -- Determine the required relieving capacity when the latent heat is determined

Given Data:
Latent Heat of the liquid exposed to fire, Hl = 17 Btu/lb
Heat Input, Q = 1420 Btu/hr

The value W is used to size the relief valve orifice using Eq 5-1 or Eq 5-4.

W = Q
Hl

CALCULATIONS
Flow, W = 83.53 lb/hr

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq 5-13

ples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing ind
ation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA an
ccuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
ding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to or
tion based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site conditions
e to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Processors
s voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference her
for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
nability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal theory
rial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditions, f
cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trademark,

act, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
ount actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
vice by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation or

nt dead-band limitations.
ndorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-14 -- Determine the required relief area based on fire for vessels containing
only vapor.

Given Data:
Relief Valve Factor, F' = 0.025
Vessel Area Exposed to Fire, A3 = 115 sq ft
Upstream Relieving Pressure, P1 = 175.7 psia

( F ' )( A3 )
A = P1

CALCULATIONS
Discharge area, A = 0.22 sq in.

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq 5-14

xamples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing
alculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the G
of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpos
including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference
culation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site condi
rvice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Proce
ion is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Referenc
ness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal th
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditio
d in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
s of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradem

contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
o account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendatio

-point dead-band limitations.


ply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-15 -- F' for Eq 5-14 can be determined using Eq 5-15

Given Data:
Coefficient determined by the ratio of
specific heats of the gas or vapor at
standard conditions, C1 = 356 See Eq 5-3
Coefficient of Discharge, Kd = 0.975
Vessel wall temperature, Tw = 2100 °R
Gas temperature, °R, at the upstream
pressure, T1 = 520 °R

If the result of these values in Eq 5-15 is less than 0.01, then F' = 0.01. Note if insufficient
information is available to use Eq 5-15, then use F' = 0.045.
 0.1406  (Tw  T1 )1.25 
F' =   
( C )( K )  T 0.6506 
 1 d  1 
CALCULATIONS
F' = 0.07

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Enginee
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on t
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, those
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad ass
Eq 5-15

xamples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing
lculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GP
of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpos
ncluding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference t
culation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site condit
vice to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Proces
on is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Reference
ess for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
se, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal th
mperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process conditio
d in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tradema

ontract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
r service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation

point dead-band limitations.


y endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Determining Elevated Flare Thermal Radiation

Given Data:
gas velocity, V = 125.00 ft/sec
wind velocity, Vw = 36 ft/sec
flow, W = 4500 lb/hr
Flare Gas Flow Rate, Wf = 212 lb/hr
Fraction of Heat Radiated, ε = 0.1 See Fig. 5-20
mach, M = 0.5
Stack Height, Hs = 25 ft
distance from the base of the stack to another point , X = 35 ft

(W f )( NHV )( )
I =
4 ( R 2 )

Lf = Pw
(10)( d )
55

ΔPw = (27.7) V 2 = V 2
(2 g c )(144) 334.8

 1.702(10 5 )(W )  ZT  0.5 


d =  *   *12
 P2 M  kMW  

a = T
223 k
MW

V 
θ = tan 1  w 
 Vex 
Vex = Pw
550
55

 Lf 
  sin  
 3 
Xc =  Lf 
  sin  
 3 

 Lf 
Yc =    cos  
 3 

R = ( X  X c ) 2  ( H s  Yc ) 2

CALCULATIONS
I = 17.43 Btu/(hr•ft2)
Lf = 2.17 ft
ΔPw = 5.42 in. of water
d = 0.69 in
a = 829.5 ft/sec
θ = 11.8 degrees
Vex = 172.7 ft/sec
Xc = -0.516 ft
Yc = 0.509 ft
R = 43.7 ft

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
density, ρ = 0.1162 lb/cu ft
specific heat ratio, k = 1.13 Cp/Cv
molecular weight, MW = 44.1 g/mole
net heating value of flare gas, NHV = 19760 Btu/lb
downstream pressure, P2 = 150 psia
absolute temperature of the inlet vapor, T = 540 °R
compressibility factor at flowing conditions, Z = 0.98

Eq. 5-19

Eq. 5-20

V 2 Eq. 5-21
334.8

T  
0.5

 *12 Eq. 5-22


W 

Eq. 5-23

Eq. 5-24

Eq. 5-25
Eq. 5-26

Eq. 5-27

Eq. 5-28

mples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas processing ind
ulation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the GPA a
accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, o
uding without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, reference to o
ation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site condition
service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas Pro
ation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Referen
itness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
e use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other legal
s, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process condi
ted in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
ess of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, trade

y, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
nto account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations.
, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommendat

et-point dead-band limitations.


mply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

Equation 5-33&34 -- Calculate the steam flow for a smokeless flare.

Given Data:
Hydrocarbon Flow, Whc = 450 lb/hr
Molecular Weight of Gas or Vapor = 32 g/mole

Wstm (Mixture of paraffins) =   10 . 8 


W hc  0 . 49   
  MW 

Wstm (Mixture of olefins) =   10.8 


Whc 0.79   
  MW 

Calculations
Wstm (Mixture of paraffins) = 68.6 lb/hr
Wstm (Mixture of olefins) = 203.6 lb/hr

The sample calculations, equations and spreadsheets presented herein were developed using examples published in the Engine
While every effort has been made to present accurate and reliable technical information and calculation spreadsheets based on
The Calculation Spreadsheets are provided without warranty of any kind including warranties of accuracy or reasonableness of
In no event will the GPA or GPSA and their members be liable for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, thos
These calculation spreadsheets are provided to provide an “Operational level” of accuracy calculation based on rather broad as
Eq. 5-33

Eq. 5-34

ng examples published in the Engineering Data Book as published by the Gas Processor Suppliers Association as a service to the gas proces
nd calculation spreadsheets based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book sample calculations, the use of such information is voluntary and the
ties of accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, or merchantability, fitness for a particular pu
er (including without limitation, those resulting from lost profits, lost data or business interruption) arising from the use, inability to, referen
calculation based on rather broad assumptions (including but not limited to: temperatures, pressures, compositions, imperial curves, site co
s a service to the gas processing industry. All information and calculation formulae has been compiled and edited in cooperation with Gas P
rmation is voluntary and the GPA and GPSA do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, efficacy, or timeliness of such information. Refe
y, fitness for a particular purpose, or non-infringement of intellectual property.
the use, inability to, reference to or reliance on the information in this Publication, whether based on warranty, contract, tort or any other le
ons, imperial curves, site conditions etc) and do not replace detailed and accurate Design Engineering taking into account actual process con
edited in cooperation with Gas Processors Association (GPA).
liness of such information. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, calculation method, process, or service by trade-name, tra

nty, contract, tort or any other legal theory and whether or not advised of the possibility of such damages.
g into account actual process conditions, fluid properties, equipment condition or fowling and actual control set-point dead-band limitations
ess, or service by trade-name, trademark, and service mark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply endorsement, recommen

l set-point dead-band limitations.


r imply endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the GPA and/or GPSA.
GPSA Engineering Data Book 14th Edition

LIMITS

The rate of flow through a relief valve nozzle is dependent on P 1 and is independent of P2 as long as P2 < PCF

Real gas specific heat ratios should not be used for the ideal gas specific heat ratio, k, which is independent of pressure.

Ideal gas specific heat ratio should only be used for real gases where 0.8 > z < 1.1

Kn = 1.0 if P1 < 1500 psia. For 1500 psia > P1 < 3200 psia, use Eq 5-7.

Eq 5-8 valid for Turbulent Flow. If Re < 4000, see discussion on page 5-12 regarding Laminar Flow.

Eq 5-11 assumes no vapor is generated and liquid is non-compressible.


ng as P2 < PCF

independent of pressure.