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Egypt. Poult. Sci.

Vol (34) (III): (735-750) (2014) (1523)

Egyptian Poultry Science Journal

http://www.epsaegypt.com

ISSN: 1110-5623 (Print) – 2090-0570 (On line)

EFFECT OF USING SOME NATURAL FEED ADDITIVES TO


SUBSTITUTE ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTERS ON
PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PARAMETERS OF BROILERS
A.I. EL-Faham1; Nematallah G.M. Ali1, and Hayam M.A.A. El-Maaty2
1- Poul. prod. Dept. Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Egypt.
2- Poul. prod. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Mansoura Univ., Egypt.

Received: 29/06/2014 Accepted: 20/08/2014

ABSTRACT: This investigation aimed to evaluate the biostrong, probiotic or pungent


substance as natural feed additives instead of antibiotics (zinc bacteriacin) on growth
performance, carcass characteristics, bone measurements, some blood metabolites and
economic efficiency of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty unsexed one day old age
Hubbard chicks were weighed and randomly allocated for four dietary treatment groups.
The 1st group was fed the basal diets without supplementation (control), while the
2nd, (T1) the 3rd (T2), the 4th (T3), and 5th (T4) groups were fed the basal diets supplemented
with biostrong, probiotic, pungent substance and zinc bacteriacin at the level of 150g,
1000g, 500g and 500g/ton, respectively. Diets and water were provided ad lib. throughout
the experimental period (1-32 days of age).
The results indicated that:-
1- Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion for the broiler chicks fed basal diets
supplemented with pungent substance (T3) were significantly differences than those fed
control diets at 18 days of age. However at 32 days of age there were insignificant
differences among treatments in body weight gain, but numerically pungent treatment
(T3) represented the highest body weight gain and significant lowest feed intake and
significant improved feed conversion.
2- Total edible parts were significantly higher for the treatments received probiotic (T2) or
pungent substance (T3) than those fed on control diets.
3- Bone measurements (wet tibia weight, Tibia length, Tibia width and tibia seedor Index)
showed that insignificant figures when broiler chicks fed different dietary treatments.
4- Blood parameters showed insignificant figures in most parameters. However uric acid
and ALP activity have significant difference (P0.05) for dietary treatments.

Key Words: Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.

Corresponding author: nematallah1965@gmail.com


A.I. EL-Faham et al

5- Economic evaluation, the best economical efficiency value was demonstrated when
broiler chicks fed 500 g/ton pungent substance and the value was (34%) more when
compared wit that of broiler chicks fed control diets.
In conclusion: Supplementation basal broiler diets with pungent substance improved
productive performances of Hubbard broiler chicks and decreased uric acid. The best
economical and relative economical efficiency were recorded for the broilers fed basal diet
supplemented with pungent substance at the levels of 500g/ton diet.

INTRODUCTION of volitate fatty acids production and dry


matter digestibility [Seleem, et al; 2001].
Poultry rations are formulated to
Abd El-Hakim et al (2009) have
contain an optimum nutrient concentration
been used some plants as natural
obtainable at reasonable cost for desirable
antioxidants in broiler diet to decrease the
growth, production and efficiency of feed
damage of protein by free radical and
utilization, so certain non nutritive feed
decrease the lost of protein in feces. They
additives are sometimes used.
obtained significantly increasing in
Alternative additives such as herbs,
nitrogen retention by 13.25% compared to
spices essential oils extracted from
control diet and indicated that natural
aromatic plants, enzymes, organic acids
antioxidants many decrease the damage of
and probiotics were used as growth
protein by free radical. Also, immune cost
promoters in poultry diets in many
consumes a lot of protein.
countries for organic poultry production
Antibiotic feed additives have long
[Griggs and Jacob, 2005].
been used as growth promoters in poultry
Numerous studies demonstrated that
nutrition.
a great number of medical and aromatic
Aban on the use of antibiotic as
herbs, as well as fruits and leaves of some
growth promotrs has led to a need for
berry plants biosynthesize phytochemicals
finding yet safe additives for improving
possessing antioxidant activity and may be
production performance without negative
used as a natural source of free radical
effects on animal health and welfare,
scavenging compunds [Sacchetti et al.,
quality of food of an animal origin, human
2005 and Yu et al., 2005].
health and the environment (European
According to definition by
commission, 2003)
FAO/WHO (2001), probiotics are "live
The antibiotics used as feed
microorganism which when administered
additives (zinc bacteriacin) for hope of
in adequate amounts confer a health benefit
growth stimulation affect the gut
on the host". More precisely probiotics are
microflora, which results in the reduction
live microorganisms of nonpathogenic and
of the resistance to infection caused by
nontoxic in nature, which when
certain bacteria [Areneo et al, 1996].
administered through the digestive route,
Today's intensive animal agriculture
are favorable to the host's health.
industry must adapt to producing animal in
Probiotics are natural feed
a world without antibiotic growth
supplements and their function is based
promoters in response to consumer
upon primary fermentation and supporting
demands. Also, assure that all products of
the growth of intestinal microflora.
livestock and poultry are Hazard Analysis
Maximum microflora growth expands the
and Critical Control Point [HACCP]
digestive capacity as evidenced by increase
certified. So, there is a tendency to use
herbs and probiotics as natural feed

736
Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.

additives to avoid the residual cumulative red pepper 167 gm/ton) (T3), and zinc
effect for either antibiotics or sysnthetic bacitracin (500 gm/ton) (T4). Feed and
drugs in final products of poultry, which water were offered ad libitum during
has a negative effect on the human health experimental period. Each treatment was
[Ragab M.S. 2012]. represented in 3 replicates of 10 chicks
Biostrong is a plant derived each. The experiment lasted at 32 days of
[phytogenic] feed additive for poultry. It is age. Average initial weight of chicks at the
comprised of high quality, proven active experimental start ranged between 44.5 and
ingredients that improve digestion, enhance 47.5 g with insignificant differences among
metabolic function, and increase nutrient the experimental groups. Body weight gain,
retention. So, biostrong optimizes feed intake, and feed conversion were
performance, production and profitability. recorded weekly and presented herein (0-
The active ingredients of biostrong are 18) and (19-32) of age. All diets were
essential oils, bitter substances, pungent formulated to provide the nutrient
subtances and saponins derived from herbs, requirements according to guideline of
spices and their extracts. NRC (1994). Composition of the
Therefore, this study was conducted experimental diet is shown in Table (1). At
to examine the natural additives the end of experiment, (32 day old), three
substitution (biostrong, probiotic, or birds were randomly taken from each
pungent substance) instead of antihiotics treatment group and slaughtered. The
(zinc bacteriacin) and their effects on percentage of carcass, liver, heart, gizzard,
growth performance, carcass characteristics giblets, edible parts and abdominal fat were
bone measurements, and some blood estimated as carcass characteristics. Tibia
metabolites of broiler chicks. dimension as tibia weight, tibia length and
tibia width were evaluated, then tibia
MATERIALS AND METHODS
seedor index (SI) were recorded by Seedor
This study was carried out at et al, (1991) equation.
poultry experimental unit, Agricultural SI = Tibia dry wt. (g)/tibia length
Experiment and Research station at (cm)
shalkan, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain shams Individual blood samples were
university, Egypt. collected in dry clean centrifuge tubes from
In order to evaluate the comparative the salughtered birds and plasma was
study between antibiotics, and natural separated by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for
additives from some points as their effects 15 min. and assigned for subsequent
on immunity, antioxidant activity, free determination.
radical scavenging compound and their Plasma samples were stored at-20°C
functions as growth promoter. in a deep freezer until the time of chemical
A total number of 150 unsexed one- determination. Biochemical analysis of
day-old age Hubbard chicks. They were fed blood plasma were conducted in poultry
on 22.39% CP and 3030 kcal ME/Kg diet physiology laboratory, Faculty of
for all chicks for starter (0-18 days), then Agriculture, Ain Shams University.
fed on grower (20.93 CP and 3029 kcal ME Quantitative determination of blood
/Kg)from (19-32 days) of age. was included the following: total protein
The chicks were randomly [according to Gornal et al., 1949], albumin
distributed into four treatment groups and [method as decribed by Doumas, 1971],
control as followed, biostrong (150 gm/ton) globulin [determined by subtraction the
(T1), probiotic Lactobac (1000 gm/ton) value of alb. for the sample from its
(T2), pungent substances 500 g/ton (ginger corresponding value for total protein] total
166gm/ton, black pepper 167 gm/ton, and lipids [using colorimetric method described

737
A.I. EL-Faham et al

by Zollner and Kirsch, 1962], total and control. However at 32 old of age there
cholesterol [enzymatic colorimetric method were insignificant differences among
described by Richmond, 1973), treatments, but numerically pungent
triglycerides [method described by Fassati treatment represented the highest body
and Prencipe, 1982), AST and ALT [both weight than control and other treatments,
were determined using a method described also, the rest of treatments were highest
by Reitman and Frankel, 1957] and uric values of body weight compared with
acid as commercial kit. control group.
All biochemical parameters of At the same trend, body weight gain
blood were colorimetrically determined had improved especially at T2, T3 and T4
using commercial diagnosing kits compared with T1 and control groups.
[produced by Bio-Diagnostics company, These results from one day to 18 day-old of
Egypt. age for growing chicks, but at 19-32 days
The economic efficiency of broiler of age, the results showed the differences
chicks production was also calculated. The between treatments insignificant.
price of experimental diet was calculated Moreover, the response of body
according to the price at local market as the weight gain to different treatments were not
price of the ingredients and chicks at the significant from 0-32 days old age of
time of the experiment. growing chicks but T3 and T4 gave the best
Statistical analysis was conducted body weight gain compared with other
using the General linear Model (GLM) treatments and control group [1794.36 and
procedure of SAS (2004). Means were 1767.10g] resp.
compared using Duncan's Multiple Range These results could be considered as
Test (Duncan, 1955) where the level of probiotics have been used as a feed
significance was set at minimum (P0.05). supplement in diet of different classes of
The statistical model was: poultry to enhance productive performance
Yij =  + Ti + eij and immune responses (Higgins et al.,
Where: 2008). In this regard the dietary
Yij = An observation supplementation of probiotic benefit the
 = overall mean host animal by stimulating appetite
Ti = effect of treatment [Nahashon et al., 1992], stimulate the
Eij = random error immune system [Tom and Powvie, 2001;
Koenen et al., 2004], produce the
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION endogenous digestive enzymes [Saarela et
Effect of different treatments on al, 2000], decrease pH and release
productive performance: bacteriocins [Rolfe, 2000], So improved
body weight and body weight gain.
From Table (2), we have been noted
Also, pungent supplementation and
that the different treatments of growing
herbs in general have synergetic effect on
chicks could be detected from the
Gram-positive and negative bacteria [Ali et
followings:
al, 2008]. Also, Bedford (2000) reported
Body weight and body weight gain: that control the growth and colonization of
The obtained data showed that there numerous pathogenic and non pathogenic
were significant different in body weight species of bacteria in chicks gut lead to
among treatment groups during study agreater efficiency in the utilization of feed,
especially 18 days of old age. Probiotic and resulting in enhanced growth.
pungent treatments were the highest values
[716 and 696g] resp. than other treatments

738
Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.

Feed intake and Feed conversion: Steiner, 2009], enhancing digestion by


stimulating endogenous enzymes [Al-
Data showed in Table (2) indicated
Khdri, 2013].
that feed intake at 0-18 days decreased
These results agreement with
significantly (P0.05) for birds that fed bio-
Rahimi et al, 2011 who indicated that,
strong and pungent substances than other
higher body weight are noted in the broilers
treatment groups and control [999 and
fed thyme may be due to the beneficial
862g] resp.
effects of these herbs in birds nutrition
Also, from 19-32 days old age, feed
which includes improvement of
intake decreased significantly for birds that
endogenous digestive enzymes secretion
fed on pungent substances (1883 g) and
and antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and
have the lowest feed intake than other
anthelmintic actions, All these actions
treatments and control.
cause improvement in health, growth and
Interestingly, feed intake
performance of broiler.
significantly different among treatments
from 0-32 days old age but these Carcass characteristics:
differences obviously in birds that fed on Table (3) have showed the effect of
pungent substances. different treatments on the carcass
From other side, feed conversion characteristics at the end of experiment [32
have improvement for birds that fed on days of age].
probiotic and pungent substances than other Experimental treatments had no
treatments and control [1.53 and 1.32] resp. significant effect in all characteristics
from 0-18 days old age. These trend has except for total edible part especially for T3
changed from 19-32 days old age, even T1, and T2. These treatments recorded the
T3 and control have showed improvement highest values [78.29 and 76.27] resp. then,
in feed conversion compared with other T1 and T4 (75.88 and 74.89) resp. compared
treatments [1.69, 1.64 and 1.65] resp, Also, with control group [73.70].
from 0-32 days old age T3 was continued in Although abdominal fat parameter
improvement of feed conversion than other had non significant differences among all
treatment groups and differences was treatment groups, but T1, T2 and T3 have
significant. (Table 2). the lowest values compared with T4 and
From the previous results we noted control groups [1.46, 1.48, 1.40] resp.
that herbs and herbal products are compared with [1.83 and 2.28] resp.
incorporated in poultry diet to replace From other point, there were
synthetic products in order to stimulate or decrease in gizzard percentage of birds that
promote the effective use of feed nutrients fed T1, T2 and T3 compared with T4 and
which may subsequently result in more control groups, but these decreases have
rapid body weight gain, higher production not significant.
rates and improved feed efficiency [Al- These results have been indicated
Khdri, 2013]. that biostrong, probiotic and pungent have
Moreover, active compounds of improved of carcass characteristics than
herbs may improve digestion and stimulate Zinc bacitracin and control groups.
the immune function in broilers [Ghazalah At the same time, these treatments
and Ali, 2008]. Supplementation of spices have lowered /decreased the abodominal
and herbs could have many benefits to fat, and consequently this benefit for
broilers health and performance such as human's health similar results were
having antioxidative potential [Hoffman reported by Bahnas et al, (2008 and 2009);
and Wu, 2010], antimicrobial activity and Ragab et al,(2010). Also, Ocak et al
[Dorman and Deans, 2000; Lee et al, 2004; (2008) reported that the carcass weight and

739
A.I. EL-Faham et al

dressing % of broiler chicks were not probiotic and pungent substances than
significantly affected by different levels of control and zinc bact.
dry pep. These results indicated that it may
Internal organ weights and carcass be these herbs and probiotic have
characteristics of broiler chicks fed improvement of kidney function and
different levels of dry pep. were not protein metabolism and consequently
significantly influnenced [Toghyani et al, increase of nitrogen utilization. The
2010]. significantly decreased of uric acid
Conversely, Al-Kassie (2010) compared with control group meaning that
showed that the chicks fed with 0.56 and excess of nitrogen compounds are utilized
1% dry pep. exhibit a significant increase by birds and this occur in nitrogen retention
in dressing % compared with the control percentage and these results inagreement
group. He also reported that mean weight with Abou Sekken et al., (2012).
of heart and gizzard showed no significant Also, ALT activity has significantly
difference as our results. Moreover, Hassan different among treatment groups and the
et al, (2004) found that addition of lowest values were found for chicks fed
medicinal and aromatic plants in broiler control biostrong probiotic and zinc bact.
diets had significantly higher dressing% than those that fed on pungent, and this
than those fed the control diet. may be due to that level of these substances
may made some inflammation in liver, but
Bone Measurements:
didn't have adverse effect on liver, and
Table (4) showed the effect of that’s clear from the liver appearance
different treatments on the bone during experiment.
measurements. Concerning A/G ratio, A/G ratio is
Although all Tibia measurements an indicator of immunity response and
have not significantly difference, but globulin is source of gamma globulins
numerically, tibia length in T2, T3, T4 have [antibodies]. Although there is not
recorded the highest values compared with significant different among treatments in
T1 and control groups. A/G ratio values, but T1, T2 and T3
These results have indicated that it recorded the best ratios than control and T4
may be probiotics and herbs have improved groups, and that's mean, these treatments
of Ca metabolism and consequently have improvement effect on immunity of
increased the tibia length by hyperplasia chicks. Many studies found that blood total
and hypertrophy of osteoclast cells, and protein, albumin and globulin
these results needs more investigation on concentrations were not affected by
the bone by histology examination to reply probiotic supplementation [Dimcho et al,
about these questions. 2005, Alkhalf et al 2010; and
Blood parameters: Ashayerizadeh et al., 2009] although,
others (Havenaar and Spanhaak, 1994)
The results concerning on the effect reported that probiotic is stimulate poultry
of different treatments on some blood immune system.
parameters are shown in Table (5). Regarding lipid metabolites, the
Although most of blood parameters results indicated that the group of chicks
have not significant different affected by that fed on T1, T2 and T3 have the lowest
different dietary treatments, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations than those fed on
ALP activity have significant different control and Zinc bact.
(P0.05) by these dietary treatments. These results are in general
Uric acid concentration recorded agreement with those reported by Sturkie,
lowest values for chicks fed biostrong, [2000] who reported that the concentration

740
Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.

of avian plasma lipids are influenced by the of age. Chicks fed diet contained pungent
physical and nutritional status of birds. substance (T3) had the best economical and
Results of reducing cholesterol, that relative efficiency values being 31.81 and
produced by T1, T2 and T3 in the current 134%, respectively (this may be due to
study may be due to synthesis of bile acids total feed cost/chick and good
from cholesterol in the liver that is performance) as compared with control
considered the most important way of group. Whereas, chicks fed diet contained
cholesterol excretion. probiotic (T2) had the lowest corresponding
Besides, some of the values, being 22.39 and 94%, respectively.
microorganisms present in the probiotic The relative efficiency varied between 94%
preparation could utilize the cholesterol to 134%.
present in the gastrointestinal tract for their On the other hand chicks fed diets
own metabolism, thus reducing the amount contained Biostrong or zinc bacteriacin had
of cholesterol absorption. the same economical and relative efficiency
In addition, probiotic values when compared with chicks fed the
microorganisms inhibit Hydroxy methyl – control diet.
glutaryl Coenzyme A [an enzyme involved Soliman et al. (2003) found that the
in the cholesterol synthesis] (Fayza, et al; inclusion of probiotic or herbal feed
2012), and consequently, blood cholesterol additives in growing rabbits, Japanese quail
of these chicks have decreased and these or broiler diets resulted in the least feed
benefit for consumers to reduce the cost/Kg gain and the highest percent of
occurrence of cardiovascular heart diseases. economical efficiency as compared with
About the herbs as we previously control diet. However, Ibrahim (2005)
mentioned, these herbs have two types of noted that the economical efficiency %
unusual components that provide unique showed descending value for rabbit
health benefits by decreasing free radical treatment groups which received some
and increasing the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plants as feed additives.
the blood and improves the general healthy On the other hand, Elnagar (2012)
conditions of poultry that may be reflected concluded that responses to either
in increased immune reponse. [Ragab, probiotics or enzymes may be affected by
2012] many factors including environment, the
amount of each and the interaction between
Economic Evaluation:
them as well as other substances such as
Data for economic evaluation are bird age and quality of ingredients or
summarized in Table (6). The price figures another possible reasons.
are based on the recent prices of local It could be concluded that using
market for ingredients and selling price of some natural feed additives in broiler diet
chickens in Qaliobeya region, Egypt. (500 g/ton) to improve broiler performance
Results in Table (6) show that EE without any bad effect on broiler chicks.
values during the period from 1 to 32 days

741
A.I. EL-Faham et al

Table (1): Composition and calculated chemical analysis of the starter and grower
experimental diets
Starter diet* Grower diet*
Ingredients %
(0-18 days) (19-32 days)
Yellow corn 46.45 54.44
Soybean meal (44%) 36.20 30.15
Full fat soya 9.00 9.00
Soya + Sunflower oil 3.65 2.00
Mono calcium phosphate 1.85 1.68
Limestone 1.60 1.48
Salt (Nacl) 0.40 0.40
DL-Methioine 0.34 0.20
L-lysine Hcl 0.08 0.22
Vitamin  Min. Mix** 0.30 0.30
Choline chloride 50% 0.13 0.13
Total 100.00 100.00
Calculated chemical analysis ***
Crude protein % 23.12 21.13
ME (Kcal/Kg) 3071 3045
Calcium % 1.02 0.93
Available phosphorus % 0.50 0.64
Lysine % 1.39 1.39
Methionine % 0.72 0.55
Methioine +cysteine % 1.06 0.88
**
Composition of vitamin and minerals premix. Each 3Kg of premix containing: 15000000
I.U. vit, A, 50 g. vit E, 3000 mg. vit. K3 3000 mg B1, 8000mg. Vit. B2 4000mg, vit. B6,
20mg vit. B12, 15000mg. pantothenic acid, 60000 mg. Niacin, 1500 mg. Folic acid, 200mg.
Biotin, 200000 mg vitc, 700mg. choline choloride, 80gm Mn, 80g. Zn, 60gm, Iron, 10gm.
Cu, 1gm. Cu, 1gm. Iodine and 0.2gm selenium, where Ca Co3 was taken as a carrier up to
3kg, the inclusion rate was 3kg premix/ton feed
***
calculated analysis of the experimental diets were done according to (NRC, 1994).
*Starter and grower T1, T2, T3 and T4 diets are the same control diets but supplemented
with 150g/ Biostrong, 1000g/probiotic, 500g/pungent substance and 500g /zinc
lactercin/Ton diets respectively.

742
Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.
Table (2): Effect of dietary treatments on growth performance of broiler chicks.

Dietary treatments Significant of


Items SE
Control T1 T2 T3 T4 differences
Body weight (g)
Intial, 1 day 45.67 45.33 45.66 44.50 47.50 1.63 NS
18 days 623.00c 642.00c 716.00 696.66 a
669.00 b
6.90 *
32 days 1787.13 1802.50 1811.86 1838.86 1814.60 11.15 NS
0 18 days
Body weight gain (g) 577.33c 596.66c 670.33a 652.16a 621.50b 6.84 *
ab b a c ab
Feed intake (g) 1019.00 999.00 1031.00 862.00 1019.00 9.06 *
743

Feed conversion(g feed/g gain) 1.76a 1.67a 1.53b 1.32c 1.64a 0.01 *
19-32 days
Body weight gain (g) 1164.13a 1160.50a 1095.86b 1142.20a 1145.60a 11.29 NS
ab
Feed intake (g) 1919.67 1962.66ab 1985.00a 1883.00b 2002.66a 28.72 *
c bc a c ab
Feed conversion (g feed/g gain) 1.65 1.69 1.81 1.64 1.74 0.02 NS
0-32 days
Body weight gain (g) 1741.47 1757.16 1766.20 1794.36 1767.10 10.87 NS
Feed intake (g) 2938.67a 2961.66a 3016.00a 2745.00b 3021.66a 35.96 *
Feed conversion (g feed/g gain) 1.69a 1.68a 1.70a 1.53b 1.70a 0.01 *
a,b,c Means in the same raw with different superscripts in the same raw are significantly (P<0.05) different.
N.S. : non-significant.
A.I. EL-Faham et al
Table (3): Effect of feeding different experimental diets on carcass characteristics at 32 days (%).

Dietary treatments Significant of


Items SE
Control T1 T2 T3 T4 differences
Live body weight (g) 1741.67 1713.30 1580.00 1700.00 1691.70 42.24 NS
Carcass weight (g) 1211.67 1231.67 1140.00 1263.33 1200.00 20.15 NS
Carcass % 69.6 71.9 72.2 74.3 70.9 0.29 NS
Liver 2.40 2.52 2.41 2.36 2.27 0.20 NS
Gizzard 1.24 1.07 1.13 1.09 0.14 1.28 NS
Heart 0.48 0.39 0.52 0.39 0.39 0.08 NS
Giblets 4.12 3.97 4.07 3.83 3.94 0.31 NS
b ab ab a b
Total edible part 73.70 75.88 76.27 78.29 74.89 0.83 *
Abdominal fat 1.83 1.46 1.48 1.40 2.28 0.34 NS
a,b means in the same raw with different superscripts in the same raw are significantly (P<0.05) different. N.S.: non-significant.
744

Table (4): Effect of feeding different experimental diets on some bone measurements.

Dietary treatments Significant of


Items
Control T1 T2 T3 T4 differences
Wet tibia weight (g) 9.520.32 8.671.11 8.840.21 8.450.65 9.560.61 NS
% 0.550.02 0.510.06 0.510.01 0.540.02 0.570.04 NS
Tibia length (mm) 7.930.13 7.830.09 8.170.12 8.000.15 8.230.07 NS
Tibia width (mm) 0.570.02 0.580.06 0.550.03 0.530.03 0.630.03 NS
Tibia seeder Index 0.570.02 0.530.04 0.500.01 0.520.04 0.560.04 NS
a,b means in the same raw with different superscripts in the same raw are significantly (P<0.05) different.
Biostrong-Pungent – Tibia – antibiotics – uric acid.
Table (5): Effect of feeding different experimental diets on some plasma parameters.

Dietary treatments Significant of


Items
Control T1 T2 T3 T4 differences
Total protein (g/dl) 6.10 6.17 6.82 6.60 6.09 NS
 0.11 3.92 0.18 0.45 0.19 NS
Albumin (g/dl) 4.04 3.92 3.91 3.88 4.02 NS
 0.17 0.04 0.09 0.07 0.03 NS
Globulin (g/dl) 2.06 2.25 2.90 2.72 2.07 NS
 0.06 0.28 0.22 0.52 0.17
Uric acid (mg/dl) 6.88ab 5.12b 5.73ab 4.00b 8.39a *
 0.21 0.84 1.15 1.53 0.82
745

Total lipids (mg/dl) 365.36 345.19 485.17 395.01 384.34 NS


 82.34 49.35 134.56 11.44 39.68
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 78.66 76.66 76.33 78.33 52.66 NS
 17.70 4.91 .1.85 18.35 4.70
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 161.60 155.00 165.33 155.53 178.86 NS
 3.14 10.91 32.77 8.42 9.63
AST (RFU/ml) 37.80 26.33 30.14 26.57 20.69 NS
 4.43 8.69 7.68 4.87 5.08
ALT (RFU/ml 27.80b 45.09ab 54.39a 60.22a 44.46ab *
 9.00 9.40 4.92 1.30 8.48
A/G ratio 1.96 1.74 1.35 1.43 1.94 N.S.
 0.13 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.13
a,b means in the same raw with different superscripts in the same raw are significantly (P<0.05) different.
N.S. = non-significant.
A.I. EL-Faham et al

Table (6): Effect of feeding different dietary treatments on economic evalution.

Dietary treatments
Items
Control T1 T2 T3 T4
Live body weight (KG) 1.787 1.803 1.812 1.839 1.815
Price/Kg body weight (LE) 13 13 13 13 13
Total revenue/chick (LE) 23.23 23.44 23.56 23.91 23.60
Total feed intake /chick (Kg) 2.939 2.96 3.016 2.745 3.021
Total feed cost /chick (LE) 10.77 10.94 11.25 10.14 11.11
Fixed cost/chick (LE) 8 8 8 8 8
Total cost /chick (LE) 18.77 18.94 19.25 18.14 19.11
Net revenue (LE) 4.46 4.5 4.31 5.77 4.49
Economic efficiency (EE) 23.76 23.76 22.39 31.81 23.50
Relative (EE)% 100 100 94 134 99

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749
‫‪A.I. EL-Faham et al‬‬

‫الولخص العربي‬
‫دراسة هقارًة بيي الوضادات الحيوية وبعض االضافات الطبيعية في عالئق بذارى التسويي علي‬
‫األداء اإلًتاجي وقياسات الذم‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫أحوذ إبراهين سليواى الفحام‪ً – 1‬عوة هللا جوال الذيي هحوذ علي‪ – 1‬هيام هحوذ أبو الوعاطي‬
‫‪ -1‬لسُ إٔخبج اٌذواجٓ – وٍيت اٌضساعت – جبِعت عيٓ شّس‬
‫‪ -2‬لسُ إٔخبج اٌذواجٓ – وٍيت اٌضساعت – جبِعت إٌّصىسة‬

‫أجشيج هزٖ اٌذساست ٌٍخعشف عًٍ حأثيش إظبفت اٌبيىسخشؤج ‪ ،‬اٌبشوبيىحه واٌّىاد اٌحشيفت وأظبفبث غبيعيت‬
‫ببٌّمبسٔت ببٌّعبداث اٌحيىيت (صٔه ببسخيشيبسيٓ) عًٍ األداء اإلٔخبجً وصفبث اٌزبيحت وصفبث اٌعظُ وبعط ليبسبث‬
‫اٌذَ واٌىفبءة االلخصبديت ٌبذاسي اٌخسّيٓ‪.‬‬
‫اسخخذَ فً هزٖ اٌذساست عذد (‪ )151‬وخىىث عّش يىَ ٌسالٌت اٌهبشد ثُ لسّج إًٌ (‪ِ )5‬عبِالث غزائيت‬
‫ححخىي وً ِعبٍِت عًٍ (‪ِ )3‬ىشساث فً وً ِىشس (‪ )11‬وخبويج وحُ اخخببس اٌّعبِالث اٌغزائيت ببسخخذاَ عالئك ٔببحيت‬
‫(أرسة صفشاء – وسب فىي صىيب) خالي اٌّشاحً اٌّخخٍفت ]ببدئ (يىَ ‪ 11-‬يىَ) ؤبًِ (‪ 32-11‬يىَ)[ ووبٔج‬
‫اٌّعبِالث وبألحً ‪:‬‬
‫اٌّجّىعت األوًٌ ‪ :‬حُ اٌخغزيت بذوْ إظبفبث (وٕخشوي) ‪ ،‬فً حيٓ اٌّجّىعبث األسبعت األخشي حغزث عًٍ‬
‫عٍيمت اٌىٕخشوي ِعبف إٌيهب اٌبيىسخشؤج )‪ ، (T1‬اٌبشوبيىحه )‪ ، (T2‬اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت )‪ (T3‬واٌضٔه ببسخيشيبسيٓ )‪(T4‬‬
‫بّعذي ‪151‬جُ ‪ 1111 ،‬جُ ‪ 511 ،‬جُ ‪ 511 ،‬جُ ‪/‬غٓ عٍف عًٍ اٌخىاًٌ‪.‬‬
‫لذِج اٌعالئك واٌّيبة بشىً حش خالي فخشاث اٌخجشبت ‪.‬‬
‫وٌمذ خٍصج إٌخبئج إًٌ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬سجٍج اٌّجّىعت اٌخً حغزث عًٍ ‪511‬جُ ِىاد حشيفت‪/‬غٓ عٍف أعًٍ ِعذالث ّٔى وألً اسخهالن عٍف وأفعً‬
‫ِعبًِ ححىيً غزائً ببٌّمبسٔت بّجّىعت اٌىٕخشوي ووبٔج اٌفشوق ِعٕىيت عٕذ ‪ 11‬يىَ بيّٕب ال يىجذ فشوق ِعٕىيت‬
‫فً وصْ اٌجسُ اٌّىخسب عٕذ ‪ 32‬يىَ ِٓ اٌعّش بيٓ اٌّعبِالث اٌّخخٍفت إال أْ ِعبٍِت اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت اظهشث‬
‫بذاسي اٌخسّيٓ افعً وصْ ِىخسب (غيش ِعٕىي) وألً اسخهالن عٍف (ِعٕىي) وأفعً ِعبًِ ححىيً غزائً‬
‫(ِعٕىي) ببٌّمبسٔت ببٌىٕخشوي‪.‬‬
‫ً‬
‫‪ -2‬صفبث اٌزبيحت ٌُ حخأثش وٌُ حخخٍف ِعٕىيب ببٌّعبِالث اٌّخخٍفت إال أْ األجضاء اٌىٍيت اٌّأوىٌت سجٍج ِعبٍِت‬
‫اٌبشوبيىحه )‪ (T2‬وِعبٍِت اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت )‪ (T3‬أعًٍ اٌميُ ِعٕىيبً ببٌّمبسٔت بّعبٍِت اٌىٕخشوي‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬صفبث اٌعظبَ ٌعظّت اٌسبق (وصْ اٌعظّت غبصجت – غىي اٌعظّت – سّه اٌعظّت ِؤشش سيذوس) ٌُ حخأثش‬
‫ببٌّعبِالث اٌّخخٍفت‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬صفبث اٌذَ ٌُ حخأثش ببٌّعبِالث اٌّخخٍفت أال أْ حبِط اٌيىسيه أظهش أخفبض غيش ِعٕىي و ‪ ALT‬اسحفع ِعٕىيبً‬
‫فً اٌّعبٍِت اٌّغزاة عًٍ اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت ببٌّمبسٔت ببٌىٕخشوي‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬اٌىفبءة االلخصبديت اظهشث ِعبٍِت اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت )‪ (T3‬افعً عبئذ الخصبدي حيث حفىلج عًٍ ِجّىعت اٌىٕخشوي‬
‫بّعذي ‪.%34‬‬
‫اٌخالصت ‪ :‬إظبفت اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت إًٌ عالئك بذاسي اٌخسّيٓ أدي إًٌ ححسٓ ِعٕىي فً ليُ األداء اإلٔخبجً‬
‫ٌبذاسي اٌخسّيٓ وخفط ِٓ حبِط اٌيىسيه ووزٌه حسٓ ِعٕىيبً ِٓ إٌسبت اٌّئىيت ٌألجضاء اٌّأوىٌت ٌٍطيىس‪ .‬وِٓ جهت‬
‫أخشي سجٍج أفعً وفبءة الخصبديت ووفبءة الخصبديت ٔسبيت ٌبذاسي اٌخسّيٓ ٌٍطيىس اٌخً حغزث عًٍ عٍيمت لبعذيت‬
‫ِعبف إٌيهب اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت بّعذي ‪511‬جُ‪/‬غٓ عٍف‪ٌ .‬زا حىصً اٌذساست ببسخخذاَ اٌّىاد اٌحشيفت بذوْ أدًٔ ظشس‬
‫عًٍ بذاسي اٌخسّيٓ‪.‬‬

‫‪750‬‬