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STRUCTURES OF TAENIA

TAENIA SAGINATA

ADULT WORM:

• Size: 5-10 metres long, upto 24 metres.


• Colour: White and transparent.
• Parts:
1. Scolex (head),
2. neck,
3. proglottides (segments)

Scolex (Head):

• It is 1-2 mm in diameter.
• It is quadrate.
• It has 4 circular suckers.
• Head is not provided with any rostellum/hooklets.
• It moves against the peristaltic movement of the gut.
Neck:

• It is long.
• Narrow. (.5 mm width)

Proglottides (Segments):

• There are about 1000-2000 proglottides in taenia saginata adult


worm.
• Terminal gravid segment: (2cm × .5cm).
• The common genital pore is situated marginally near the posterior
end of each segment.
• The genital pore irregularly alternates between the right and left
margins.
• The vagina is provided with a sphincter muscle.
• The gravid uterus consists of a central longitudinal stem with 15-30
branches and their sub-branches on each side.
• Testes having 300-400 follicles.

Special feature of proglottides:

• The gravid proglottides are expelled singly within the GIT and
they go through the anal sphincter forcefully.
• The free gravid proglottide, while crawls out of the anal orifice,
oviposits in the perianal skin.

EGGS:

As there is no uterine opening, the eggs are liberated by rupture of the


mature proglottides.

• Shape: Spherical
• Colour: Brown (bile stained)
• Wall: Two walls:
1>outer thinner transparent shell, and,
2> inner thicker brown embryophore.
• Each egg contains an oncospore, with 3 pairs of hooklets.
• Eggs do not float in the saturated solution of NaCl.
• Eggs are infective only to cattle.

TAENIA SOLIUM

ADULT WORM:

• Length: 2-3 metres.


• Parts:
a. Scolex
b. Neck
c. Proglottides

Scolex:

1. 1 mm in diameter.
2. Globular in shape.
3. Has 4 circular suckers.
4. Head is provided with a rostellum, with a double row of large and
small teeths. (Diff. With taenia saginata)

Neck:

1. Neck is short. (Diff. With taenia saginata)

Proglottides:

1. The total number of segments is under 1000. (800-900)


2. A gravid segment measures (12 mm × 6mm). (As compared with
taenia saginata- 2mm×.5mm)
3. Common genital pore is marginally present near the lateral margin
of each segment. (As compared with T.saginata, where it was
present at the posterior margin of each segment)
4. The common genital pore alternates irregularly between right and
left margins.
5. The vaginal opening is not guarded by a sphincter. (Diff. With T.
Saginata)
6. The gravid uterus consists of a medial longitudinal stem, having 5-
10 lateral branching and their sub-branchings on each side.
7. Testes having 150-200 follicles.

Special features: (compared with T.saginata)

• The gracid proglottides are never expelled singly, but in chains of


5-6 at a time.

EGGS:

The eggs having the same features with T.saginata, just differs at their
infectivity. Whereas, T.saginata eggs are infective only to cattle, T.solium
eggs are infective cattle as well as man.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ADULT WORMS OF T.SAGINATA AND T.SOLIUM

TRAITS T.SAGINATA T.SOMIUM


Length 5-10 metres 2-3 metres.
Head • Large, • Small,
• Quadrate • Globular,
• Without • With rostellum
rostellums and and hooklets.
hooklets.
Neck Fairly long Short
Proglottdes
Number 1000-2000 800-900
Expulsion Singly 5-6 at a time
Location of common Posterior margin of Lateral margin of each
genital pore each segment. segment.
Vagina Sphincters present. Sphincters absent.
Uterus 15-20 lateral branches 5-10 lateral branches
on each side. on each side.
Testes 300-400 follicles. 150-200 follicles.

LIFE CYCLE OF TAENIA

• The complete life-cycle of -


1. Taenia solium involves two hosts: the pig and the human,
2. Taenia saginata involves the cow and the human.
• Humans act as the definitive host and harbour the adult tapeworm
in the small intestine.
• Pig/ cow acts as intermediate host and harbour the larval stage.
INFECTION OF THE INTERMEDIATE HOSTS:
• Both the proglottids and the eggs are released with the feces of
infected individuals and serve as a source of infection for pigs
and cattle, which act as intermediate hosts for these parasites.
• Following the ingestion of eggs, mature larvae (onchospheres)
are released in the gut of cattle/ pig.
• These onchospheres enter the blood stream by penetrating the
small intestine and migrate to skeletal and cardiac muscles
where they develop into cysticerci.
ROUTE OF INFECTION TO HUMAN:
Infection is acquired either-
• through the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs passed in the
feces of an individual infected with the adult tapeworm or,
• through the consumption of raw or poorly cooked meat containing
cysticerci.

INFECTION IN HUMAN:
• In humans, cysticerci transform into adult tapeworms by attaching
to the gut wall by means of its suckers.
• Then the adult tapeworms persist in the small intestines for years
causing cysticercosis.
• The time between initial infection and the development of the adult
worm occurs over a period of approximately 2 months.

CLINICAL FEATURES OT TAENIA INFECTION:

CYSTICERCOSIS

• Cysticercosis refers to the tissue infection caused by the larval


stage, of Taenia solium.
• It is acquired by the accidental ingestion of eggs.
• The clinical manifestations associated with cysticercosis are a direct
result of the inflammatory response induced to control parasite
growth.
• Cysticercosis is the most common intra-orbital parasitic infection.
Infection may involve the
a. sub-retinal space
b. extraocular muscles,
c. eyelid and/or
d. lachrymal glands surrounding the eye.

• SYMPTOMS:
a. Pain in the eyes
b. Blurriness
c. Partial or complete loss of vision.
d. In extreme cases, infection may cause complete detachment of the
retina.

Neurocysticercosis:

• Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the


human central nervous system and is observed in 60-90% of
infected patients.
• Seizures are the most common symptom reported in patients with
neurocysticercosis.
• Other commonly associated clinical manifestations include
headache, dizziness, involuntary muscle movement, intracranial
hypertension and dementia.

DIAGNOSIS OF TAPEWORM INFECTION

• By a examining the stool, whitish segments can easily be recognised


by open eye as contrast with yellowish stool.

• A microscopic examination of stool for eggs of adult worm has to be


carried out by:
1. A direct smear preparation or by,
2. A smear preparation after concentration in low density solution.
3. A perianal swab (NIH swab) may be used for detection of eggs.

• SPECIES DIAGNOSIS:
• As the eggs of T.saginata and T.solium can’t be differentiated, when
the head and proglottide segments are found, they may be used for
species diagnosis.
• Diagnosis may be made by molecular methods such as DNA probe
and PCR. It should be remembered that only these methods can
differentiate between T.saginata and T.solium eggs.

DIAGNOSIS OF CYCTERICERCOSIS
• MRI and CAT scans are considered to be the most sensitive
methods of detection of neurocysticercosis and are useful in
establishing diagnosis.

• Serological methods of detection most often include the


ELISA (enzyme-linked immune sorbent assays) and
EITB (enzyme-linked immunoelectro transfer blot) and involve the
detection of antibodies against cysticerci.
• EITB is highly sensitive and is considered to be the best
immunological diagnostic test available.
• It should be noted, however, that detection of anticysticercal
antibodies may simply indicate previous exposure or infection and
is not an exclusive indication of a current, active infection within
the host.
• Other methods of detection include compliment fixation and
indirect haemagglutination assays.

TREATMENT
1. Praziquantel and
2. Albendazole
-are the two anticysticercal drugs used to treat patients
diagnosed with cysticercosis in the brain and skeletal muscles.