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4 authors:

Ofelia Corbu Attila Puskas

Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca Universitatea Tehnica Cluj-Napoca


Henriette Szilagyi Cornelia Baera

National Institute for Research and Development in Constructions, Urb… „URBAN –INCERC” National Research Institute for Construction Develo…


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ISSN: 2247-3769 / e-ISSN: 2284-7197 ART.NO. 156, pp. 13-19


Ofelia Corbu a,*, A. Puskás b, Henriette Szilágyi c, Cornelia Baeră c

Central Laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114
Cluj-Napoca, Romania, http://www.utcluj.ro; ofelia.corbu@staff.utcluj.ro
Structures Department of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114
Cluj-Napoca, Romania, http://www.utcluj.ro; attila.puskas@dst.utcluj.ro
National Research & Development Institute for Building, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development “URBAN-
INCERC”, Cluj-Napoca Branch, 117 Calea Floreşti Street, 400524, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, http://www.incd.ro;
henriette.szilagyi@incerc-cluj.ro, cornelia.baera@incerc-cluj.ro

Received: 10.09.2014 / Accepted: 13.09.2014

Revised: 12.10.2014 / Available online: 15.12.2014

KEY WORDS: concrete waste, recycled aggregates, new aggregate/concrete


The present paper describes the mix design and experimental tests carried out on C16/20 concrete strength class with recycled
aggregates. The developed research reveals favourable results in order to militate for using of recycled concrete aggregate in regular
concrete strength classes respectively for common structural elements, mainly for infrastructural elements and slabs. River sand (0/4
mm) and coarse aggregates (4/8 mm and 8/16 mm from natural sources and from recycled concrete were alternatively used in several
concrete mixes. Use of recycled aggregates in concrete composition is reducing its ecological impact by saving large amounts of
natural aggregates resources, making this type of concrete environmentally friendly. Concrete recycling means also waste reduction
and economy; giving up both: waste transportation and storage taxes, which are becoming increasingly expensive.

1. INTRODUCTION Organisation Aggregate Genre RCA

(Type/Name/ Substitution(a)
Since 1945 several studies related to recycled Classification)
aggregate concrete resulting from construction and United
demolition waste were performed in Romania by Kingdom LCAgg LCAgg NR
researchers Steopoe (Steopoe,1945) and institutes like RA RA -
Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest Class 1A RCA 30%
Class 1B RCA 100%
and National Research & Development Institute for 100%(b)
Building, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial USA LCA LCAgg 25%
Development “URBAN-INCERC”, Cluj-Napoca 60%(c)
Branch. Also researches on usual and lightweight RCAC Type I RA 100%
concrete made by recycled concrete aggregates have RILEM RCAC Type II RCA 100%
been undertaken (Szilagyi, 2005); while in the 30%
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, concrete roads Korea - RCA
mixes with waste glass or recycled concrete aggregates Germany
Type 1
were tested (Corbu, 2013a) (Corbu, 2014). Type 2 25%
ARB1 25%
Portugal RCA
ARB2 20%
Concrete recycling process (Iacoboaea, 2009) was 20%
Hong Kong - RCA
carried out in several countries, sources and 100%
requirements for recycled aggregate concrete are
shown in Table 1 and Table 2 (Goncalves, 2010). Table 1. Maximum RCA substitution in new concrete
(Goncalves, 2010)
Country/ Recycled Aggregate Maximum

* Corresponding author

ISSN: 2247-3769 / e-ISSN: 2284-7197 ART.NO. 156, pp. 13-18

(a) Percentages are of coarse aggregate fraction unless Concrete remains the most widely used building
otherwise stated; material, having the advantage of its resources
(traditional or innovative) as well as the long service
(b) Assumes leftover concrete aggregate separated by life of concrete structures.
strength class;
Concrete civil infrastructure is highly promoted also
(c) Coarse and fine fraction; due to its sustainability benefits, including thermal
NS - Non-structural concrete; capacity and the potential use of waste and by-products
(Guidelines Sibiu, 2011), (Iacoboaea, 2009).
RCA - Recycled concrete aggregate (Predominantly
from demolition waste concrete); The environmental impact and the huge consumption
of natural aggregates are substantially reduced through
LCAgg - Leftover concrete aggregate (Aggregate the use of recycled aggregates (Poteras, 2006) (Corbu,
processed from hardened leftover concrete of known 2010).
composition that has not been in use and has not been
contaminated in storage);
RA - Recycled aggregate (Predominantly demolition
waste including concrete, masonry and asphalt); 2.1. Materials

Conventional materials used in concrete mixtures are

NR - No restriction.
delivered by local producers and correspond to the
Maximum Recycled national and European standards requirements.
Country/ Aggregate Concrete Other
Organisation 28 Day Restrictions Recycled aggregate are resulting from hardened
Cylinder Strength leftover concrete with known composition that has not
40 MPa RCA and LCAgg.
No chlor. exp. No
been contaminated in storage (LCAgg), representing
freeze thaw. concrete samples of a large local producer of concrete
Designated concrete elements. Usually companies pay high fees for
20 to 40 MPa removal, transportation and disposal of this kind of
NR -
16 MPa Only mild exposure
waste to landfill as inert solid waste (Poteras, 2006).
40 MPa -
25 MPa - 2.1.1. Cement: CEM I 42,5 N with normal strengths
20 MPa (SR EN 197-1: 2011) was used in the composition of
USA 50 MPa
experimental concrete mixes.
NS Concrete
16MPa Masonry Aggregate.
Exposure 2.1.2. Aggregates: natural sand (0/4 mm) as fine
RILEM restrictions aggregate, crushed river aggregate and recycled
aggregate processed from hardened leftover concrete,
27 MPa - as coarse aggregate (SR EN 12620 + A1: 2008).
21 MPa
25 MPa In dry or low The concrete waste was originated from concrete
humidity specimens, crushed, sieved and sorted in several
30 MPa fraction, resulting recycled concrete aggregate (4/8 mm
35 MPa - and 8/16 mm) same size as crushed, natural aggregate,
40 MPa in order to be able to substitute it in new concrete.
≤35 MPa -
Hong Kong 20 MPa
NS Conc. Concretes are designed to meet the requirements of
concrete normative (NE 012: 2007). In this context the
Table 2. Strength properties and restrictions for recycled grading limits for the total aggregates were chosen for
aggregate concrete in different countries (Goncalves, 2010) C16/20 concrete strength class with 16 mm maximum
aggregate size (SR EN 933-1: 2012). Passing
The mandatory elements for the new approach of the percentages for each aggregate fraction, representing
construction domain are the energy and natural there grading curves are shown in table 3 (0/4 mm, 4/8
resources saving tendency respectively the large use of mm and 8/16 mm – natural aggregates) and table 4 (4/8
waste (Corbu, 2010) (Corbu, 2013b). mm and 8/16 mm – recycled concrete aggregates).

ISSN: 2247-3769 / e-ISSN: 2284-7197 ART.NO. 156, pp. 13-18

composition and it also constitute the variable

compound of the mixes.

The control concrete mix design (CC) made with

natural aggregates, currently used in concrete mixtures,
represents the first step in this research.
Table 3. Grading curves for (NA) of control concrete
(CC) mix
The next step was developing three more alternative
mixes by partial or total replacement of natural crushed
aggregates with recycled crushed ones (4/8 mm and
8/16 mm types). Natural sand, 0/4 mm, was maintained
in each mixture in order to ensure a better concrete
workability, by the means of the round shape of the
natural aggregate particles.
Table 4. Grading curves for (RA) of Concrete with Leftover
Concrete Aggregate (CLCRAgg) mix The following aggregates proportions (volume
percentages) were kept constant for all mixtures:

The total grading aggregate curve satisfies the 1. 48.0 % - for 0/4 mm;
conditions of inferior and superior limits recommended 2. 19.2 % - for 4/8 mm;
by mix design principles, presented in Table 5. 3. 32.8 % - for 8/16mm (Table 5).

In the same time, the water/cement ratio was constant

for all mixes, in order to observe the concrete
workability variation function to the nature of
aggregates used in concrete mixes.

The concrete mixtures constituent proportions reported

to the cement amount, considered as the unit, are
presented in table 6.
Table 5. Total grading aggregate curve and admissibility
Fine Coarse Coarse
Cement aggregate: aggregate: aggregate: Water
0/4 mm 4/8 mm 8/16 mm
Recycled aggregate composition should be well [kg/m³] [kg/m³] [kg/m³] [kg/m³] [kg/m³]
evaluated in order to produce high quality concrete 1 2,82 1,13 1,93 0,60
(Yong-Huang, 2004).
Table 6. C16/20 concrete strength class constituents
Several studies demonstrated that 4/8 mm recycled
aggregate fraction has the largest amount of adhered
mortar layer, resulting that aggregate size have a high The following concrete mixtures were designed and
effect on water absorption and concrete resistance tested in this study:
(Yadav 2009), (Hansen, 1983). 4/8 mm recycled 1. Control Concrete (CC) with natural aggregate
aggregate fraction has 6% water absorption and 8/16 (NA).
mm recycled aggregate fraction has 5%. 2. Concrete with Leftover Concrete Aggregate
(CLCRAgg4/8) with recycled aggregate (RA) 4/8 mm.
2.2. Mix design 3. Concrete with Leftover Concrete Aggregate
(CLCRAgg8/16) with recycled aggregate (RA) 8/16
Mix design of concrete composition was performed in mm.
the present study considering a careful analysis of 4. Concrete with Leftover Concrete Aggregate
aggregates properties, especially the used recycled (CLCRAgg4/8; 8/16) and recycled aggregate (RA) 4/8 and
aggregates characteristics (Ilker, 1995), and also taking 8/16 mm.
into account an algorithm for proportions optimisation,
thus the mix compositions meet the Romanian 3. RESULTS AND DISSCUSION
regulation requirements, in force, for execution of
concrete structures (NE 012-1:2007). Special attention Control concrete (CC) mixture design fulfils the
was paid to the aggregate, considering the fact that it Romanian standard requirements for preliminary
represents around 70% of the concrete mix mixtures, where the acceptable value of mean

ISSN: 2247-3769 / e-ISSN: 2284-7197 ART.NO. 156, pp. 13-18

compressive strength is obtained by adding a value

ranging from 6 to 12 units (MPa) to the characteristic
strength fck corresponding to each concrete strength Mathematical relation
class (fc = fck + (6 ÷ 12) (MPa)), according to National (cylinders with H/ Φ- Maximum
300/150 or cube with l class
and European norms (Table 7). = 150 mm)
(fib Bulletin 42) a) fcm = fck + Δf, Δf
Table 8 contains the testing results available at this C120 / 140
= 8 MPa
stage of research, for four types of concrete mixtures (NE 012-1: b) fcm = fck + (6 ÷
C100 / 115
(CC, CLCRAgg 4/8, CLCRAgg 8/16, CLCRAgg 4/8; 8/16), both 2007) 12) MPa
in fresh and hardened state; experimental tests were
performed in accordance to 12350 and 12390 Table 7. Relations for mean compressive strength fcm
harmonized European norm series, all in force at this

Table 8. Characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete

8/16mixtures value with respect to the CC
The mean values of compressive strength test at 28 mixture
days, presented in Table 9, proves the fulfilment of
even the most sever condition of regulations imposed compressive property. These results contradict other
by the Romanian norm (NE 012: 2007), which requires relevant studies upon the matter, which imply decrease
32 MPa (20 + 12 = 32 MPa) for C16/20 concrete of compressive performances of recycled concrete
strength class insurance. aggregate mixes (Frondistou, 1977) (Hansen, 1983)
(Olorunsogoa, 2002) (Sami W. Tabsh, 2009). A
fcmcube28 fckcube Concrete class possible explanation for the increase of compressive
[MPa] [MPa] at initial testing strength of studied mixture could derive from the good
CC 32.4 24.4 C16/20
CLCRAgg 4/8 34.6 26.6 C20/25 quality of raw materials, respectively increased
CLCRAgg 8/16 37.4 29.4 C20/25 performance of the recycled aggregates processed from
CLCRAgg 4/8; 8/16 38.3 30.3 C25/30 a hardened leftover concrete (good resistance to
fragmentation and good resistance to wear).
Table 9. Establishing concrete classes
3.3. Modulus of elasticity
3.1. Concrete workability
Modulus of elasticity values, determined for each
Tests performed on fresh concrete mixtures show a concrete mixtures (CC, CLCRAgg 4/8, CLCRAgg 8/16 and
decrease of slump values, for the three recycled CLCRAgg 4/8; 8/16) presented in Table 7 satisfy the
aggregate concrete mixes in comparison with the requirements of European norms (Eurocod 2 – SR EN
control concrete mix. CC mixture workability was 1992-1-1:2004).
established as S3 slump class, admissible values
ranging from 100 mm to 150 mm. 4. CONCLUSIONS

3.2. Compressive strength Concrete with Leftover Concrete Aggregate mixes

workability suffered serious decreases comparatively
Compressive strength tests results show a sensitive with the control concrete, mixtures optimization could
increase of CLCRAgg 4/8, CLCRAgg 8/16 and CLCRAgg 4/8; be done by the following adjustments: the
water/cement ratio increases respectively

ISSN: 2247-3769 / e-ISSN: 2284-7197 ART.NO. 156, pp. 13-18

supplementing the water dosage with (10÷20)%, or the Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO-SGEM,
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fib Bulletin, 2008. Constitutive Modeling of High Strength /

The compressive strength of RCA mixes shows a High Performance Concrete. Bulletin 42, CEB-FIB, France.
significant increases, up to two strength classes
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