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How to Successfully

Deploy & Test a

5G NR Network
Genis Sanchez
Regional Product Manager
March 19, 2019

5GNR Review

RTSA role in 5G testing

5GNR Carrier & Beams

5GNR beyond the radio

VIAVI Solutions © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 2

5GNR vs. 4G LTE – Lite Comparison

• Deployment mode = SA (standalone) • Deployment = SA and NSA

• Freq. = Sub 6GHz • Freq. = FR1 up to 6GHz / FR2 up to 52GHz
• Channel BW = 5, 10, 20MHz • Channel BW = FR1 up to 100MHz / FR2 up to 400MHz

• Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = 15kHz • Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) = Variable 15kHz - 240kHz
• Signal Mux = FDD • Signal Mux = FR2: Dynamic TDD / FR1: FDD or TDD

• Antennas = standard cellular • Antennas = Massive MIMO

• Pilot / Beam IDs = 1 • Pilot / Beam IDs = 4 for <3GHz; 8 for 3-6GHz; 64 for 6-52.6GHz © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 3

5GNR Communication Modes
Frequency Band Tx/Rx Mode
FR1 > 3GHz TDD
FR2 (mmWave) TDD © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 4

5GNR 3GPP band & channel numbering
❑ New operating bands
Duplex Mode (Bands)
Frequency Range

FR1 ⇨ 450 to 3000 MHz n1…n28, n66…n74 n75, n76 n80…n86 n34…n51
FR1 ⇨ 3.0 to 5.0 GHz n77..n79

FR2 ⇨ 24.25 to 52.60 GHz n257…n261

❑ New Radio Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (NR-ARFCN) and carrier’s center frequency (CCF)


2071675 27,550.56
2071665 27,549.96
Reference: 3GPP 38.104
𝐶𝐶𝐹 = ∆𝐹𝐴𝑅𝐹𝐶𝑁−𝑂𝑓𝑓𝑠 + ∆𝐹𝐺𝑙𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑙 ∗ 𝑁𝐴𝑅𝐹𝐶𝑁 − 𝑁𝐴𝑅𝐹𝐶𝑁−𝑂𝑓𝑓𝑠

❑ New Global Synchronization Channel Number (GSCN)

Reference: 3GPP 38.104 © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 5

5GNR Synchronization Raster
• The synchronization raster indicates the frequency positions of the synchronization block (SSB) that
can be used by the UE for system acquisition when explicit signaling of the SSB position is not present.

Transmission Bandwidth


SSB Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth

• The frequency position of the SSB is defined as SSREF with corresponding number defined
as Global Synchronization Channel Number (GSCN).
Frequency range SS block frequency position SSREF GSCN Range of GSCN GSCN (FR2) SSREF (MHz)
N * 1200kHz + M * 50 kHz,
0 – 3000 MHz 3N + (M-3)/2 2 – 7498
N=1:2499, M ϵ {1,3,5} (Note) 22446 27,533.280
3000 MHz + N * 1.44 MHz
3000 – 24250 MHz 7499 + N 7499 – 22255
N= 0:14756
24250.08 MHz + N * 17.28 MHz
24250 – 100000 MHz 22256 + N 22256 – 26639
N= 0:4383
Source 3GPP 38.104 © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 6

5GNR SSB – Synchronization and Signal Block

µ ∆𝑓 (SCS) SSB BW

0 15 3.6

1 30 7.2

2 60 14.4

3 120 28.8

4 240 57.6

∆𝒇 = 𝟐𝝁 × 𝟏𝟓[𝑲𝑯𝒛]

• 5G NR SS Block is the equivalent of LTE Reference Signal

• The 5G NR SSB consists of Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS), Secondary

Synchronization Signal (SS) and Primary Broadcast Channel (PBCH) channels

• Multiple SSBs are transmitted periodically at 20ms intervals (typical periodicity)

• Up to 64 SSBs (FR2) may transmit in different beams within SS burst set period © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 7

5GNR Reference Beams 5G Frame (10ms)

Ref. Beam allocation for FR1 and FR2

Numerology FR1 ≤ 3GHz FR1 > 3GHz
& ≤ 6GHz SSB Burst (5 ms)

µ ∆𝒇 Case Beams Beams

0 15 A 4 8

1 30 B 4 8

1 30 C 4 8

Source: 3GPP 38.213

Numerology FR2 > 6GHz

µ ∆𝒇 Case Beams
UE-1 sees Beam ID#1
3 120 D 64 as the strongest UE-2 sees Beam ID#7
as the strongest
4 240 E 64

∆𝒇 = Sub-Carrier Spacing (SCS) © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 8


5GNR Review

RTSA role in 5G testing

5GNR Carrier & Beams

5GNR beyond the radio

VIAVI Solutions © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 9

What is an RTSA?

❑ Sweep tuned vs. RTSA

• Normal (swept) spectrum analyzer performs

data sampling and FFT processing in serial,
and thus there must be a downtime in data
sampling and missing of burst signals.

• On the other hand, an RTSA (Real Time

Spectrum Analyzer) can process the data
sampling and FFT processing in parallel,
theoretically allowing the capture of every
intermittent signal without missing any type
of signal that can be bursty by nature (e.g.
TDD signals or certain type of interferences. © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 10

What is a Persistent Display?
RTSA can process many thousands of spectrums measures per second, but a visually perceptible screen update rate is
about 30 frames per second. Therefore, RTSA usually come with a Persistent Display that shows several thousands of
spectrum data on a screen at once but with a different color or brightness per frequency of occurrence (persistency).

For example : a Persistent Display effectively

distinguishes 5GNR Uplink traffic with fully
irregularities and also interference signals in the
uplink bands more effectively. © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 11

RTSA for 5GNR band-clearing
Using RTSA for band-clearing and interference analysis

• 5GNR would operate in frequency bands

never used before by the cellular industry.
Band-clearing will be a must-do procedure in
many countries, particularly for FR1 frequencies.

• The Analysis Bandwidth is the actual spectrum

portion sampled in the time domain. Thus, RTSA
can capture every possible signal event in that
supported bandwidth with little gap.

• VIAVI Solutions recommends RTSA with at least

100MHz of Analysis BW for effective
interference analysis and band-clearance of
5GNR signals in FR1 and FR2 frequency bands.

RTSA spectrum view of 100MHz BW © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 12

RTSA for 5GNR interference analysis
Using RTSA for band-clearing and interference analysis

• RTSA can detect signal levels and frequency of

occurrence of rapidly changing interfering signals
overlapped with any 5G NR TDD signal.
A real-time spectrum analyzer can capture
transient and fast signals more quickly as well.

• When combined with a Spectrogram view like in

the example here, the RTSA can also help
monitoring the progression for the signals of
interest over an extended period of time, a very
convenient testing procedure to identify
intermittent interference signatures as well.

RTSA 3D spectrogram of 100MHz BW © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 13

RTSA for 5GNR TDD capture
Using RTSA to instantaneously capture elusive 5GNR TDD signals © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 14

RTSA for 5GNR SSB validation
Using RTSA to confirm SSB transmission and location

• The Synchronization Signal Block (SSB) is a

fundamental component of a 5GNR carrier
• For 5GNR the total number of SSB transmitted
reference beams per cell is between 4 and 64
• 3GPP standards are rather flexible when it
comes to define the actual location of the SSB
5G NR Real-time Spectrum center frequency, particularly in FR2 carriers © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 15

RTSA for 5GNR SSB validation
Using RTSA to confirm SSB transmission and Sync Raster in FR2

SSB BW: 28.8 MHz SSB BW: 28.8 MHz

SSREF: 38.669.94 MHz SSREF: 27.533.28 MHz

Center Frequency: 38.7 GHz 100 MHz Center Frequency: 27.5 GHz 100 MHz

5G NR Real-time Spectrum 5G NR Real-time Spectrum © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 16

POLL Question

Have you ever used RTSA tools in the field before:

A. Yes, mostly for interference analysis purposes

B. No, never before. I was not familiar with this type of spectrum analysis tools

C. No, never before but I was aware of this type of spectrum analysis tools © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 17


5GNR Review

RTSA role in 5G testing

5GNR Carrier & Beams

5GNR beyond the radio

VIAVI Solutions © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 18

5GNR new site turn-up and acceptance

❑ Initial procedures :
• Confirm center frequency (channel number) and signal BW of the transmitting carrier/s
• Confirm SSB frequency location and Subcarrier Spacing (SCS)

❑ Follow-up procedures :

• Verify that all carriers are transmitting at correct power levels and confirm PCI value per carrier
• Verify (SSB) Beam Indexes for each carrier, including quality of the PBCH transmission
• Verify 5GNR site coverage (incl. RSRP and SINR values) and signal propagation © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 19

5GNR coverage (SSB) beams vs. user beams
CSI-RS - User Beams
(Green Ovals)

5G nodes transmit 2 types of beams:

• SSB or Coverage Beams
• Data or User Beams

SSB – Coverage Beams Both SSB and user beams originate

(Blue Ovals) from the same antenna elements © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 20

5GNR PCI verification
The Physical Cell ID (PCI) is the site identifier that
discriminates one cell-site from another even
when transmitting the same 5GNR signal carrier.

Carrier Scanner
(Note multiple carriers can be transmitting in the
same area to increase capacity and QoS delivered)

Carrier Aggregation


Carrier Scanner
Physical Cell ID, Beam ID, Carrier’s Frequency and Power, Beam
Power and Quality, including Constellation and MIB information
per individual Carrier © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 21
5GNR Beam Index analysis
• 5G gNB may broadcast up to 64 Beam IDs, originating at specific angles from the antenna panel, resulting
in Beam Indexes covering different geographical locations around the cell site sector (beamforming)

• Beam analysis can be stationary or in

drive-test/walk-test mode depending on
specific use-case (FWA or mobility) and
coverage area to test (indoor/outdoor)

Example for 8 strongest

beams measured

Beam Information:
Cell ID, Beam ID (Ant, Sym),
RSRP, RSRQ, SINR © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 22

5GNR coverage validation
• Coverage mapping analysis (drive, walk) requires use of FR1 or FR2 omni antennas (not directional)
• Each measured point should contain time, lat-long, PCI, Beam Index, RSRP, RSRQ, SINR on SS or PS signals

5G NR Route Map 5G NR Route Map © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 23


5GNR Review

RTSA role in 5G testing

5GNR Carrier & Beams

5GNR beyond the radio

VIAVI Solutions © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 24

5GNR fronthaul and backhaul testing
Standalone vs. Non-Standalone

• 5G sites today are being installed on top

of existing 4G/LTE ones in the so-called
Non-Standalone mode (NSA).
This means 5G is reusing the legacy
infrastructure from current LTE networks.
• Future 5G deployments will be in the
Standalone mode (SA).
This means a new backhaul infrastructure
will be dedicated for 5G network services
only and built upon fiber.

The 5G Standalone mode will require verification of fiber

links and new transport layers (RF over Fiber and/or
RF over Ethernet) for installation and commissioning of
new cell sites and future preventive maintenance.
This will include fiber inspection, OTDR testing,
CPRI/eCPRI validation, Ethernet, Synchronism, etc. © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 25

POLL Question

Do you think field technicians in 5G :

A. Will need to check out both RF and Fiber/Transport during cell site installation & maintenance

B. Will remain specialized in either RF or in Fiber/Transport testing (but not on both)

C. Not sure yet. It may depend on final methods of procedures for 5G deployment. © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 26


5GNR Review

RTSA role in 5G testing

5GNR Carrier & Beams

5GNR beyond the radio

VIAVI Solutions © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 27

VIAVI Solutions Path to 5G
RANtoCore™ Fiber, Metro, and RF Field Test Products VIAVI NITRO

and CellAdvisor5G: Fiber optic test T-BERD/ Network
network signal analysis, solutions: MTS-5800-100G
Integrated Test,
test interference T-BERD/MTS-2000
and FiberChek
analysis, RTSA,
beamforming Sidewinder analytics and
analysis and Optimization
Mobile network cable/antenna
and IP data / analysis
Apps emulation

COMMERCIAL -INSTALL © 2019 VIAVI Solutions Inc. 28