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he annual measurement of each opportunities for all). The main challenges settlements inc-lusirc" sde. tEsllierd g'.c
country's progress towards include: reaching schools in remote areas; sustainable). Ttle cftdcrEEs n6fl-€
reaching the 2030 Sustainable providing education to Aborigines and retrofitting efsting $r.ffi,neo 1tr ii.H
Development Goals provides Torres Strait lslanders, persons with future standards marrag("E mrsec
a useful indicator of the many disabilities and women from diverse urban density in terrns f -Fc
challenges that Australia faces in its backgrounds; and encouraging more congestion, waste dispe- 'eo-crE
efforts to achieve economic prosperity, women to study science, technology, pollution and prwision dseo
social inclusion and environmental engineering and mathematics (STEM). and building world dass lmi:arurcre"
sustainability. SDG 5 (Achieve gender equality and SDG 13 (Take urgent dittr b
The SDG Index for 2018 reported that empower all women and girls). The main combat climate change ard rs rntra*l-
Australia fell from 26th to 37th place challenges include: increasing female The main challenges indude neerrr;
out of 156 countries for which data was participation in the workplace, especially international commitm€flts'-c .eoLE
available. Australia achieved a score in non-traditional areas such as STEM; greenhouse emissions 26!L-2S" tnr
of 72.9%,well behind many advanced increasing weekly earnings to close the 2O3O; reduce reliance on fossli..-"Lss arc
industrial countries; Australia ranked gap in pay between men and women (a achievement of energy s€curt
at the bottom tier of Organization for gap assessed as a persistent feature for increased reliance on renenafiie erergtr-
Economic Cooperation and Development the next fifty years); and ending violence
(OECD) members. Australia received against women. By Carlyle A. Thayer Emeriats Boifussor'-
the lowest score in the world on climate SDG 10 (Reduce inequality within The University of Ner Sortfi tlhiEs ar
change action (greenhouse gas emissions and among countries). The challenges the Australian Defence Fore A*r*v-
and exports of fossil fuel). include: creating more opportunities Canberra and Director of Tlpyer
This article discusses the challenges to improve living standards: reducing Consultancy, a smal/ business regtstered
of reaching five of the seventeen SDGs income inequality for the poorer 20% of in Australia in 2OO2that prc,r'id€s p[ft:,cal
by 2030. Australia scored in the top households: creating greater socio- analysis of current regional wtrity
tier (between 75% and 100%) for SDG economic mobility now impeded by the lssues and ofher research support to
4 Quality of Education, SDG 5 Gender intergenerational transfer of wealth; selected clients.
Equality and SDG 11 Sustainable Cities greater access to health and education
and Communities; Australia scored 75% services to increase life expectancy,
for SDG 10 Reduced lnequalities and 25% especially for indigenous peoples; and
for SDG 13 Climate Action. reducing disparities between regibns and
SDG 4 (Ensure inclusive and equitable disadvantaged groups.
quality of education and promote Iifelong SDG 11 (Make cities and human

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