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Things to Remember

Mathematics

● We define certain ratios


involving the sides of a right
triangle, and call them
trigonometric ratios. The
trigonometric ratios of angle A
in the right triangle ABC are
defined as follows :

side opposite to angle A BC


sine of ∠A = sin A= hypotenuse = AC

cosine of ∠A =cos A= side adjacent to angle A


hypotenuse = AB
AC
side opposite to angle A BC
tangent of ∠A =tan A= side adjacent to angle A = AB
AC
cosecant of ∠A =cosec A = sine of1 ∠A = side opposite
hypotenuse
to angle A = BC
secant of ∠A =sec A= cosine 1of ∠A = side adjacent
hypotenuse
to angle A = AB
AC

cotangent of ∠A =cot A= tangent1 of ∠A= sideside adjacent to angle A


opposite to angle A =
AB
BC

90o

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Things to Remember

Divide a line segment in the ratio 3:2.


Given a line segment AB, we want to divide it in the ratio m : n,
where both m and n are positive integers.
To help you understand this,
we shall take m = 3 and n = 2. A C B

Steps of construction : A1
A2
Draw any ray AX, A3
A4
making an acute angle with AB. A5 X
Locate 5 (= m + n) points A1 , A2 , A3 , A4
and A5 on AX so that AA1 = A1A2= A2A3= A3A4 = A4A5.
Join BA5 .
Through the point A3 (m = 3), draw a line parallel to A5B (by
making an angle equal to ∠AA5B) at A3intersecting AB at
the point C . Then, AC : CB = 3 : 2.
Let us see how this method gives us the required division.
Since A3C is parallel to A5B,
Therefore, AA3 : A3A5 = AC : CB (By the Basic Proportionality
Theorem)
By construction, AA3 : A3A5 = 3:2
Therefore, AC/CB = 3/2 . This shows that C divides AB in the
ratio 3 : 2.

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Things to Remember

Physics

● Characteristics of good source of energy:


Easily accessible
Easy to store and transport
Economically viable
Environment friendly i.e; less polluting
● Sources of energy
Fossil Fuels (Coal & Petroleum) - Formed by decomposition of
buried dead animals, plants in anaerobic conditions, non-renewable.
Pros - Can generate large amount of energy as it is present in
abundance.
Cons - Main cause of environmental pollution and global warming.
Wind energy - Kinetic energy of blowing winds is harnessed.
Pros - No adverse effect on environment, no recurring
expenses, it is renewable.
Cons - Can be established only where wind blows at certain
specific velocities, intermittent, needs coupled backup.

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Things to Remember

Nuclear energy - Heavy nucleus is made to split into smaller nuclei,


difference in mass is converted to energy, non-renewable.
Pros - Can generate large amount of energy from a small
amount of fuel.
Cons - Chances of hazardous radiation if the reactor
malfunctions or waste is not disposed off properly.
Tidal energy - Moon’s gravitational pull creates high tides.
Potential energy of high tides stored in dams is harnessed,
renewable.
Pros - Environment friendly.
Cons - Needs high maintenance, intermittent, can be
established in limited regions only.
Solar energy - Energy present in sunlight is harnessed. Renewable.
Pros - Environment friendly, i.e pollution free.
Cons - Power can’t be harnessed in night/cloudy weather,
requires large surface area.
Biomass - Cow-dung, various plant materials like the residue
after harvesting the crops, vegetable waste and sewage are
decomposed in the absence of oxygen to give biogas, renewable.
Pros - Non-polluting, utilises waste in a judicious way.
Cons - Churns out very less amount of energy, non-reliable.

4
Things to Remember

Hydroelectric power plants - Kinetic energy of flowing water


converted to potential energy of water, via a dam, is
harnessed. Hydro power plants convert the potential energy
of falling water into electricity. Renewable.
Pros - Pollution free, can replace thermal power plants.
Cons- Can lead to floods in adjoining areas of the dam.

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Things to Remember

Chemistry

● Characteristics of metals
Good conductors
Malleable
Ductile
Lustrous
Opaque
Sonorous
● Chemical properties of metals
With air: Metal + Oxygen → Metal oxide
With water: Metal + Water → Metal oxide + Hydrogen
With acids: Metal + Dilute acid → Salt + Hydrogen
With other metallic salts:
Displacement reaction
Metal A + Salt solution of B → Salt solution of A + Metal B
● Reaction between metal and non-metal: They form ionic bonds.
Properties of ionic bond: High melting and boiling point, hard &
brittle, soluble in water, conduct electricity in molten or
aqueous state.

6
Things to Remember

● Extraction of metals: Based on reactivity series.


Metals low in the Activity Series: Treated with oxygen and
then reduced.
Metals of moderate reactivity:
Roasting: Treated with excess oxygen and then reduced.
Calcination: Treated with limited oxygen and then reduced.
Metals with high reactivity: Treated with oxygen and then
reduced with electricity.
● Corrosion: Eating up of metals
by the action of air, moisture.
Prevention: Galvanisation,
tin and chromium plating,
alloying.

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Things to Remember

Biology

● Two types of reproduction:


Asexual reproduction:
Offspring arise from a single
organism, and inherit the
genes of that parent only; it
does not involve the fusion of
gametes. Occurs in lower
organisms.
Fission: Unicellular parent cell divide into daughter cells.
Binary fission:
Along any plane: Eg. Amoeba
In a definite orientation: Eg. Leishmania
Multiple fission: Eg. Plasmodium
Fragmentation: Organisms
breaks into fragments,
each grow into a new
organism. Eg. Spirogyra

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Things to Remember

Regeneration: Organisms regrow certain body parts.


Eg. Hydra, Planaria
Budding: New organism develops from an outgrowth or bud.
Eg. Hydra
Vegetative Propagation: Plants parts like the root, stem
and leaves develop into new plants. Eg. Leaf of Bryophyllum
Spore Formation: Parent plant produces hundreds of tiny
spores which can grow into new plants. Eg. Rhizopus.

Sexual reproduction: New organisms are created by combining


the genetic information from two individuals of different sexes
and it involves gametes. Occur mostly in higher organisms.
Why?
Need of variations.
Facilitate evolution.

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Things to Remember

● Sexual reproduction in
Flowering plants
Female reproductive organ(Pistil or Carpel)
Stigma: Receives the pollen during fertilization.
Style: Tube on top of the ovary
Ovary: Ovules(female reproductive cells, the eggs)
are produced.
Male reproductive organ(Stamen)
Anther: Produces pollen(contains male reproductive cells)
Filament: Slender stalk that supports the anther.

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Things to Remember

Humans
Female reproductive organ
Ovaries: Female primary reproductive structures
that produce gametes(Ovum).
Fallopian tubes: Tubes which transport egg cells
from the ovaries
Uterus: Developing fetus resides here during
pregnancy.
Vagina: Opening of the uterus.
Male reproductive organ
Testes: Reproductive structures that produce
male gametes (sperm).
Seminal Vesicles: Glands that nurture sperm cells.
Vas Deferens: Provide a pathway for sperm to
travel to the urethra.
Penis: Allow the passage of urine and sperm.
Contraceptive methods: Methods done to prevent pregnancy.
Physical devices: Eg. Condoms, Diaphragms.
Chemical methods: Pills, copper - T, loops.
Surgical methods:
Tubectomy
Vasectomy

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The Reason Behind

1 Birds don't get electric shock when they sit on


power lines.
We need a certain potential difference to move the charges from one
point to another. A bird perched on high-tension wire has both its feet
placed firmly on the same wire within a very close proximity. So, the
potential generated across its feet is practically insufficient to move
the charges. On the other hand, the bird would receive a deadly shock
if it touches the ground and the wire at the same time, i.e ; more the
potential difference, more will be the flow of current.

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The Reason Behind

2 What causes nose bleeds in summer?


Summer season is hot and dry at the
same time, which is damaging for the
nose. The nasal cavity has a protective
coating of mucus, within it, which gets
dry due to less humidity in scorching
heat. This loss of mucus causes nasal
cavity to be extremely vulnerable to
dryness and can eventually lead to
bleeding of nose.

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The Reason Behind

3 Sunlight is available in abundance, it is pollution


free, still we don't use it as our primary source of
energy and rather depend on fossil fuels.
As per the sophistication of present technology, it is not possible to
churn out enough energy out of solar cells to power our houses, ships,
airplanes etc. Moreover, It is intermittent so it becomes useless in
cloudy weather/night, and also requires a large area for installation.

Petroleum 3527-35.43%
Coal 2802-28.15%
Dry natural gas 2335-23.46%
Hydro-electricity 624-6.27%
Nucleas-electricity 576-5.79%
Geothermal, wind, 86-0.86%
solar, biomass:
Geothermal, 5-0.06%
biomass, solar not
used for electricity

Total : 9955

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The Reason Behind

4 How igloos, which are themselves made up of ice,


provide warmth in frigid regions?
Powdery fresh snow can contain upto 95% air. This makes it an excellent
insulator, but it isn't dense enough to build with. Solid ice on the other
hand makes a good wind breaker but its too heavy to lift . Traditional
igloo blocks aren't molded, they are cut out of ground. Tightly packed
ground snow is dense enough to hold up, but because of more air
pockets than a block of ice, it’s light and pretty good insulator.

15
The Reason Behind

5 Are bacterias immortal?


Many unicellular organisms age: as time passes, they divide more slowly
and ultimately die. When a bacteria divides symmetrically, it produces
two identical daughter cells, that are genetically similar to the parent
cell making it immortal. But this ‘immortality’ lasts only at the level of
the colony. A similar type of ‘immortality’ exists in stem cells. But when
a bacteria divides asymmetrically, only the daughter grow into new
cells, but the parent isn't restored and will go on to age and die.

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The Reason Behind

6 Can something as complex as an eye be made by


an intelligent designer?
The anatomy of the human eye shows that it is anything but
“intelligently designed.” It is built upside down and backwards, with
photons of light having to travel through lot of areas before being sent
to the brain for processing. For optimal vision, why would an intelligent
designer have built an eye upside down and backwards? This “design”
only makes sense if we include evolution and variation in DNA of
pre-existing organisms that gradually created a perfect system. This
must have taken place, by the slow and gradual correction through
variation, natural selection of better variety and evolution of new
species with better characters. The eye shows the pathways of
evolutionary history, not intelligent design.

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The Reason Behind

7 Unicellular organisms reproduce only by asexual


reproduction:
Unicellular organisms reproduce not only by asexual reproduction, but
also through a method that resembles ‘sexual reproduction’.
Paramecium is as an example for this behaviour. Paramecium can
reproduce both asexually (mitosis) as well as sexually through
conjugation. Paramecia even have genders, each cell conjugating with
cells of the opposite gender.

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The Reason Behind

8 All metals are attracted to magnets


In their natural states, metals such as aluminum, brass, copper, gold,
lead and silver don't attract magnets because they are weak metals.
However, you can add metals such as iron or steel to the weak metals
to make them stronger. Adding even a small quantity of iron to a metal
such as silver makes it magnetic.

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The Reason Behind

9 Only mercury can form amalgams.


Mercury is not the only metal capable of alloying at low temperatures;
Gallium (Ga) has similar properties to Mercury (Hg) when in liquid
form. Gallium can be alloyed with aluminum (Al) very easily resulting in
a similar reaction to mercury amalgamating with aluminum.

10 Can we draw a tangent to any given circle?


We have studied that no tangent can be drawn to a circle from a point
lying inside the circle. However, if a point lies on the circle, then only
one tangent can be drawn to a circle at this point and this tangent is
perpendicular to the radius through this point. It suggests that to
draw a tangent at a point on the circumference of a circle, simply
draw the radius through this point and then draw a line perpendicular
to this radius through it..
S R

Q
O

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Democracy and Diversity

Idea of Democracy
Democracy is a form of government which ensures that people
have the right to choose the government and people will have
control over the governing body.
Whenever possible and necessary, citizens are able to participate
in decision making, that affects them all.
The most basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a
government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to
the needs and expectations of the citizens.

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Democracy and Diversity

.....& Diversity
When people of different caste, creed, religion, etc. come
together irrespective of their individual differences and,
amalgamate their knowledge for greater good of society form
a socially diverse community.
Social division takes place when some social differences overlap
with other differences.
When one kind of social
difference becomes
more important than the
other and people start
feeling that they belong
to different communities,
situation of this kind
produces social divisions
in a diverse society.

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Democracy and Diversity

Can a diverse community be benefited from democracy???


yes...
In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very
normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged
and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get
the government to attend to these.
Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often
results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing
their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy
The three determinants -
Outcomes of political agenda of social diversity are governed
by three factors -
Accomodation of other identities become difficult when
people’s perception of their identities is singular.
If demands raised by politicians are constitutional, then
those demands can be easily accommodated, if the politicians
represent a community.
Integrity of the country is threatened if reasonable
demands of a community is suppressed by the government,
and can lead to social divisions.

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Democracy and Diversity

But...
Democracy involves competition among various political parties.
Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start
competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make
social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence
or even disintegration of a country.

People who feel marginalised, deprived and discriminated have


to fight against the injustices. Such a fight often takes the
democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and
constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through
elections.
But a positive attitude towards diversity and a willingness to
accommodate it do not come about easily. Sometimes social
differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social
inequality and injustice.
The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the
path of violence and defiance of state power.
However history shows that democracy is the best way to
fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.

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Democracy and Diversity

Challenges before democracy.

Most democracies fall short of elections that provide a fair


chance to everyone and in subjecting every decision to public
debate.
Democratic governments do not have a very good record
when it comes to sharing information with citizens. All we can
say in favour of democratic regimes is that they are much
better than any non-democratic regime in these respects.
Expectations from democracy also function as the criteria
for judging any democratic system.
What is most distinctive about democracy is that its
examination never gets over.

A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the


success of the democratic project: it transforms people from the
status of a subject into that of a citizen…!!!

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Democracy and Diversity

Food for thought..

A. Enlist some positive aspects of


democratic form of government.
B. What are the shortcomings of
a democratic system?
C. What are the factors on which
the outcomes of politics of a
socially diverse community
depend upon?

26
Sectors of Indian Economy

Types of sectors:
The three sectors constituting an economy are:
Agricultural or Primary sector
Industry or Secondary sector
Services or Tertiary sector.
Agricultural or Primary sector:
Primary sector also known
as the raw materials sector
sometimes refers to primary
production.
It includes all branches of human activity that transform natural
resources into basic products (raw materials and products).
Basic classification of the primary sector is as follows:
Agriculture
(crop production and
animal husbandry)
Forestry and logging
Hunting and fishing
Mining and extraction of
raw materials
Products are made in the next sector (secondary sector) using
the raw material produced here.

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Sectors of Indian Economy

Industry or Secondary sector:


Secondary sector known as manufacturing and industry sector,
sometimes as production sector, includes all branches of human
activities that transform raw materials into products or goods.
This sector is very crucial for the growth of GDP
(Gross Domestic Product)
It includes:
Automobile
Construction Industry
Food Industry
Glass industry
Textile and clothing industry etc.

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Sectors of Indian Economy

Tertiary or Service sector:


Service sector also known as tertiary sector includes all branches of
human activity whose essence is to provide services, thus providing
employment, knowledge, financial resources, infrastructure, goods
or their combination.
It includes:
Transportation
Education services
Telephone
Information technology
Banking
Health services etc.
This sector covers those activities that aid the primary and
secondary sectors.
How to calculate development??
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
It is the value of the sum of all final goods and services produced
within a country during an year. It includes the total production
of all the three sectors of the economy.
It is a measure of the size of a country’s economy.
Task of measuring GDP is undertaken by a central government ministry.

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Sectors of Indian Economy

Why tertiary needs to improve??


Basic services like education, healthcare, banking etc. are required in
a developing country like India, which will bring India closer to the
developed status.
Development in agriculture and industry has led to requirement of
services like transport, storage, trade etc.
When income levels rise, people start demanding more services like
shopping malls, tourism, professional training etc. This increases the
demand for such services, especially in urban areas.
Does everyone have job??
More than half of the
workers in the country
are working in the
primary sector.
It means that there are
more people in agriculture
than is necessary or in
other words, workers in
the agricultural sector are
underemployed.
Disguised unemployment is a kind of unemployment in which some
people look like being employed but are actually not employed fully.
This situation is also known as hidden unemployment. In such a
situation more people are engaged in a work than required.

30
Sectors of Indian Economy

How to solve this??


Bank loans should be allocated to farmers so that they can buy
seeds of high yield, and fertilizers etc.
Connect villages to the nearby town so that farmers can sell
their produce.
Increase transportation facilities (It will increase job opportunity
in service sector as well).
Identify, promote and locate industries and services in semi-rural
areas.
Build more schools, hospitals etc.
Government initiatives:
MGNREGA 2005
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
Passed by the Government of India in 2005.
All those who are able to, and are in need of, work in
rural areas are guaranteed 100 days of employment in a
year by the government.

31
Sectors of Indian Economy

Division of sectors
Based on employment conditions:
Organized sector:It refers to those workplaces where the terms
of employment are fixed and the rules established by the
government are followed.
They are registered by the government.
They have to follow rules and regulations set-up by the
government.
It is called organized because it has some formal processes
and procedures.
Some of these people may not be employed by anyone,
they may work on their own but they too have to register
themselves with the government.
Unorganised sector:
It is small in terms of employment.
It is associated with low capital intensity.
Labour productivity is low.
Social security measures are absent.
Workers have very poor human capital base in terms of
education, skill and training.

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Sectors of Indian Economy

Based on ownership:
Public sector:It refers to the business enterprises owned by the
government that provide services for the welfare of the people.
Public accountability.
Multiple objectives.
Rights, powers and responsibilities (Constitutional or devolved).
Lack of equity ownership.
Operating and financial frameworks set by legislation.
The importance of the budget.
Private sector: It refers to those enterprises that are owned by
private individuals. The production is done with a motive of
earning profits.
Privately owned- registered companies.
Trading on normal profit.
Managed by owners and their employees.
Must operate and survive in open market.
Funds from membership fees.

33
Sectors of Indian Economy

Food for thought!!!


1. Compare the different sectors
of indian economy.
2. What might be the reason for
low employment in tertiary
sector in India?
3. Does ownership matter in
development?

34
The Three Sided Polygon
Solve the following questions
01. Given 15 cot A = 8, find sin A and sec A.

1
02. In triangle ABC, right-angled at B, if tan A= 3 ;
find the value of : sin A cos C + cos A sin C

03. In a △PQR , right angled at Q, PR + QR = 25 cm and PQ = 5 cm.


Determine the values of sin P, cos P and tan P

04. State whether sin𝛳 = 2.89 is true or false. Justify your answer

05. In right △ABC, right angled at C, AB = 10 units, BC = 8 units and


∠ABC = 𝛳. Verify that cosec2 𝛳�- cot2 𝛳�= 1.

06. In △ABC, right angled at B, if 3 cot A =4 check whether


1 - tan2 A
1 + tan2 A
= cos2A - sin2A. ∠ABC = 𝛳.

35
The Three Sided Polygon

07. In fig. Find tan P - cot R.

08. In △ABC, ∠B= 90o, BC = 5 cm, AC - AB = 1, evaluate (1 + sin C)


cos C

09. If tan A = √2 - 1, show (1 +tan A


tan2 A)
= √2/4.

10. Choose the correct option and justify your choice :


2 tan 30o
(1 + tan2 30o)
=?
a. A. Sin 60o b. B. Cos 60o
c. C. Tan 60o d. D. Sin 30o

36
Constructions
Solve the following questions
01. Draw a circle of radius 6 cm from a point 10 cm away from its
centre. Construct the pair of tangents to the circle and measure
their lengths.

02. Construct a tangent to a circle of radius 4 cm from a point on the


concentric circle of radius 6 cm and measure its length. Also verify
the measurement by actual calculation.

03. Draw a circle of radius 3 cm, take two points P and Q on one of its
extended diameter each at a distance of 7 cm from its centre .
Draw tangents to the circle from these two points P and Q.

37
Constructions

04. Draw a circle with the help of a bangle. Take a point outside the
circle. Construct the pair of tangents from this point to the circle.

05. Draw a pair of tangents to a circle of radius 5 cm, which are


inclined to each other at an angle of 60o.

06. Draw a circle of diameter 7 cm. Mark a point M at a distance of


9 cm from its centre. Through M draw tangents to the circle .
Measure the length of the tangents.

38
Sources of Energy

1 Identify the nature of change.


a. Burning of wood
b. Rusting of iron
c. Melting of an ice cube

A. Both b & c are physical changes.


B. Both a & c are chemical changes.
C. Both a & b are chemical changes.
D. Only c is the chemical change.

2 “The gravitational pull of mainly the moon on the spinning earth,


leads to rise and fall in the level of seawater”. This phenomenon
is utilised to harness

A. Tidal energy
B. Geothermal energy
C. Wave energy
D. Ocean thermal energy

39
Sources of Energy

3 The function of moderator in nuclear fission reactors is to

A. Slow down neutrons


B. Absorb neutrons
C. Deflect neutrons
D. Split neutrons

4 Which among the following gases is a major constituent of biogas

A. Carbon Monoxide
B. Hydrogen
C. Carbon Dioxide
D. Methane

5 State three forms in which energy stored in oceans manifests


itself. Which of them is utilised in OTEC systems?

40
Sources of Energy

6 The interior of solar cooker is


specifically made black in colour.
What could be the possible
explanation for this particular
colour choice?

7 Though charcoal itself is formed from burning of wood,


why is charcoal considered a better fuel than wood?

8 A fraction of solar energy that is incident on the upper region of


atmosphere reaches the Earth’s surface. Give reason.

9 What are the hazards associated


with nuclear power generation?

10 If the solar constant were 1.8 kW per square metre, how much
solar energy can be received by 1m2 area in one hour?

41
Metals and Non-Metals

1) A metal is said to have many characteristic features


that differentiate it from non-metals. What are those
characters? Are these characters unique to metals?

2) Arrange the metals in the increasing order of reactivity


with oxygen? Ca, Li, K, Hg, Mg, Na, Cu

3) What are amphoteric oxides? Give an example of an


amphoteric oxide with reactions?

4) Magnesium ribbons must be cleaned before using it


for chemical reactions. What is the reason?

5) What is allotropy and which non-metal shows this


property?

42
Metals and Non-Metals

6) Reaction of three metals with water is given.


Identify the metals.

X : Doesn’t react with cold water, but react with hot water.
Y : React vigorously with cold water.
Z: Doesn’t react with hot water, but react with water vapour.

7) What will happen when a small piece of Zinc is added to an


aqueous solution of Ferrous sulphate? Will the reaction be
the same if Copper is used instead of Zinc?

8) What type of bonds do metals form and what are the


features of the compounds formed by this bond?

9) What are the different steps involved in extracting a


metal? How is zinc extracted?

10)What is corrosion? What is the special name given to


corrosion of iron? What are the different methods
used to prevent rusting of iron?

43
How do Organisms Reproduce?

1. How does the process of mutation help sexually


reproducing organisms to survive more compared to
asexually reproducing organism?
2. Which situation is not an example of asexual reproduction?
A. A pair of rabbits mating.
B. A bacterium splitting in half.
C. A paramecium undergoing mitosis.
D. A new sea star growing from half a sea star.
3. a) What is fertilization? Distinguish between external
fertilization and internal fertilization.
b) What is the site of fertilization in human beings?
4. How does bread mold spread on bread? What will be the
colour of the mold on spreading?
5. What is pollination and what are the types of pollination
and give examples of pollinators?
6. What are seed leaves and how do they differ from true
leaves?
7. What is the difference between adolescence and puberty?
List two changes happening in boys and girls during
puberty?

44
How do Organisms Reproduce?

8. Which are the main hormones that control the changes


occuring in male and female reproductive growth? What
are their functions?
9. What is menstruation and which layer of uterus is this
process related to?
10.What is the difference between vasectomy and
tubectomy?
11. What are the different contraceptive methods used?

45
Visualizing the Basics

1 What will happen when a small piece of iron is added to an


aqueous solution of copper sulphate? What will be the colour
change in the solution?

2 The following setup was made by the chemistry teacher in school.


Based on the diagram answer the questions below:

A. What is the use of this setup?


B. What happens in this reaction?
C. What happens if the metal is Mg? Explain with an equation.
D. Why is the test tube placed like that(inverted)?

46
Visualizing the Basics

3 . The structure of a flower is shown below. Answer the question


based on the diagram

A. Which of these structures are the female reproductive organs?


B. Which structure contains male gametes?
C. Redraw the diagram and label all the parts.

47
Visualizing the Basics

4 The following image is a schematic view of a hydro power plant.


Based on the image answer the following questions -

A. What is the function of sluice gate?


B. State the energy conversion that takes place when water flows
from reservoir to the river.

48
Visualizing the Basics

5 Draw the schematic diagram of a biogas plant and label the main
parts. Also, state the main constituents of biogas.

49
Integrated Grammar

I. Identify each noun clause. Is it used as a subject, a direct object, an


indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun?

A. Who will win the election is what people want to know.


B. Telephoners ask whoever answers a series of questions.
C. Whether a candidate is popular is a vital matter.
D. Another question may be what the major issues are.
E. Voters usually give whoever is calling an answer.

II. Identify whether the underlined parts are independent or


dependent(subordinate) clauses?

A. If every student taught their family to recycle, it would reduce the


waste going to landfills.
B. If you model recycling in your neighborhood, more neighbors will join in
and start recycling.
C. Although you may only think of recycling paper, many other items can be
recycled.
D. Some communities recycle glass and plastic which must be put in
separate bins.
E. Make sure you rinse out containers that you recycle so you won't
attract bugs.

50
The Three Sided Polygon
Answers
8
01. 15 cot A = 8 cot A = 15
AB 8
BC = 15
AB BC
8 = 15 = k (say)
AB= 8k and BC= 15k
Now by using Pythagoras Theorem, we have
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
AC2 = (8k)2 + (15k)2
AC2 = 64k2 + 225k2
AC2 = 289k2
AC = 17k
BC = 15K = 15
Now, sin A = AC 17K 17
AC 17K 17
sec A = AB = 8K = 8

02. tan A = 31
BC = 1
AB 3
BC AB
1
= 3 = K (say),
so AB = √3K, BC = K
By Pythagoras theorem AC= 2K
Therefore, sin A = 21 , cos A = 32 , sin C = 3
2
, cos C = 1
2
So, sin A cos C + cos A sin C = 1

51
The Three Sided Polygon

03. By Pythagoras Theorem; (25-QR)2 = 52+ QR2

QR = 12 cm.
Now, PR + QR = 25, we get PR = 13 cm.
QR 12
So, sin P = PR = 13
cos P = PQ
PR = 5
13
tan P = QR
PQ = 5
12

04. Given: sin𝛳 = 2.89 which is ratio of perpendicular/ hypotenuse.


In any triangle perpendicular can never be greater than
hypotenuse so given equation is incorrect.

05. By Pythagoras Theorem


102 = AC2+ 82 , we get AC = 6 units.
AB 2

cosec2�𝛳 - cot2 𝛳� = ( AC) - ( BC


2
10 2
8
2

AC ) = ( 6 ) - ( 6) =1

52
The Three Sided Polygon

06. 3 cot A = 4 , so
cot A= 43
⇒ AB = 4
BC 3
AB52 x 12 BC
4 13= 3 = K (say)
So, AB = 4k, BC = 3k
By Pythagoras Theorem ;
AC2 = AB2 + BC2
AC2 = (4K)2 + (3K)2 , we get AC = 5k .
1-tan2A 1-(3/4)2 7
Now , 1+tan2A = 1+(3/4)2 = 25
4 3 16
- 259 = 257
2 2
And cos2A - sin2 A = 5 - 5 = 25

07. By Pythagoras Theorem,


132 = 122 + QR2, we get QR = 5 cm
tan P - cot R = QR QR
PQ PQ = 0
-

08. By Pythagoras Theorem,


(1+AB)2 = AB2 + 52 , We get AB = 12 cm, so AC = 1 + AB = 13 cm.
Given BC = 5 cm
Therefore,
(1 + sin C) = (1 + 12/13) = 5
cos C (5/13)

53
Quadrilaterals

09. tanA
1+tan2A

= (1+(( 22--1)1)2)
52 x 12
13
1
= 2 2 (Rationalizing the numerator)

2
= 4 (Rationalizing the denominator)

10. Correct option is A.


2tan30o = (2(1/ 3) = 2/3
= 2/3
= 3
= sin 60o
1+tan230o (1+(1/ 3)2) (1 + (1/3) 4/3 2

54
Constructions
Answers
01. Steps of constructions

Construct a circle of radius 6 cm and mark the centre as O.


Draw a line segment starting from O, length 10cm in any
direction. Mark the other endpoint of the line segment as P.
Bisect PO. Let M be the mid point of PO.
Taking M as center and MO as radius ,draw a circle.
Let it intersect the given circle at points Q and R.
Then PQ and PR are required two tangents.
By measurement PQ = PR = 8cm.
Justification :
Join OQ and OR. Since ∠OQP and ∠ORP are the angles in semi circle.
Therefore, ∠OQP = 90o= ∠ORP.
Also since OQ, OR are radii of the circle, PQ and PR will be the
tangents to the circle at Q and R.
We may see that, the circle with OP as the diameter intersects
the given circle in two points.
Therefore, only two tangents can be drawn.

55
Constructions

02. Steps of construction

Draw a circle with centre O and radius 4 cm.


With O as centre and radius 6 cm , draw a circle. Mark any
point P on this circle.
Join PO and bisect it. Let M be the mid point of PO.
Taking M as centre and MO as radius, draw a circle. Let it
intersect the given circle at the point Q and R.
Join PQ.
PQ it is the required tangent.
By measurement, PQ = 4.5 cm
By calculation, PQ = √(OP2-OQ2 ) = 4.47cm
Justification
Join OQ. Then ∠PQO is angle in the semicircle and, therefore,
∠PQO = 90o
Therefore, PQ OQ. Since, OQ is a radius of the given circle,
PQ has to be tangent to the circle.

56
Constructions

03. Steps of construction

Draw a circle with centre O


and radius 3 cm.
Make OP and OQ equal to
7 cm by extending the
radius of the circle in 2
opposite directions.

Bisect PO. Let M be the mid point of PO.


Taking M as centre and MO as radius, draw a circle. Let it
intersect the given circle at points A and B.
Join PA and PB.
Then PA and PB are the required two tangents.
Bisect QO and let N be the midpoint of QO.
Taking N as centre and NO as radius, draw a circle. Let it
intersect the given circle at points C and D.
Join QC and QD. Now these two are the two required
tangents.
Justification
Join OA and OB
∠PAO=90°(Angle of a semicircle)
Join OC and OD.
Then ∠QCO is an angle on the semicircle and, therefore,
∠ QCO = 90o.
Since, OC is a radius of the given circle, QC has to be
tangent to the circle. Similarly, QD is also a tangent to the circle.

57
Constructions

04. Steps of construction

Draw a circle with the help


of a bangle.
Take two non-parallel
chords AB and CD of this
circle.
Draw the perpendicular
bisectors of AB and CD.
Let these intersect at O. Then, O is the centre of the circle
drawn.
Take a point P outside the circle .
Join PO and bisect it. Let M be the mid point of PO.
Taking M as centre and MO as radius, draw a circle. Let it
intersect the given circle at point Q and R.
Join PQ and PR.
Then, PQ and PR are the required two tangents.
Justification
Join OQ and OR.
Then ∠PQO is an angle in the semicircle and, therefore,
∠ PQO = 90o.
Since OQ is a radius of the given circle PQ has to be the
tangent to the circle. Similarly, PR is also a tangent to the
circle.

58
Constructions

05. Steps of construction

Draw a circle of radius 5cm with centre O.


Draw an ∠AOB of 120o.
At A and B, draw 90o angles which meet at C.
Then, AC and BC are the required tangents which are
inclined to each other at an angle of 60o.
Justification
∠OAC = 90o (by construction)
OA is a radius. So, AC is a tangent to the circle.
∠OBC = 90o (by construction).
OB is a radius. So, BC is a tangent to the circle.
Now, in quadrilateral OACB
∠AOB + ∠OAC + ∠OBC + ∠ACB = 360o
∠ACB = 60o

59
Constructions

06. Steps of construction

Draw a circle with centre O and radius 3.5 cm


(as the diameter is 7 cm)
Draw OM= 9 cm in any direction.
Bisect MO. Let D be the midpoint of MO.
Taking D as centre and DO as radius, draw a circle.
Let it intersect the given circle at points P and Q.
Join MP and MQ.
Then MP and MQ are the required two tangents.
By measurements, MP = MQ = 8cm.

60
Sources of Energy

1 Solutions:
The correct option is C. When the physical attributes of a substance is changed
without making any change in its internal structure it is termed as physical
change. Chemical change, on the other hand, changes the internal structure of a
substance to form a totally new substance.

2 The correct option is A. Rise and fall in sea level happens due to gravitational pull
of the moon. When the water level rises (high tides) it is captured in a reservoir
and when water level dips (low tides), the stored water is utilised to generate
power via a turbine.

3 The correct option is A. Moderator slows down neutrons to cause controlled


fission reaction and hence prevents subsequent uncontrollable chain reactions.

4 The correct option is D. Typical composition of biogas is methane 50-75%,


carbon dioxide 25-50%, nitrogen 0-10%, hydrogen 0-1%, hydrogen hulphide 0-3%.

5 Tidal energy, ocean waves energy, ocean thermal energy. Ocean thermal energy
is used in OTEC systems (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion).

61
Sources of Energy

6 Solar cooker utilises the heat energy it gains via sunlight to cook food. A black
surface, out of all other colours, has the ability to absorb most of the incident
light ray and to reflect a very little fraction of it.

7 Charcoal burns without flames, is comparatively smokeless, and has a higher


heat generation efficiency.

8 Sun’s energy is first intercepted by the atmosphere. Certain gases such as


ozone and water vapour absorb some of the incoming rays directly. Also, some
of the energy is reflected back to space by clouds. So, we can get only a part
of sun’s energy that is incident on the upper atmosphere.

9 Improper nuclear-waste storage and disposal results in environmental


contamination if the waste generated out of fission reactor is dumped in close
proximity of human settlements. Further, there is a risk of accidental leakage
of nuclear radiation if the reactor malfunctions, since high level of
technological sophistication is involved in modern fission reactors.

10 One hour 60 x 60 = 3600 secs


Solar constant = 1.8 kW/m2 i.e ; in 1s, 1m2 area receives energy = 1.8 kJ
So, in one hour, in 3600 secs the 1m2 receives energy = 1.8 x 3600 = 6480 kJ.

62
Metals and Non-Metals

Solution:
1. The characteristic features of metals are :
Good electrical conductors and heat conductors.
Malleable - can be beaten into thin sheets.
Ductile - can be stretched into wire.
Possess metallic luster.
Opaque
Solid at room temperature.

These characters are not unique to metals, some metals and non - metals
violate these characters.

All metals except mercury exist as solids at room temperature.


Metals have high melting points but gallium and caesium have very low
melting points.
Iodine is a non-metal but it is lustrous.
Carbon is a non-metal that can exist in different forms.
Alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) are so soft that they can be
cut with a knife.

2. Metals such as potassium, sodium and lithium react with oxygen very
quickly. Calcium and magnesium are slightly less reactive and react with
oxygen less quickly. Metals like copper and mercury react with oxygen very
slowly and need to be heated continuously in order to see this happening.
So the order or reactivity is as follows,
Hg < Cu < Mg < Ca < Li < Na < K

63
Metals and Non-Metals

3. Metal oxides which react with both acids as well as bases to produce salt
and water are known as amphoteric oxides. Aluminium oxide reacts in the
following manner with acids and bases.

Al2O3+ 6HCl →2AlCl3+ 3H2O

Al2O3+ 2NaOH →2NaAlO2+ H2O

4. Magnesium is highly reactive with oxygen. During the reaction, it forms a


metal oxide coating above it to prevent further reaction. So the magnesium
ribbon must be cleaned before burning in air to remove the magnesium
oxide layer to get the desired chemical reaction.

5. Allotropy is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or


more forms, in the same physical state. Carbon is a non-metal that can
exist in different forms. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, is the hardest
natural substance known and has a very high melting and boiling point.
Graphite, another allotrope of carbon, is a conductor of electricity.

6. Metals react with water and produce a metal oxide and hydrogen gas. But
all metals do not react with water. The reactivity of metals with water
varies.

X : Magnesium does not react with cold water. It reacts with hot water to
form Mg(OH)2
Y : Metals like potassium and sodium react violently with cold water.
Z : Metals like aluminium, iron and zinc do not react either with cold or hot
water. But they react with steam to form the metal oxide.

64
Metals and Non-Metals

7. When zinc is added to a solution of ferrous sulphate, zinc starts to displace


iron from the ferrous sulphate ion to form zinc sulphate as zinc is more
reactive than iron in the reactivity series. This reaction is also called
displacement reaction.
Zn (s) + FeSO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + Fe (s)
But when copper is added instead of zinc, this reaction does not take place
because copper is below iron in the reactivity series and hence cannot
displace iron from FeSO4.

8. Metals form ionic bonds when they react with non-metals. The tendency to
lose electron is very high in metals and the tendency to gain electrons is
more in non-metals. Hence when a metal reacts with a nonmetal, they form
the ionic bond.
General properties for ionic compounds are:
Physical nature: Ionic compounds are solids and are somewhat hard because
of the strong force of attraction between the positive and negative ions.
Melting and Boiling points: Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.
Solubility: Electrovalent compounds are generally soluble in water and insoluble
in solvents such as kerosene, petrol, etc.
Conduction of Electricity: Ionic compounds in the solid state do not conduct
electricity, but conduct electricity in the molten state and aqueous state.

65
Metals and Non-Metals

9. The three steps involved in metallurgy or extraction of metals are


l) Concentration of ore. ll) Extraction of metals. lll) Refining of metals.
Extraction of metals is done based on their position in the reactivity series.
Zinc belongs to the middle group. They are reactive and hence exits as
sulphides and carbonates. They are easy to extract in oxide state. So they
are treated with oxygen(Carbonates in limited air called calcination and
sulphide in the excess air called roasting).
Roasting: 2ZnS (s) + 3O2 (g) → 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2 (g)
Calcination: ZnCO3 (s) → ZnO(s) + CO(g)

The metal oxides are then reduced to the corresponding metals by using suitable
reducing agents such as carbon. For example, when zinc oxide is heated with
carbon, it is reduced to metallic zinc. ZnO(s) + C(s) → Zn(s) + CO(g)

10. The eating up of metals by the action of air, moisture or a chemical on


their surface is called corrosion. The corrosion of iron is called rusting.
Methods to prevent rusting of iron:
By painting
By galvanisation : The process of depositing a thin layer of zinc metal on iron.
By tin plating and chromium plating
By alloying it.

66
How do Organisms Reproduce?

Solution
1. Sexual reproduction provides more genetic diversity because the
sperm and egg that are produced contain different combinations of
genes than the parent organisms due to the process of mutation or
recombination. Asexual reproduction, on the other hand, does not need
sperm and eggs since one organism splits into two organisms that have
the same combination of genes. So, according to Evolution, species that
have more variations survive the most.
2. Mating is the first step of sexual reproduction, So option A is not an
asexual reproduction method while the rest is an example of asexual
reproduction. Bacteria and paramecium reproduce through binary
fission, starfish through regeneration.
3. a) Fertilization is the process of fusion of male gamete with the
female gamete (ovum) to produce zygote cell. External fertilization
takes place outside the body of the female while internal fertilization
takes place inside the sexual tract of the female. The gametes
produced in external reproduction are way more compared to that in
sexual reproduction because the chance of gametes meeting in an
outside environment is very less.
b) Fallopian tube (oviduct) is the site of fertilization in the human
beings.

67
How do Organisms Reproduce?

4. Bread mould otherwise called Rhizopus grows and reproduces the same
way that most moulds do. In asexual reproduction, the mould makes
spores inside a sporangium.
(sporangium are tiny
blob-on-a-stick structures) Bread Mold
When the spores are ready Sporangium
to leave and spread more
mould, the sporangium breaks
open and lets the spores float
out. Each of them grows out
to form a new Rhizopus.

5. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a


female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of
seeds. If this transfer of pollen occurs in the same flower, it is referred
to as self-pollination. On the other hand, if the pollen is transferred from
one flower to another,
it is known as
cross-pollination. This
transfer of pollen from
one flower to another
is achieved by agents
called pollinators.
Ex. wind, water or animals

68
How do Organisms Reproduce?

6. Seed leaves are actually the cotyledons inside a seed that nourish the
embryo till it grows and is able to produce its own food through
photosynthesis. This occurs only when leaves are produced during
germination and till then the embryo need nutrients and these cotyledons
provide the food. Since it provides food for seed, it is called as seed leaves.

7. Puberty is the process of physical changes by which adolescents reach


sexual maturity, i.e. become capable of reproduction. Puberty refers to
the bodily changes, while adolescence is the period of psychological and
social transition between childhood and adulthood.
Most girls experience breast development followed by pubic and arm hair
growth. Growth spurts, increase in hip size, and vaginal secretions are
also common. The first menstrual period takes place approximately two
years into puberty.
Young boys first experience enlargement of the testicles followed by
growth spurts, penis growth, increased hair growth, voice changes, and
wet dreams.

69
How do Organisms Reproduce?

8. The primary hormone involved in the functioning of the male


reproductive system is testosterone. It is produced by the testes and is
required for sperm production and development of male sex
characteristics.
The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the female
reproductive system are estrogen, and progesterone. They are
produced by ovaries.
Estrogen: Required for development of eggs and female sex
characteristics.
Progesterone: Prepares uterus (endometrial wall) for arrival of the embryo.

9. If the egg is not fertilised, it lives for about one day. Since the ovary
releases one egg every month, the uterus also prepares itself every
month to receive a fertilised egg. Thus its lining called endometrium
becomes thick and spongy. This is done to nourish the fertilized egg. But
when fertilization does not take place, the lining slowly breaks and comes
out through the vagina as blood and mucus. This cycle takes place
roughly every month and is known as menstruation. It usually lasts for
about two to eight days.

70
How do Organisms Reproduce?

10. Vasectomy is the surgical method executed for permanent birth control
in males. It is the sterilisation technique by which vas deferens from the
testis is cut or tied to prevent the mixing of sperm with the semen
ejaculated from the penis.
Tubectomy is a surgical method performed in females as a birth control
method. It is a permanent contraceptive method. Fallopian tubes
emerging out of the ovaries on either side are cut and tied.
These two are permanent contraceptive methods.

FALLOPIAN TUBES
CUT AND TIED
VAS DEFERENS
TIED AND OUT

71
How do Organisms Reproduce?

11. Physical devices such as condoms and diaphragm (cap) are used.
This prevents sperms from reaching ova for fertilisation.
Chemicals in the form of pills are induced either orally or inserting into
female reproductive organ vagina. Pills for males kill the sperms and
hence are called spermicide. The use of the intrauterine device called
copper - T, loop, etc. are also very effective in preventing pregnancy.
Surgical methods:
In males, a small portion of vas deferens (sperm duct) is removed by surgical
operation and both ends are tied properly. This method is called Vasectomy.
In females, a small portion of oviducts (fallopian tubes) is removed by surgical
operation and the cut ends are tied. This method is called Tubectomy.

72
Visualizing the Basics

Solution
1. When iron is added to a solution of copper sulphate, iron starts
to displace iron from the copper sulphate ion to form ferrous
sulphate as iron is more reactive than copper in the reactivity
series. This reaction is also called as displacement reaction.

Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)


Blue colour of CuSO4 changes to light green colored FeSO4.
Copper metal is formed in the beaker.

73
Visualizing the Basics

2. A. This experiment is used to show reaction between metals


and water.
B. Metals react with water and produce a metal oxide and
hydrogen gas. Metal oxides that are soluble in water dissolve
in it to further form metal hydroxide. But all metals do not
react with water.

Metal + Water → Metal oxide + Hydrogen

Metal oxide + Water → Metal hydroxide

C. Magnesium does not react with cold water. It reacts with


hot water to form magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen.
It also starts floating due to the bubbles of hydrogen gas
sticking to its surface.
With cold water: Mg + 2H2 O →Mg(OH)2 + H2
With steam: Mg + H2 O →MgO + H2
D. The H2evolved is lighter than air. So we place the test tube
in inverted position to collect the H2 gas.

74
Visualizing the Basics

3. A. Reproductive organs of female include


A (Stigma), B (Style), C (Ovary), or D (Pistil or Carpel)
B. E (Anther)
C.

4. A. Sluice gates are provided for controlled supply of water


from any water source like Dam,canal,river etc. Main
purpose of their construction is feeding canals or reservoirs
in the downstreams or to divert water to other river by a
linked canal.

B. The potential energy of the water in reservoir gets


converted into kinetic energy when it flows into the river

75
Visualizing the Basics

5. Main constituents of biogas -


Methane - 50-75%
Carbon dioxide - 25-50%
Nitrogen 0-10%
Hydrogen 0-1 %
Hydrogen sulphide - 0.1 - 0.5%
Oxygen - 0- 0.5%

76
Integrated Grammar

I. A. Who will win the election is what people want to know. (subject)
B. Telephoners ask whoever answers a series of questions. (direct object)
C. Whether a candidate is popular is a vital matter. (subject)
D. Another question may be what the major issues are.
(predicate/complement noun)
E. Voters usually give whoever is calling an answer. (indirect object)

II. A. Subordinate clause.


B. Independent clause.
C. Independent clause.
D. Subordinate clause.
E. Independent clause.

77