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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

6 Differential Equations
1. [STPM ]
Variables t and y, with t ≥ 0 and y > 0, are related by
dy 1
= y(2 − y),
dt 2
2et
with the condition y = 1 when t = 0. Show that y = . [8 marks]
1 + et
Show that y → 2 when t → ∞. Sketch the graph of y versus t. [4 marks]
6 9
Find the difference in the values of t when y changes from to . [3 marks]
5 5

[Answer : 1.7917]

2. [STPM ]
dy dy
A curve passes through point (2, 0) such that its gradient at point (x, y) satisfies equation (x2 − 3) =
dx dx
4x(3 + y). Show that the equation of the curve is y = 3(x2 − 2)(x2 − 4). [6 marks]
Sketch the curve. [3 marks]
Find the area of the region bounded by the curve and the x-axis. [6 marks]

48 √
[Answer : (6 2 − 4)]
5

3. [STPM ]

(a) Variables t and v, with 0 < t < 2, is related by the differential equation

dv
t = v 2 − v,
dt
with the condition v = 2 when t = 1. Find v in terms of t and sketch the graph of v versus t. [8 marks]
(b) Show that  
3 d y dy
(1 + x2 ) 2 √ = (1 + x2 ) − xy,
dx 1 + x2 dx
where y is a function of x. Hence, solve the differential equation
dy
(1 + x2 ) − xy = x(1 + x2 ),
dx
with the condition y = 1 when x = 0. [7 marks]

2
[Answer : (a) v = ; (b) y = 1 + x2 ]
2−t

4. [STPM ]
Solve the differential equation
dy
x
= (x + 1)(y + 1),
dx
with x > 0 and y > −1, and y = 2 when x = 1. Give your answer in the form y = f (x).

[Answer : y = 3xex−1 − 1]

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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

5. [STPM ]
The rate of change of water temperature is described by the differential equation

= −k(θ − θs )
dt
where θ is the water temperature at time t, θs is the surrounding temperature, and k is a positive constant.
A boiling water at 100◦ C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25◦ C. The water takes
3
1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75◦ C. Show that k = ln . [6 marks]

2 ◦
When the water reaches 50 C, the water is placed in a freezer at −10 C to be frozen to ice. Find the time
required, from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice at 0◦ C. [6 marks]

[Answer : Time = 4 hours 25 minutes]

6. [STPM ]
Find the particular solution for the differential equation
dy x−2 1
+ y=− 2 .
dx x(x − 1) x (x − 1)
3
that satisfies the boundary condition y = when x = 2. [8 marks]
4
2x − 1
[Answer : y = ]
x2
7. [STPM ]
The rate of increase in the number of a species of fish in a lake is described by the differential equation
dP
= (a − b)P
dt
where P is the number of fish at time t weeks, a is the rate of reproduction, and b is the mortality rate, with a
and b as constants.
(a) Assuming that P = P0 at time t = 0 and a > b, solve the differential equation and sketch its solution curve.
[7 marks]
(b) At a certain instant, there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. The epidemicrresults in no more
1
offspring of the fish being produced and the fish die at a rate directly proportional to . There are 900
P
fish before the outbreak of the epidemic and only 400 fish are alive after 6 weeks. Determine the length of
time from the outbreak of the epidemic until all the fish of that species die. [9 marks]

[Answer : (a) P = P0 e(a−b)t ; (b) 18 weeks]

8. [STPM ]
The variables t and x are connected by
dx
= 2t(x − 1),
dt
where x 6= 1. Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1. [5 marks]
2
−1
[Answer : x = et + 1]

9. [STPM ]
v
Using the substitution y = 2 , show that the differential equation
x
dy 2y
+ y2 = −
dx x
may be reduced to
dv v2
= − 2.
dx x
[3 marks] Hence, find the general solution of the original differential equation. [4 marks]

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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

1
[Answer : y = ]
Ax2 −x
10. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
dy
x − 3y = x3 .
dx
[4 marks]
Find the particular solution given that y has a minimum value when x = 1. [3 marks]

1
[Answer : y = x3 ln x + Cx3 ; y = x3 ln x − x3 ]
3

11. [STPM ]
Find the general solution of the differential equation
dy
x = y 2 − y − 2.
dx
[6 marks]

2 + Ax3
[Answer : y = ]
1 − Ax3
12. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the differential equation
dy
x2 = y 2 − xy.
dx
Using the substitution y = ux, show that the given differential equation may be reduced to
du
x = u2 − 2u.
dx
2x
Hence, show that the general solution of the given differential equation may be expressed in the form y = ,
1 + Ax2
where A is an arbitrary constant. [10 marks]
Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1,4) and sketch this solution curve.
[4 marks]

4x
[Answer : y = ]
2 − x2
13. [STPM ]
Show that the substitution u = x2 + y transforms the differential equation
dy
(1 − x) + 2y + 2x = 0
dx
into the differential equation
du
(1 − x) = −2u.
dx
[3 marks]

14. [STPM ]
Find the particular solution of the differential equation
dy
ex − y 2 (x + 1) = 0
dx
for which y = 1 when x = 0. Hence, express y in terms of x. [7 marks]

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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

ex
[Answer : y = ]
2 + x − ex
15. [STPM ]
1
Using the substitution z = , show that the differential equation
y
dy 2y
− = y2
dx x
may be reduced to
dz 2z
+ = −1.
dx x
[2 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution y in terms of x for the differential equation given that y = 3 when x = 1.
[6 marks]

3x2
[Answer : y = ]
2 − x3
16. [STPM ]
Using the substitution y = vx, show that the differential equation
dy
xy − x2 − y 2 = 0
dx
may be reduced to
dv
vx = 1.
dx
[3 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution that satisfies y = 2 and x = 1. [6 marks]

[Answer : y 2 = 2x2 (ln x + 2)]

17. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0 and y > 0, satisfy the differential equation
dy y(y + x)
= .
dx x(y − x)
Show that the substitution y = ux transforms the given differential equation into the differential equation
du 2u
= .
dx x(u − 1)
[3 marks]
y
[Answer : y = 4x + x ln xy or xy = e x −4 ]

18. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the differential equation
dy
x2 = 2xy + y 2 .
dx
Using the substitution y = ux, show that the given differential equation can be transformed into
du
x = u + u2 .
dx
[3 marks]
x
Show that the general solution of the transformed differential equation can be expressed as u = , where A
A−x
is an arbitrary constant. [7 marks]
Hence, find the particular solution of the given differential equation which satisfies the condition that y = 2 when
x = 1. [3 marks]

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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

2x2
[Answer : y = ]
3 − 2x

19. [STPM ]
Find the solution of the differential equation
dy 2xy
− = ex (1 + x2 )
dx 1 + x2
given that y = 3 when x = 0. [8 marks]

[Answer : y = (ex + 2)(1 + x2 )]

20. [STPM ]
R x−2 x2
dx
Show that e x(x−1) =. [4 marks]
x−1
Hence, find the particular solution of the differential equation
dy x−2 1
+ y=− 2
dx x(x − 1) x (x − 1)
3
which satisfies the boundary condition y = when x = 2. [4 marks]
4
2x − 1
[Answer : y = ]
x2
21. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x, y > 0, are related by the differential equation
dy 2y
+ y2 = − .
dx x
u
Using the substitution y = , show that the differential equation may be reduced to
x2
du u2
= − 2.
dx x
[3 marks]
Solve this differential equation, and hence, find y, in terms of x, with the condition that y = 1 when x = 1.
[6 marks]

1
[Answer : y = ]
x(2x − 1)

22. [STPM ]
Using the substitution u = ln y, show that the non-linear differential equation v
dy
x + (3x + 1)y ln y = ye−2x
dx
can be transformed into the linear differential equation
du
x + (3x + 1)u = e−2x .
dx
[4 marks]
Solve this linear differential equation, and hence, find the solution of the original non-linear differential equation,
given that y = 1 when x = 1. [9 marks]
Find the limiting value of y as x → ∞. [2 marks]

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LEE KIAN KEONG STPM MATHEMATICS (M) 6: Differential Equations

e−2x 1−3x
−e
[Answer : y = e x x ; 1]

23. [STPM ]
The variables x and y, where x, y > 0 are related by the differential equation
dy
xy + y 2 = 3x4 .
dx
y
Show that the substitution u = transforms the above differential equation into
x2
1 − u2
 
du
x =3 ,
dx u

and find u2 in terms of x. [9 marks]


Hence, find the particular solution of the original differential equation which satisfies the condition y = 2 when
x = 1. [3 marks]

A 3
[Answer : u2 = 1 − 6
; y 2 = x4 + 2 ]
x x

24. [STPM ]
Solve the differential equation
dy 2
− y = x2 e2x .
dx x
[6 marks]

1 2 2x
[Answer : y = x e + Cx2 ]
2

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