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6/27/2011

AGRICULTURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

Prepared by:

Ronaldo B. Saludes, PhD Assistant Professor 6 AFSD IAE CEAT UPLB

PSAE REGION 4 AE Board Exam Review

What is Pollution?

Pollution means such alteration of the physical, chemical and/or biological properties of any water and/or atmospheric air of the Philippines, or any discharge of any liquid, gaseous or solid substance into any of the waters and/or atmospheric air of the country as will or is likely to create or render such waters and/or atmospheric air harmful or detrimental or injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational or other legitimate uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish or other aquatic life. (RA 3931 – act

creating the National Water and Air Pollution Control Commission)

6/27/2011

Potential soil, water and air water pollution that can result from agricultural activity related to
Potential soil, water and air water pollution that can result from agricultural
activity related to livestock production
Source: Burton and Turner
(2003)
pollution that can result from agricultural activity related to livestock production Source: Burton and Turner (2003)
pollution that can result from agricultural activity related to livestock production Source: Burton and Turner (2003)

6/27/2011

6/27/2011 RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES Air Quality Management RA 8749-Philippine Clean Air Act of
6/27/2011 RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES Air Quality Management RA 8749-Philippine Clean Air Act of

RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Air Quality Management RA 8749-Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE AIR POLLUTION CONTROL POLICY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Solid Waste Management RA 9003- Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, CREATING THE NECESSARY INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS AND INCENTIVES, DECLARING CERTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED AND PROVIDING PENALTIES, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFORE, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

6/27/2011

RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Water Quality Management RA 9275-Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

DAO 90-34

REVISED WATER USAGE AND CLASSIFICATION/WATER QUALITY CRITERIA AMENDING SECTION NOS. 68 AND 69, CHAPTER III OF THE 1978 NPCC RULES AND REGULATIONS

DAO 90-35

REVISED EFFLUENT REGULATIONS OF 1990, REVISING AND AMENDING THE EFFLUENT REGULATIONS OF 1982

RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Other environmental laws

RA 9367 Biofuels Act of 2006

AN ACT TO DIRECT THE USE OF BIOFUELS, ESTABLISHING FOR THIS PURPOSE THE BIOFUEL PROGRAM, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFORE, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

RA 10068 Organic Agriculture Act of 2010

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

6/27/2011

Waste Management System for Dairy Cattle Production Source: Burton and Turner (2003)
Waste Management System for Dairy Cattle
Production
Source: Burton and Turner
(2003)

MANURE versus WASTE

Manure refers feces and urine

Waste refers to manure with added bedding, hair, feather, rain, water, soil, etc.

Litter refers to poultry waste (with bedding materials such as wood shavings)

“As excreted manure” refers to feces and urine prior to any changes due to addition of water, drying, volatilization and other processes

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WASTE CHARACTERISTICS dictates the design of treatment, storage, transfer, and utilization of agricultural wastes
WASTE CHARACTERISTICS
dictates the design of treatment, storage, transfer,
and utilization of agricultural wastes
How Manure Consistency Affects the System MC > 96 % 90% < MC < 96
How Manure Consistency Affects the
System
MC > 96 %
90% < MC < 96 %
80% < MC < 90 %
MC < 80%

6/27/2011

WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Physical properties of solid manure

Total Solids

(dry matter)

Physical properties of solid manure Total Solids (dry matter) Fresh Weight Moisture Content

Fresh

Weight

Moisture

Content

ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Physical properties of solid manure

Volatile

Solids

Physical properties of solid manure Volatile Solids Total Solids Fixed Solids (Ash)

Total

Solids

Fixed

Solids

(Ash)

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ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Physical properties of liquid manure

Volatile

Dissolved

Solids

Fixed

Dissolved

Solids

Volatile

Suspended

Solids

Fixed Dissolved Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended Solids Fixed Suspended
Fixed Dissolved Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended Solids Fixed Suspended

Dissolved

Solids

Fixed Dissolved Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended Solids Fixed Suspended Solids

Suspended

Solids

Fixed Dissolved Solids Volatile Suspended Solids Dissolved Solids Suspended Solids Fixed Suspended Solids

Fixed

Suspended

Solids

Total Solids
Total Solids
Total Solids

Total

Solids

Total Solids

ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

TS = TDS + TSS = = = TVS VDS VSS + + + TFS
TS = TDS + TSS
=
=
=
TVS
VDS
VSS
+
+
+
TFS
FDS
FSS

Matrix showing how various measurements of solids in aqueous sample can be related

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Problem no.1

1. A 300 gram- cattle manure sample is oven-dried for 24 hours at 105°C. After oven drying, the sample weighs 200 grams. The dried sample is then heated at 600 °C. After this heating, 75 grams of sample remain. Carbon Nitrogen Ratio of manure sample is 15:1.

Calculate the following:

a. Moisture Content of manure (% db)

b. Total Solids Content of manure (% db)

c. Volatile Solids Content of manure (%db)

d. Fixed Solids Content of manure (%db)

e. Total Nitrogen Content (%db) . Use equation C=0.55xVS. Where C is carbon content (%db) and VS is volatile solids content (%db)

Problem no. 2

A student collects 150 ml-samples of swine wastewater in a piggery farm located in Lipa City, Batangas. One sample is placed in as drying dish (tare weight = 0.50g ) and then placed in an electric oven at 105°C until all the moisture is removed. The weight of dried dish is 0.625 g. Another 150 ml sample is filtered and the liquid that passes through the filter is collected and placed in the drying dish (tare weight = 0.50 g). The sample is dried at 105°C and the dried dish is recorded as 0.586 g. The final weight of dried dish after incineration at 600°C is 0.542 g.

Calculate the following:

a. Total Solids Concentration (g/ml)

b. Total Dissolved Solids Concentration (g/ml)

c. Total Suspended Solids Concentration (g/ml)

d. Volatile Dissolved Solids Concentration (g/ml)

e. Fixed Dissolved Solids Concentration (g/ml)

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ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Chemical properties of animal manure

NO 3 -N

Chemical properties of animal manure NO 3 -N Total Nitrogen Ammoniacal Nitrogen Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

Total

Nitrogen

Ammoniacal

Nitrogen

Total

Kjeldahl

Nitrogen

of animal manure NO 3 -N Total Nitrogen Ammoniacal Nitrogen Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Organic Nitrogen

Organic

Nitrogen

NH 3 -N NH 4 -N
NH 3 -N NH 4 -N
NH 3 -N NH 4 -N

NH 3 -N

NH 4 -N

ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Chemical properties of animal manure

elemental

phosphorus

(P)

properties of animal manure elemental phosphorus (P) Total Phosphorus soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) P

Total

Phosphorus

soluble

reactive

phosphorus

(SRP)

P 2 O 5

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ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

ANIMAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

CODCODCODCOD •Chemical oxygen demand •rapid laboratory procedure using chemical oxidants and heat to fully oxidize
CODCODCODCOD
•Chemical oxygen demand
•rapid laboratory procedure
using chemical oxidants and
heat to fully oxidize organic
components of waste

Chemical properties of animal manure

BODBODBODBOD 5555 •Biochemical oxygen demand of sample incubated for 5 days at 20°C •standard test
BODBODBODBOD 5555
•Biochemical oxygen
demand of sample
incubated for 5 days at
20°C
•standard test for
measuring pollution
potential of waste
Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen in BOD bottle Dissolved Oxygen Probe (self-stirring) Dissolved Oxygen Meter BOD
Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen in BOD bottle
Dissolved
Oxygen Probe
(self-stirring)
Dissolved
Oxygen
Meter
BOD bottle

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PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP BOD TEST BOTTLES FOR UNSEEDED DILUTION WATER air, essential nutrients (N,P,K,
PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP BOD TEST
BOTTLES
FOR UNSEEDED DILUTION WATER
air, essential
nutrients (N,P,K,
etc.), and other
additives
dilution
water
Waste sample (w/
organic matter and
adequate no. of
bacteria
Unseeded
dilution water
Glass
Container
BOD bottle filled with test
sample and unseeded dilution
water (unseeded test sample)
PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP BOD TEST BOTTLES FOR SEEDED DILUTION WATER Air, essential dilution nutrients,
PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP BOD TEST
BOTTLES
FOR SEEDED DILUTION WATER
Air, essential
dilution
nutrients,
water
and other
additives
Waste sample
(w/ organic
matter and no
bacteria or
limited no. of
bacteria
Bacteria
(seed)
Seeded
dilution
water
Glass
Container
BOD bottle filled
with seeded
dilution water
(seeded blank)
BOD bottle filled with
waste sample and
seeded dilution
water (seeded test
sample)

6/27/2011

BOD DETERMINATION

when dilution water is not seeded

BOD =

D

1

D

2

P

when dilution water is seeded

BOD =

(

D

1

D

2

)

(

B

1

B

2

)

f

P

D 1 D 2 dissolved oxygen of diluted sample before incubation, mg/L dissolved oxygen of
D
1
D
2
dissolved oxygen of diluted sample
before incubation, mg/L
dissolved oxygen of diluted sample after
incubation (e.g. 5 days at 20°C), mg/L
P
B
1
B
2
decimal volumetric fraction of sample
used
dissolved oxygen of seed control before
incubation, mg/L
dissolved oxygen of seed control after
incubation, mg/L
f ratio of seed in sample to seed in control
(% seed in D 1 / % seed in B 1 )

6/27/2011

 

Modelling BOD

 
 

The BOD exerted (oxygen consumed) at any time t can be modeled as:

 
 

y

t

=

L

o

(1

e

k

L

t

)

   
 

y t

 

BOD exerted at time t, mg/L ultimate BOD, mg/L BOD reaction rate coefficient, day -1

 

L

o

k

L

t

time, day

 
 

BOD reaction rate coefficient (k L )

measures the biodegradability of waste

varies with type of waste and with temperature

 

Arrhenius Equation

 
   

k

LT

2

=

k

LT

1

θ

(

T

2

T

1

)

 
 

k

LT1

reaction rate coefficient at temp T 1 reaction rate coefficient at temp T 2

k

LT2

θ

dimensionless temperature coefficient

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Problem No. 3

Table 1. Changes in Dissolved Oxygen with time of swine wastewater sample

   

Dissolved Oxygen, mg/L

 

Time, day

Diluted

Seeded

Sample

Control

0

7.98

8.25

1

5.05

8.18

2

4.13

8.12

3

3.42

8.07

4

2.95

8.03

5

2.60

7.99

Problem no.3 (continuation)

Using Table 1, calculate the daily BOD values of the wastewater sample (e.g. BOD 0 , BOD 1 , BOD 2 , …….). The wastewater sample is diluted by a factor of 1/20 using seeded dilution water. Ratio of seed to sample and seed to control is 1.0.

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Problem no. 4

Determine the BOD of a waste sample incubated for 5 days at 20°C. The ultimate BOD and reaction rate constant are 295 mg/l and 0.23 day -1 , respectively.

Problem no. 5

Assuming reaction rate constant at 20°C is 0.2 day -1 , calculate the BOD 5 20°C of a wastewater if the BOD 3 10°C is 100 mg/l. Use θ = 1.047.

ANIMAL WASTE TREATMENT

• reduces the pollution potential of the waste using physical, biological, and chemical processes

• treatment reduces nutrients, destroy pathogens, reduce total solids, and sometimes reduces the volume of waste and odor

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Common Animal Waste Treatment Methods

a. waste treatment lagoons (aerobic or anaerobic)

b. anaerobic digestion

c. composting

d. solid/liquid separation

e. drying/dewatering

f. constructed wetlands

Composting
Composting

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Composting as Biological Treatment of Animal Waste

Important Features:

a. Biological stabilization of waste by decomposition of organic matter using oxidation (aerobic) process

b. Removal of unpleasant odorous organic compounds (methane and hydrogen sulfide) through oxidation and producing carbon dioxide and water

c. Heat generation resulting to pasteurization

d. Nitrification and denitrification activity

e. Improved waste consistency (due to moisture loss)

f. Increased availability of some plant nutrients (improved fertilizer value)

Understanding the Composting Process
Understanding the Composting
Process

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Temperature as indicator of compost activity

Temperature as indicator of compost activity
 

STOICHIOMETRY

 

Organic matter degradation in the compost substrate can be presented by the following equation:

C H O N

4

+

a

+

b

2

c

3

d   O

 

aCO

+   b

3

d

H O

+

dNH

+

Q

h

a

b

c

d

4

2

2

2

2

3

where a, b, c and d are molar fraction of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in the organic part of the substrate, and Q h is the amount of heat generated

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Heat generation during Composting

Amount of heat generated is expressed as:

Q h = [(395.253 *no. of moles of O 2 ) + (286.391* no. of moles of H 2 O) + 45.638] /N

Q h

N molecular weight of substrate, kg

heat generated, kJ/kg substrate

Problem no. 6

Calculate the amount of heat generated during aerobic composting of manure with a chemical formula of C 5 H 7 O 2 N.

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KEY FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMPOSTING PROCESS

MoistureMoistureMoistureMoisture ContentContentContentContent

supply water to maintain microbial growth

optimum MC range is 50%-60% by weight

OxygenOxygenOxygenOxygen

essential for metabolism and respiration of aerobic microorganism

used for oxidizing organic component of waste

optimum oxygen concentration is greater than 10%

CarbonCarbon-CarbonCarbon--Nitrogen-NitrogenNitrogenNitrogen RatioRatioRatioRatio • carbon provides energy for
CarbonCarbon-CarbonCarbon--Nitrogen-NitrogenNitrogenNitrogen RatioRatioRatioRatio
carbon provides energy for
metabolism and synthesis of new
cells
nitrogen is used for cell growth and
function
Optimum C:N ratio is 30:1

pHpHpHpH

affects microbial activity and ammonia emission

pH during composting varies from 5.5 to 8.5

Final pH is between 6 to 8

COMPOSTING METHODS

Aerated Static Piles

Windrow Composting

COMPOSTING METHODS Aerated Static Piles W i n d r o w C o m p
COMPOSTING METHODS Aerated Static Piles W i n d r o w C o m p

In-vessel composting

In-vessel composting

6/27/2011

Getting the right compost mixture

 

Moisture Content of a Mixture of Compost Materials

 
 

G =

(

W

1

x M

1

)

+

(

W x M

2

2

)

+

 
 

W

1

+

W

2

 

+

G

moisture content of compost mixture, % wet basis mass of material n (wet weight),kg moisture content of material n, % wet basis

W n

M n

Note: G must be between M 1 and M 2 , otherwise add H 2 O if G is very high or add dry matter if very low

 

Getting the right compost mixture

Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio of a Mixture of Compost Materials

R

W

1

[

C x

1

(

100

C x

M

1

+

W

2

2

)]

[

(

100

M

2

)]

+

= W

1

[

N x

1

(100

N x

M

1

+

W

2

2

)]

[

(100

M

2

)]

+

 

R

Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio of mixture, decimal mass of material n (wet weight), kg % carbon of material n % nitrogen of material n moisture content of material n , % wet basis

 

W n

C

n

N

n

M n

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Problem no. 7

Material

MC (%wb)

% C

%N

Poultry Manure

80

35

9

Saw dust

30

52

1.5

Answer the following:

1. Calculate the relative amounts of materials shown in the table above to achieve a composting mixture with an initial MC of 60% wb.

2. If the poultry manure has an initial MC of 50% wb, how much water should be added to achieve a 60% wb compost mixture?

3. How much sawdust should be added to attain a compost mixture with C/N ratio of 30:1?

Composting Design: FORCED AERATION

Three functions of Aeration

1.Oxygen supply (stoichiometric demand) 2.Heat removal (control process temp) 3.Moisture removal (drying demand)

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Calculation of Aeration Requirements 1. Based on Oxygen Demand  4 a + b −
Calculation of Aeration Requirements
1. Based on Oxygen Demand
 4
a
+
b
2
c
3
d 
 b
− 3
d
C H O N
+
O
aCO
+
H O
+
dNH
+
Q
a
b
c
d
2
2
2
3
h
4
2
m
no of moles of O x
.
32
o
2
V
=
2
m
=
a
O
2
(
0.232
)
x
ρ
N *1000
a
m O2 weight of oxygen required, kg O 2 /kg substrate
N
V a
molecular weight of substrate, kg
volume of air, m 3 /kg substrate
air density, kg/m 3
ρ a
 

Calculation of Aeration Requirements

 
 

2.

Based on Heat Removal Demand

 

CHON

+

4

a

+

b

2 c

3 d

O

 

aCO

+

b

3 d

H O dNH

+

2

3

+ Q h
+
Q
h

a

b

c

d

4

2

2

2

m

a

=

h

Q

h

h

 
 m  a  V a =    ρ   a
 m 
a
V a = 
ρ
a
 
 

2

1

 

Q

h

quantity of heat removed , kJ/kg substrate mass of air, kg air/kg substrate enthalpy of exhaust air, kJ/kg da enthalpy of ambient air, kJ/kg da air density, kg/m 3 volume of air, m 3 /kg substrate

 

m

a

h

2

h

1

ρ

a

V a

 

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Calculation of Aeration Requirements 3. Based on Moisture Removal Demand Metabolic water production • from
Calculation of Aeration Requirements
3. Based on Moisture Removal Demand
Metabolic water production
from stoichiometric reaction
a
+
b
2
c
3
− 3
d
C H O N
+   4
d   O
aCO
+   b
  H O
+
dNH
a
b
c
d
2
2
2
3
4
2

Calculation of Aeration Requirements

Total moisture

 

=

(

no of moles of

.

H

2

O

)

x

18

+

MC

wb

m

H

2

O

 

N

*1000

 

1 MC

wb

 

m

a

=

m

w

2

H

2

O

w

1

 

V

a

m

=

a

ρ

a

 

m H2O

N

MC wb

m a

w

2

w

1

V

ρ a

total amount of moisture to be removed, kg H 2 O/kg substrate

molecular weight of substrate, kg initial MC (wet basis) of substrate, decimal mass of air, kg air/kg substrate humidity ratio of exhaust air, kg H 2 O/kg da humidity ratio of ambient air, kg H 2 O/kg da

volume of air, m 3 /kg substrate air density, kg/m 3

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Problem no. 8

Calculate the aeration requirements to supply oxygen, remove heat, and remove moisture from manure composting (C 5 H 7 0 2 N). Assume inlet air condition of 30°C, 50% RH, and exhaust air of 50°C and 100% RH. Initial MC of manure is 60% wet basis.

Anaerobic digestion

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Anaerobic Digestion as Biological Treatment of Animal Waste

Important Features:

a. Good conversion of organic carbon (to methane) thus reducing the organic matter

b. Nitrogen and phosphorus are retained in the end product

c. Energy source (biogas)

d. Low power requirement (no aeration system)

are retained in the end product c. Energy source (biogas) d. Low power requirement (no aeration

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Typical Heating Value:21,453 kJ/m 3
Typical Heating Value:21,453 kJ/m 3

Typical Heating Value:21,453 kJ/m 3

6/27/2011 Typical Heating Value:21,453 kJ/m 3 28

6/27/2011

Covered Lagoon Digester Plug Flow Digester Complete Mix Digester Attach Film Digester
Covered Lagoon Digester
Plug Flow Digester
Complete Mix Digester
Attach Film Digester

Overview of Anaerobic Digestion Options for Livestock Manure

Overview of Anaerobic Digestion Options for Livestock Manure

6/27/2011

DIGESTER DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)

• the average time the substrate remains in the digester

• establishes the quantity of time available for bacterial growth and subsequent conversion of the organic material to gas

V

 

Q

 

HRT =

HRT

Q

V

hydraulic retention time, day

daily manure inflow, m 3 /day

digester working volume, m 3

 

DIGESTER DESIGN CALCULATIONS

 

Organic Loading Rate (OLR)

 

describes the amount of organic material (volatile solids) which is fed daily per cubic meter of digester working volume

 

OLR =

VS

V

=

 

VS

 

Q

*

HRT

OLR

organic loading rate, kg VS/m 3 -day

Q

daily manure inflow, m 3 /day

 

VS

volatile solids concentration, kg VS /day

V

digester working volume, m 3

 

HRT

hydraulic retention time, days

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Retention Time, VS Loading rate, and biogas production of selected livestock manure

Manure

Concentration of Input Slurry (%TS)

Retention

Daily VS

Biogas

Source

Time

Loading

Production per

(days)

Rate

unit digester

 

(kg VS/m3)

volume

(m3/m3)

Dairy

6-20

10-30

2-11

0.7-2.0

Cattle

Swine

2.5-11

10-30

1.2-5

0.1-2.0

Poultry

7-14

20-50

1.8-3.4

0.01-0.9

 

Source: Persson et al, 1979

Procedure for calculating digester volume

a. Calculate the weight and volume of manure to be handled Total daily weight of manure excreted (kg/day) = ? Total daily volume of manure excreted (m 3 /day)=?

b. Calculate the total dry matter (solids) to be handled Total daily weight of dry matter = ? (kg dm/day)

c. Calculate the weight and volume of influent or slurry that will enter the digester Influent (slurry) = excreted manure +added water Total daily weight of slurry = ? kg/day Total daily volume of slurry = ? m 3 /day

d. Calculate the working volume of digester for a specified retention time (assume 20 days of HRT)

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Procedure (continuation)

e. Calculate the organic loading rate daily total VS = ? kg VS/day organic loading rate = ? kg VS/m3-day

f. Calculate the diameter and height of the digester

specify D:H ratio

include freeboard of 1foot or more for additional storage in case of stoppage in digester outlet

add 10 to 20 % of total volume of digester for biogas collection (or a separate gas holder tank can be constructed)

Problem no. 9

Design Information:

Digester type: Continuous feed No. of animals: 100 dairy cows Manure Production: 50 kg/day-head , 0.05 m 3 /day-head Manure Properties: TS = 15%, VS = 85%, density = 993kg/m 3 Digester condition: TS of influent (slurry) =13%, HRT = 14 days

Using the information above, determine the size of a cylindrical digester assuming diameter and height are equal

6/27/2011

Methane Emission from Manure

Methane Emission from Manure Source: IPCC 2006
Methane Emission from Manure Source: IPCC 2006
Methane Emission from Manure Source: IPCC 2006
Methane Emission from Manure Source: IPCC 2006
Methane Emission from Manure Source: IPCC 2006

Source: IPCC 2006

For VS (M) values:

For VS ( M ) values:

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For B o(M) values:

For B o ( M ) values:

For MCF (S,K) values:

For MCF ( S , K ) values:

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Problem no. 10

Estimate the annual methane emission of a 200 head- dairy cattle farm. Assume that manure from the farm is treated using lagoons.

WASTE UTILIZATION

Primary Uses of Animal Wastes

a. Source of Plant Nutrients (Compost) b. Source of Animal Nutrients (Feed ingredient)

c. Alternative Source of Energy

a. Source of Plant Nutrients (Compost) b. Source of Animal Nutrients (Feed ingredient) c. Alternative Source
a. Source of Plant Nutrients (Compost) b. Source of Animal Nutrients (Feed ingredient) c. Alternative Source
a. Source of Plant Nutrients (Compost) b. Source of Animal Nutrients (Feed ingredient) c. Alternative Source

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WASTE UTILIZATION

ANIMAL MANURE: a valuable fertilizer

1.Source of phosphorus for rice production

2.Excreted manure is rich in organic N (slow release) but can advantageous during periods of high rainfall

3.High OM content improves soil structure and water holding and cation exchange capacity

WASTE UTILIZATION

Animal Manure : a Feed Ingredient

1.High nutritive value - source of protein and phosphorus

2.Nutritive value depends on (a) kind and age of animal, (b) management factors, (c) feeding regimen

3.Health-related issues – presence of harmful agents (e.g. pathogens, chemical residues, and heavy metals)

6/27/2011

Animal Manure as an Alternative and Renewable Energy Source

Direct combustion

direct burning of manure in furnace to generate heat and electricity

Gasification

incomplete combustion of manure to produce useable gas(synthesis gas)

Pyrolysis

manure is heated at high temperature in the complete absence of oxygen producing combustible gas, oil, and charcoal

Anaerobic digestion

biological treatment of manure in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas

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