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CHAPTER -I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION

English is the most dominant language in the world today. The importance of
English as a global language has reached such a heighted that people all over the world
aspire to learn English and acquire proficiency in the language. There are several
reasons for the popularity of English language: English is the language of opportunities;
it is the link language of the people of the world; the language of science and
technology; trade and commerce and international language. The Radhakrishna
Commission (1948-49) stressed the value and importance of English in these words,
English is a language which is rich in literature humanistic, scientific and technical.
(Intakhab Alam Khan: 2005). However the Kothari Commission (1964-66) has made it
clear that English can only play the important role in the process of higher education as
a “library language”. (Intakhab Alam Khan: 2005). Furthermore, English is treated as a
(link language) in India. This is because there is no direct communication in a plural
cultural and multilingual society like ours. At every step, whether it is a business affair
or trade, at offices and organizations, and in various domains we badly need English to
do works and to achieve aims and objectives. English helps in bringing out the national
integration and it is a ‘must’ to develop an international understanding. Hence, there is
no denying of the fact that without English, it is impossible to fare in the world.

English in India is taught as second language in most of the schools and Schools in the
country. In some of the states, English is the official language even today. Proficiency in
English language is considered as an asset for employment opportunity and social
recognition. However, it has been observed that after years of learning English at the
school and college level, Indian learners of English do not have the required level of
proficiency in the language. This could be due to several factors such as: examination and
information oriented teaching and learning rather than developing linguistic skills of the
learners, inefficient teachers, lack of exposure to listen to and to practice English. And
lack of opportunities to use the language outside the classroom, along with other socio-
cultural and cognitive factors. Even after completing graduation many ESL learners are
unable to write correctly an application for a job or to write a paragraph correctly and

The study of language is the foundation of all other learning. Language defines us as
human. A language is not just a collection of words, such as we find in a dictionary. It is
also the rules or patterns that relate our words to one another. To be human is to use
language, and to talk is to be a person. A language is a system of conventional vocal signs
by means of which human beings communicate.

Students fail in school for a variety of reasons. In some cases, their academic difficulties can be directly

attributed to deficiencies in the teaching and learning environment. For example, students with limited

English may fail because they do not have access to effective bilingual or English as a second language

(ESL) instruction. Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may have difficulty if instruction

presumes middle-class experiences. Other students may have learning difficulties stemming from linguistic

or cultural differences. These difficulties may become more serious over time if instruction is not modified to

address the students' specific needs. Unless these students receive appropriate intervention, they will

continue to struggle, and the gap between their achievement and that of their peers will widen over time.

Still other students need specialized instruction because of specific learning disabilities. The over

representation of English language learners in special education classes (Yates & Ortiz, 1998) suggests that

educators have difficulty distinguishing students who truly have learning disabilities from students who are

failing for other reasons, such as limited English. Students learning English are disadvantaged by a scarcity

of appropriate assessment instruments and a lack of personnel trained to conduct linguistically and culturally

relevant educational assessments (Valdes & Figueroa, 1996). English language learners who need special

education services are further disadvantaged by the shortage of special educators who are trained to address

their language- and disability-related needs simultaneously.


Improving the academic performance of students from non-English backgrounds requires a focus on the

prevention of failure and on early intervention for struggling learners. This digest presents a framework for

meeting the needs of these students in general education and suggests ways to operationalize prevention and

early intervention to ensure that students meet their academic potential.

Prevention of school failure

Prevention of failure among English language learners involves two critical elements: the creation of

educational environments that are conducive to their academic success and the use of instructional strategies

known to be effective with these students (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz & Wilkinson, 1991). Preventing school failure

begins with the creation of school climates that foster academic success and empower students (Cummins,

1989). Such environments reflect a philosophy that all students can learn and that educators are responsible

for helping them learn. Positive school environments are characterized by strong administrative leadership;

high expectations for student achievement; challenging, appropriate curricula and instruction; a safe and

orderly environment; ongoing, systematic evaluation of student progress; and shared decision-making among

ESL teachers, general education teachers, administrators, and parents. Several other factors are critical to the

success of English language learners, including the following: (1) a shared knowledge base among educators

about effective ways to work with students learning English, (2) recognition of the importance of the

students' native language, (3) collaborative school and community relationships, (4) academically rich

programs that integrate basic skill instruction with the teaching of higher order skills in both the native

language and in English, and (5) effective instruction.


Definitions of Speaking

Speaking is one of English skills used to express ideas and to


communicate with other people in the entire world with a variety of reason
such as: relationship, business, networking, overseas travelling, etc.
Speaking is a skill which means not only to be known or learnt, but also to be
practiced. Speaking is not about what should be said only but what people
should listen from you to know and to understand each other. It determines
how long it is listened, how well it is understood, and applied between two
people or among people.

PROBLEMS OF ENGLISH LEARNERSING FOR SCHOOL STUDENT

There are a lot of problems in the world. One of the problems is speaking especially
speaking English. In order to know and to understand what the problems of speaking
English are, so there are three important experiences of the English learners’ problems in
English speaking as follows:

According to Hoge (2012:2-7), “There’s a huge problem out there. There are a lot
confused English students and confused English learners. These students know a lot of
English. They know a lot of grammar rules. The problem is they can’t understand
instantly and effortlessly. They can’t speak clearly, confidently and effortlessly. They
know about English linguistics, the academic study of linguistics, nouns and verbs and
pronouns and phrases and clauses and different verb tenses, all of that stuff, but they
can’t perform. That’s a huge problem, all these adult students out there who just can’t
actually speak English well and understand it well, even though they know a lot. Most
schools, most programs and, indeed, most students in those schools are focused on
Academic English. Academic English is the English that is used in schools, Schools and
universities at the highest level. It’s Academic English. So what are they focusing on?
They’re focusing on grammar rules. In other words, they are focusing on linguistics and
they are focused on writing.”

Even when someone achieves something great in art, or athletics or music, we


immediately turn to language to tell other people about it. The massive proliferation of
cell phones, instant messaging, podcasts, and voice mails simply illustrates a simple fact
about humanity: we love to talk. In fact, we just cannot stop talking. Whatever language
we speak—English, Chinese, and Hindi, Tamil or Malayalam— helps to define us
personally and identify the community we belong to. But the fact that we can talk at all,
the fact that we have a language, is inextricably bound up with our humanity. Language is
our medium of communication, but it can also be a barrier to understanding. There are
over six thousand languages in the world today, though we are rapidly losing the smaller
ones the same way we are losing endangered species.

It is well known fact that the English language entered into India only after the arrival
of the English men. Soon after their arrival it began to exercise its influence on the
intellectual life of the people and also it reduced the communication gap between the
rulers and the people of India. And, with strong efforts taken by the people like Macaulay
and Lord William Benetics, and also because of the enthusiasm of Indian like Raja Ram
Mohan Roy, it has developed in such a way that it became a gate way to western
knowledge and also it began a mutual cultural interaction between India and Britain which
lead the transaction of cultural heritage between the two nation.

The English language has had a remarkable history. When we first catch sight of it in
historical records, it is the speech of some none-too-civilized tribes on the continent of
Europe along the North Sea. Of course, it had a still earlier history, going back perhaps to
somewhere in Eastern Europe or western Asia, and long before that to origins we can only
speculate about. From those murky and undistinguished beginnings, English has become
the most widespread language in the world, used by more peoples for more purposes than
any other language on Earth.

English as a second language becomes inseparable and unavoidable in Indian


Education system. To learn a second language, a physical, intellectual and emotional
involvement is needed to successfully send and interpret linguistic messages. This article
analyzed the causes that make the School students difficult to communicate in English and
suggest some solutions that can overcome the difficulties. In this background, Descriptive
nature of this present paper highlights the difficulties faced by college student in speaking
English – a sociological reflection. Result revealed that student use English more frequent
only inside the class and less frequent outside the class. Whereas, School students‟ have
limited time to learn English in class, and they still do not have enough encouragement to
practice English outside the class in order to get familiar with English. Next the
Environment was the leading cause for the problems in learning English. Another major
finding was that rural School students perceived more problems than urban School
students. Lack of reading habit and listening tends to challenge several problems in
learning English. Recommendations in the light of findings are also discussed in

Language is the most significant part in communication. It is very challenging to


consider of a society without language. It sharpens people's thoughts, guides and controls
their entire activity. It is a carrier of civilization and culture (Bolinger, 1968). In the case
of the mother tongue, the child learns it easily, due to the favorable environment and by
the great amount of exposure to the language. But, learning a second language requires
conscious efforts to learn it and the exposure to the second language acquisition (James,
1996). There are so many factors affect the process of learning a second language,
including attitude, self-confidence, motivation, duration of exposure to the language,
classroom conditions, environment, family background, competent of student and
availability of competent teachers (Verghese, 2009). Nowadays, in the age of mass media
and electronic communication, the vast majority of verbal information exchange among
people takes place through oral communication. Thus of the four basic skills in language
learning – listening, reading, speaking, writing – speaking seems to be the most important
one in terms of judging a learner´s effective ability to use the language. Proficiency in
English language is considered as an indicator of success also in India. A good level of
proficiency is a prerequisite for getting a good job there. Spoken language production is
often considered one of the most difficult aspects of language learning (Brown & Yule,
1983). In reality, many language learners find it difficult to express themselves in

One of the greatest widespread problems among learners of foreign languages is their
considerably lower speaking performance when compared to their passive knowledge.
Those Learners are not able to express their thoughts and opinions satisfactorily generally
use a more simplified language which does not match their overall acquired level often
make mistakes and slips speak slowly and less fluently, making frequent pauses and
thinking of suitable or correct words are usually very shy and hesitant when it comes to
speaking, try to avoid such situations if possible, do not cooperate with the teacher or with
their peers respond briefly, often using only one word answers, e.g. “Yes“ or “No“
sometimes have nothing to say at all In such learners, the poor speaking performance is a
big handicap, as it makes their ability to use the language for its most important purpose
the exchange of information limited. This leads to a frustration and anxiety; seldom do
such people lose all love for the language and get discouraged from further studying.

Speaking is one of English skills because speaking and human being cannot be
separated from each other. Speaking is used to express ideas and to communicate to
people in the entire world. As foreign language learners in Indonesia, they still have
difficulty in speaking English. This problem also appears to the students of English
Language Education Study Program of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of
School, Ternate.

Based on the researcher’s experience in learning English, observation, and discussion


with some English students at English Language Education Study Program of School;
most English students’ difficulties occur when they speak English. They are caused by
their English background at elementary school to senior high school, untrained English,
and their mother tongue effect, but then the students can graduate from the university
without being overcome their problems seriously and being tested their spoken English
proficiency. Thus, as English students’ convention when they meet with their friends at
English
Language Education Study Program, the most used language to speak with their
friends is Indonesian or a local language.

Although they get English subjects of Speaking I, II, and III at the English Language
Education Study Program, the students are not still trained for communicating in English
with their friends and lecturers. They just speak English when they have some events or
English competitions such as: Debating, Guiding tourist, or having a public or a guest
lecture by an English foreigner.

At English Language Education Study Program, English still seems a foreign


language. There is no motivation or obligation to speak continuously among lecturers and
students. This will be very complicated to be solved for future English because only few
students can speak English as favorite as speaking Indonesian whenever and wherever
they need to speak. Therefore the students’ problems must be identified in order that they
can be solved properly.

To know and understand the students’ problems above, the researcher would like to
conduct research entitles “Exploring Inhibiting Factors to Speak English Faced by
Students at English Language Education Study Program of School”. The researcher hopes
that these problems can be identified and solved by all of us.

1.2 PROBLEMS OF TEACHING ENGLISH IN RURAL SCHOOLS OF INDIA:

 School students of the rural schools face a number of problems. English is their second
language.
 School students find themselves unable to express in English.
 School students do not know proper pronunciation, spellings and grammatical rules.
 School students never realize the importance of learning English as a language.
 Lack the confidence to speak in English
 First reason is that they have been taught English through Grammar-Translation
Method.
 This method makes them dependent on their mother tongue.
 Some teachers have good accent, but they do not possess a good command over the
language.

English is used all over the world not out of any imposition but because of the
realization that it has certain advantages. A very important reason for regarding English as
a world language is that the world's knowledge is enshrined in English. It is a progressive
language. It is dynamic and flexible. Over and above English is universally renowned for
its power of expression and its rich literature.

People from different provinces in India speak different languages. Indians have
varied forms of social etiquette, religious-philosophic customs, socio cultural patterns and
socio-linguistic parameters. A multiplicity of language patterns is the hallmark of socio-
linguistic reality in India. Language behaviors varies from Socio-geographic group to
group, as the way which languages are officially recognized and used for communication
purposes. English is being studied /taught in greater or smaller degree in schools, School
and the universities all over the country. Teaching of English suffers from the general
malaise that afflicts the educational system of India. It has been dawned upon the
country’s educational policy-makers that if English is at all learnt and taught then it
should be learnt and taught well. This implies the learning and teaching of English in
terms of the well-known four basic skills of language learning, viz., speaking listening,
reading and writing. Listening and speaking are the two neglected skills in classrooms in
India. English is spoken variously in different parts of the country, which has 18 officially
recognized languages and nearly 1652 dialects, according to the 1991 census of India. We
cannot expect a uniform standard of pronunciation for a second language in such a vast
country, where even the mother tongue is spoken differently by different groups of the
people belonging to the same language community. In learning to speak English, the
mother tongue generally interferes with its pronunciation. The learners as well as the
teachers speak English with regional language habits. Since English is not a medium of
instructions in schools and School in India, Indian students cannot practice and perfect
their English .Even during the English periods most teachers teach English without giving
the students proper practice in speech because they are not properly equipped enough to
practice it. The result is that after learning /teaching English for many years at school and
college, most people cannot speak and write the language with intelligible accuracy. With
the British rule, English became the standard language for study though institutions
offered students the opportunity to learn their mother tongue as second language and
Hindi, which is the national language, as the third 8 language in urban centers. A large
number of rural schools even today, offer education in the local language. Higher
education, however, follows English as the medium and whether in the North or in the
South, students who opt for higher education need to study the same in English Language.
So, the medium of teaching is local language but English is supposed to be learned by all
it is used in higher studies. This is a barrier. To put it in simple words, the barriers are
often caused by students’ respective mother tongues and their inability to communicate
with each other in English. It would be easy to say that a student from Delhi who chooses
to study in Karur will not have a language problem as the medium of education is English.
But the student has to live in a hostel, commute in the city and this is where language can
pose problems. Often, students are able to overcome such barriers and form peer groups
because we, the human race are survivors and hurdles are often opportunities to learn new
things. So a Delhiite who studies in Karur may pick up Tamil and their friends in
Karurcould learn to speak good Hindi. Yes, there is a short period of time, when language
and communication can pose problems. Students who wish to live in a group will find
ways to overcome barriers. Those who wish to alienate themselves will look for loopholes
such as language barriers to isolate themselves. The problem is not with the language but
with an individual’s ability to surpass it. Maximizing the learning results of our English
students, certain issues have often focused on issues including language teaching, learning
theories, teaching materials, teaching approaches and methodologies, syllabus design, etc.
Though research is being undertaken every day, much of it has been powerfully
constrained by Western cultural assumptions. Little research has been directed to the topic
of how the local educational/teaching environment has influenced students’ learning when
the students are not English majors, but studying English as non-majors due to
educational requirements and professional needs. This fact may at least lead to the result
that local English learning problems remain unsolved for long periods of time. This
project looks into some causes that may have greatly hindered the effect of English
learning for students in Karnataka, since the role of English in the education 9 systems
across the region are highly similar. Through survey data analysis, students’ perspectives
about English learning and the fears of learning English that may have grown out of
previous experiences are documented. It is the authors’ belief that a better understanding
of language learners can have a beneficial effect on the process of attempting to help
language learners in learning English as a foreign language. Unfortunately, while
communicating orally in English, the learners usually encounter varied linguistic
problems that evidently hamper their communication. The goal of the present study is to
find out the major barriers of communication in English faced by the students at the
tertiary level. It also tends to find out some effective and necessary solutions of the
problems, so that, both the teachers and the students can be benefited in their objectives.
The data for the present study were obtained through some audio texts and oral
presentations. The findings of the study show that unfamiliarity with the sound system of
English, inadequate range of vocabulary, inability to form certain grammatical
constructions listening and speaking, two of the four skills of English language, have been
considered as a crucial problem for the tertiary level students. Hence, being a teacher of
English, I have been observing that the tertiary level students confront lots of difficulties
in oral communication, especially in pronunciation including sounds, stress, intonation,
etc. They also often find English word formation and sentence construction quite
problematic. Moreover, the learners suffer problems in learning vocabulary items and to
convey meanings through and/or receive meanings of words, phrases, clauses,
sentences/utterances and so forth. Such problems obviously seriously hamper the learners’
oral as well as written communication. Therefore, it seems reasonable to take account of
and identify what major linguistic barriers the students encounter in oral and written
communication and what measures can be taken to overcome those barriers.

The changing times have witnessed the growing importance of English language in all
walks of life. It does not seem that non-native speakers or as a second language speakers.
Conscious and unconscious use of the words in our everyday conversation from the
English language bears evidence to this fact.

Education has been the primary factor in the more formal transmission of English
around the world. English symbolizes in Indian minds, better education, better culture and
higher intellect. In present times, English is the most preferred language. The Indians and
the Indian English language press uses many words derived from Indian language. Indian
accent is sometimes difficult for non-Indians to understand. Actually English has co-
existed in the Indian sub-continent alongside thousands of local languages. It has
remained at the heart of the Indian society.

Language learning is a natural process for the natives. The approach to this learning
process is called the 'behavioristic approach'. But for the School students of other
languages, deliberate efforts are required to learn a foreign language which requires a
'mentalistic approach'. The School students of rural and semi-urban areas in India face
such problems because English is not their mother-tongue. It is neither instinctive nor
intuitive. Language acquisition seems to be a process of both of analogy and application,
nature and nurture. Teachers of language have adopted and invented a variety of methods
to teach English.

School students of the rural schools face a number of problems. English is their
second language. Learning a second language means acquiring a system of rules, but just
as a very little is known about these rules, even less is known about how such rule
systems are acquired. School students find themselves unable to express in English. They
have no idea of proper sentence structure. They do not know proper pronunciation,
spellings and grammatical rules.

The sole objective of the teacher and the learner remain to clear the exams. The
School students never realize the importance of learning English as a language. In the
past, in rural areas, English was introduced to School students in the fifth class. But now
there is no dearth of English medium schools in such area yet the standards of English are
falling rapidly.

The teacher has to keep in mind the age of the student, his native language, his
cultural background and his previous experience with English. The experience of the
teacher and his level of English mastery are equally important. To achieve the desired
effects, the goal of a course much be kept in mind-whether it is aimed at reading, fluency
in speech, inculcating translation skill. All these objects shape methodology.

School students of the rural areas do not realize the importance of English as a
language of communication whereas this is the most important aspect of this global
language. They lack the confidence to speak in English; expression in the language is
weak. First reason is that they have been taught English through Grammar-Translation
Method. This method makes them dependent on their mother tongue. Whatever they read,
they translate it into their own vernacular. During the time of exams, they cram the
expected questions because they cannot write one original sentence of their own. Because
of GT Method, they have no vocabulary of English words. While writing, they depend on
the cheap material from the help books.

The hackneyed, stereotyped and traditional pattern of exams aims at clearing English
not as a language but as a subject. The School students, therefore, are guided to practice
pick and chose method from the sub-standard material available in the market. So that
School students merely pass the subject far from learning any level of the Language. It is
more shocking to learn that even the questions that School students are supposed to
answer are told to learn through translation from English to their own vernacular. Poor
performance in translation, lack of proper vocabulary, no knowledge proverbs all are
results of a casual approach. Even after reading English for 14 or 15 years the level of the
School students remains poor.

Because of the rapidly increasing web of Educational facilities, the rural areas have
been enjoying the facilities of the convents. But it has neither helped in raising the level of
the School students, nor made them learn English as a language. The infrastructure of
such schools is weak. Some teachers have good accent, but they do not possess a good
command over the language. Now In the rural and semi-Urban areas, study of English
language begins at an early age, at the KG level, it continues up to Senior Secondary or
first Degree level. Even in the Professional Courses, the teaching of English as a
communication skill is an integral part of the curriculum or the course obligations. It is
quite unfortunate that whatever our English language teachers gain in the completion of
their course or education as eligibility for seeking a job or an employment, it stays there
and the teaching learning stagnates.

By noticing all such components of the language they can enjoy the richness and
flexibility of language. Once their interest is aroused, they will show tremendous
improvement. Reading can also help them in making aware of spellings. When the School
students have practiced different uses of words and have developed habit of reading, they
can avoid the common errors of Translations.

There can be no learning without exposure. Group discussions can be arranged. Texts
should be read loudly by the School students. Simple usage of words will become a part
of their speech only when they are exposed to deliver a speech and express their own
ideas. The zeal for learning will help them in their own advancement. The problems of the
School students and the teachers are inter-related. It is necessary to assure that the learner
makes a tremendous contribution in the process.

1.3. ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IS NOT HELPING TAMIL NADU’S CHILDREN:

Several states looking to fix their failing public education have settled on “English
medium” as the likely solution. Tamilnadu, for one, intends to universalize it. In Tamil
Nadu, English as the medium of instruction is optional in some elementary schools.

Tamil Nadu’s decision was informed by a slight fall in enrolment in state-run schools
compared to private schools. The government interpreted it as a sign of the public’s
growing preference for English medium schooling. Indeed, a minster told the Assembly in
2012 that introducing English as a medium of instruction would make state schools more
attractive to rural children. Since then, over 3,00,000 children have enrolled in or shifted
to English medium sections in public schools.

The state education department’s policy note for 2013-’14 listed the introduction of
English medium instruction as the final of nine “welfare measures” – to go with free
uniforms, crayons, geometry boxes – that would ensure “government schools in rural
areas attract more children”.

On the face of it, this may look like a government committed to public education and
responsive to changes on the ground. But the nature of the problem and the quality of its
response raise questions about the state’s conception of “quality education” and its
motivation for pushing English as a medium of instruction.

The state claims its policy is “a paramount of achievement”, citing an increase in


enrolment and improvement in English scores in the State Level Achievement Survey.
Teachers, however, paint a different picture.

Since most elementary school teachers speak English with difficulty, the classes are
English medium in name only.

A shared knowledge base

Teachers must share a common philosophy and knowledge base relative to the education of students learning

English. They should be knowledgeable about all of the following areas: second language acquisition; the

relationship of native language proficiency to the development of English; assessment of proficiency in the

native language and English; sociocultural influences on learning; effective first and second language

instruction; informal assessment strategies that can be used to monitor progress, particularly in language and

literacy development; and effective strategies for working with culturally and linguistically diverse families

and communities.
Recognition of the students' native language

Language programs must have the support of principals, teachers, parents, and the community. School staff

should understand that native language instruction provides the foundation for achieving high levels of

English proficiency (Cummins, 1994; Krashen, 1991; Thomas & Collier, 1997). Language development

should be the shared responsibility of all teachers, not only those in bilingual and ESL classes.

Collaborative school-community relationships

Parents of students learning English must be viewed as capable advocates for their children and as valuable

resources in school improvement efforts (Cummins, 1994). By being involved with the families and

communities of English learners, educators come to understand the social, linguistic, and cultural contexts in

which the children are being raised (Ortiz, 1997). Thus, educators learn to respect cultural differences in

child-rearing practices and in how parents choose to be involved in their children's education (Garcia &

Dominguez, 1997).

Academically rich programs

Students learning English must have opportunities to learn advanced skills in comprehension, reasoning, and

composition and have access to curricula and instruction that integrate basic skill development with higher

order thinking and problem solving (Ortiz, & Wilkinson, 1991).

Effective instruction

Students must have access to high-quality instruction designed to help them meet high expectations.

Teachers should employ strategies known to be effective with English learners, such as drawing on their

prior knowledge; providing opportunities to review previously learned concepts and teaching them to employ
those concepts; organizing themes or strands that connect the curriculum across subject areas; and providing

individual guidance, assistance, and support to fill gaps in background knowledge.

Early intervention for struggling learners

Most learning problems can be prevented if students are in positive school and classroom contexts that

accommodate individual differences. However, even in the most positive environments, some students still

experience difficulties. For these students, early intervention strategies must be implemented as soon as

learning problems are noted. Early intervention means that "supplementary instructional services are

provided early in students' schooling, and that they are intense enough to bring at-risk students quickly to a

level at which they can profit from high-quality classroom instruction" (Madden, Slavin, Karweit, Dolan, &

Wasik, 1991, p. 594).

The intent of early intervention is to create general education support systems for struggling learners as a

way to improve academic performance and to reduce inappropriate special education referrals. Examples of

early intervention include clinical teaching, peer and expert consultation, teacher assistance teams, and

alternative programs such as those that offer tutorial or remedial instruction in the context of general

education.

Clinical teaching

Clinical teaching is carefully sequenced. First, teachers teach skills, subjects, or concepts; then they re-teach

using different strategies or approaches for the benefit of students who fail to meet expected performance

levels after initial instruction; finally, they use informal assessment strategies to identify the possible causes

of failure (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz & Wilkinson, 1991). Teachers conduct curriculum-based assessment to monitor

student progress and use the data from these assessments to plan and modify instruction.
Peer or expert consultation

Peers or experts work collaboratively with general education teachers to address students' learning problems

and to implement recommendations for intervention (Fuchs, Fuchs, Bahr, Fernstrom, & Stecker, 1990). For

example, teachers can share instructional resources, observe each other's classrooms, and offer suggestions

for improving instruction or managing behavior. ESL teachers can help general education teachers by

demonstrating strategies to integrate English learners in mainstream classrooms. In schools with positive

climates, faculty function as a community and share the goal of helping students and each other, regardless

of the labels students have been given or the programs or classrooms to which teachers and students are

assigned.

Since most elementary school teachers speak English with difficulty, the classes are English medium in
name only. Photo credit:

All but three of the 28 children in Class 3-4 of a rural school in Kanchipuram district were “English
medium”. When they started school two and three years ago, Tamil was the medium of instruction. But
when English was offered last year, the majority switched. The three who did not switch continue in the
same classroom.

The head teacher complained that state officials did not discuss the policy change with them. Still, the
teachers did not try to dissuade parents from taking the English medium option. Supriya, who teaches Class
3-4, felt the children would be better off learning in Tamil. “But we are afraid they will leave, so we do not
say anything to their parents,” she said.

Teaching the alphabet or words and simple sentences using the Activity Based Learning system is not a
problem for teachers, Supriya said, since in any case they taught English as the second language from Class
1. The problem was in explaining words, ideas and concepts in English, especially when they cannot be
expressed as pictures. In Tamil Nadu’s primary schools, one teacher teaches all subjects – language, social
science, science and mathematics. Supriya herself spoke English with difficulty. As a result, her class, like
most such classes, is English medium in name only. Or, as she put it, “neither English nor Tamil”.

Dominance of Vernacular Language in Learning and Teaching English Even though students study English

as a medium of instruction, they find difficult to frame even a single sentence without any grammatical error

in English. The reason for this plight of the students is that they study subjects from the examination point of

view only. Even English language is taught in the vernacular language. Our examination system encourages

the students to learn lessons by heart and reproduce them in the examinations, just aiming at a pass mark or

some grade in English. The focus of the teachers in general is more on teaching about English rather than

teaching in English. Teaching about English rather than Teaching in English Students learn basic grammar at

school level with the so called intention of getting a pass mark in the tests and examinations, and not to

confront with challenges they face due to lack of communicative skills in English. Application-oriented

advanced grammar is not taught in schools. Furthermore, adequate practice is not given to students to

effectively use the language for their prosperous future. Exposure too is far less to them. School study is an

important phase in every student’s life. A student grows from a small child to a grown up when he/she

completes higher secondary examinations. A student, after this phase, enters into college life. This period is

considered a transition period. The system followed in colleges is different from that of schools. They suffer

a lot due to poor communication skills and knowledge over the language. Each and every child has much

talents and capabilities, but it is unfortunate that they do not get proper guidance and opportunity to develop

their skills and ignite their talents.

Teaching in both English and Tamil would have been ideal. Bilingual classrooms, with a teacher fluent in
both the language that the children already know or speak and the one they are learning, are increasingly
seen as the way forward. In this case, the teacher would use both Tamil and English in the classroom and
gradually move to using only English. But Supriya and most other elementary school teachers lack
proficiency, never mind fluency, in English. So, their classrooms are not bilingual, just badly mixed up.
teachers’ relations within the school and community,motivation and performance in teaching, and future
decision-making related toworking at rural schools. Moroever, the literature brings to light that the
factorsaffecting teachers’ job satisfaction and their effects upon teachers’ work and futuredecision-making
can vary according to different attributes at the level ofcommunity, school, and individual. However, the
previous research is very oftenlimited to the beliefs and attitudes of teachers. Hence, they do not provide a
deepunderstanding of the rural community and school effects. By understanding factorsthat contibute to
teachers’ job satisfaction, professional needs of rural teachers canbe more accurately addressed. With this
qualitative case study, how a beginningEnglish language teacher feels about teaching at a rural elementary
school in CentralTurkey and how his teaching

Mangala, an award-winning Activity Based Learning teacher, agreed that English as the medium of
instruction in primary school was a “real problem”. Primary school children, she said, learn best in their
mother tongue. Mangala switched to Tamil to explain how a familiar language helped ease children into the
process of learning. It enabled them to understand and engage with what they learn, talk about it with others,
instead of leaving them confused, bored and disinterested.

Mangala’s spoken English was insufficient for a conversation about her experience as a teacher. Like many
former elementary school teachers, she had acquired the qualifications to be a middle school teacher because
there were opportunities for promotion. She opted for English because at the time there were vacancies for
middle school English teachers.

Her explanation about the role language plays in a child’s education is of a piece with scholarship on the
subject. Research shows that children taught in their mother tongue learn their second or third languages
with greater ease, if, of course, each language is taught properly. For children in Tamil Nadu, being taught a
language by someone who has never learnt to teach it is already a bad start. Being taught everything in a
language that the teacher herself uses minimally is disastrous.
he Village and Its People Snowflake was a small place in the east of central Raindrop and just 6-7 km away from the

city centre. According to the law no. 5747 ‘Establishing Districts in the Borders of Metropolitan Municipalities and

Making Amendments in Some Laws’ accepted in 2008, the place became a village to be valid with the first local
elections. However, since its request to join the related provincial or district as a neighbourhood was accepted

(considering its proximity to the centre was less than 10 km as stated in the law), Snowflake took part in the first local

elections in 2009 as a neighbourhood. Even though it is not recognized as a village in the official documents any more,

it did not lose anything from its natural characteristics. There are approximately 350 houses and 1000 people in the

village. Most of the people make their living from agriculture and animal husbandry. There are also a small number of

people who are civil servants (such as specialist sergeant, municipal official, etc.) or workers. The buildings are similar

to shanties although there are few reinforced-concrete houses built in the last 5-10 years. The people usually live in

nuclear families including a mother, father and children; however, their houses are still very close to their relatives,

parents and siblings.

The parents are generally graduate of the 5-year compulsory elementary school, and a few of them are at best graduate

of high school. There are also illiterate parents. In the village, the boys, if they continue, go to vocational high schools.

Otherwise, they start to work as an apprentice at cafes or small shops. As for the girls, some might start a high school;

however, most of them usually get married off at a young age. 39 For this qualitative case study, Snowflake was

purposefully selected. Two major factors played key roles in deciding on this setting. The first one is easy access to the

place. Since the researcher lived and worked in Raindrop, she was able to conduct the study for an extended period of

time in the research setting, which is essential to achieve the objectives of this qualitative case study. The second one

is that community trust has already been established, which is also very important for qualitative case studies. It is the

researcher’s own hometown and she was an old student of the village school for four years. Hence, the people were not

uncomfortable with her presence. Instead, they were enthusiastic about the study. 3.3 Participants In this qualitative

case study, the primary participant is the English language teacher working at the rural school selected by the

researcher. However, focusing on teachers only is not a sufficient way to reveal how schools and their communities

situate English language education and how the rural context influenced a teacher’s professional identity and teaching

practices. Therefore, some other participants holding different roles in this context were also involved in the study. The

other participants included the school administrators, the teachers other than the English language teacher, the students
and the parents. Besides, the researcher herself was the only one interacting with all the participants for the purpose of

data collection.

Go up the school system and teachers at every level talk about their School students’ low learning levels;
limited facility with language, particularly English, and poor grasp of basic mathematical concepts. The State
Level Achievement Survey may show year-on-year improvement in learning but teachers said they did not
see this in their classrooms. In Class 5-6, rote learning rules despite the fact that Activity Based Learning in
Classes 1 through 4 and Active Learning Methodology from Class 5 were introduced to minimise just this.
More importantly, even School students who learn, understand and analyse fairly well now find it difficult to
write, especially in English.

Over 3,00,000 children are enrolled in English medium sections in public schools. Photo credit: Anjali Mody

Over 3,00,000 children are enrolled in English medium sections in public schools. Photo credit: Anjali Mody

Tamil Nadu’s English medium policy is symptomatic of policymaking that undervalues language education,
said the historian AR Venkatachalapathy. He attended a government funded school inkarurand works in both
Tamil and English. The School students he taught as a university teacher, however, “lacked the capacity to
read even a newspaper”. This is largely because the education system sees language in purely instrumental
terms as a means of basic communication. “But language is germane to thinking and no one [who makes
education policy] seems to understand this,” he said.

Since English as second language is poorly taught, most government school School students can barely use it
even for simple communication. When they become teachers, the problem is amplified. An English lecturer
at Chennai’s District Institute for Education and Training said most trainee teachers, even after studying
English for 12 years at school, had practically no English. Since most of them pass the language paper by
cramming, it “is like teaching them a new language from scratch”. “We cannot expect adults to learn a
language to full fluency in a short time,” she said. In her own class, the lecturer added, she got practically no
responses from trainee teachers if she spoke in English

Then, the researcher interviewed one of the classroom teachers. He is the classroom teacher of the 4th grade

students. The researcher selected him because he could be entitled to be a special, idealist teacher. This was

observable from his classroom. It is the only classroom which has a computer, projector and white board at the
school. He has even installed Internet connection to his classroom recently. The researcher learnt the reason

for this roughly from the English language teacher and then talked with him about its details. He has been

the classroom teacher of the 4 th grade from the students’ very first day in their 1st year at the school. The

school had a projector in the meeting hall and the computer lab on the second floor. However, there was not

a projector in his classroom on the first floor as there were not any in all the other classrooms. He had a

disabled girl in his class. In their first years, he told me that he was able to take her in her arms to the second

floor. However, as she grew up, she started to gain weight. Thus, it became hard for him to carry her. He

tried hard to solve this problem talking with the school administrators, parents and some institutions and

unions so that they could buy a projector for his classroom, instead of simply giving up the idea of using a

projector, and succeeded in the end. Hence, Teacher 3 is a good example of an idealist and caring teacher at

the school. This is the 10th year of Teacher 3 in teaching. He started his teaching career as a temporary

teacher in Raindrop. Interestingly, he taught English at an elementary school during this period. Then, he

was recruited to a school in Eastern Turkey. A year later, he transferred to a school in a neighbouring city of

Raindrop located in Central Turkey because his wife was appointed to a school in this city. After 4 years, he

finally came to Snowflake Elementary School. This is his 4th year at the school. However, he intends to

transfer to another school in the city centre after his 4th grade students finished the 5th grade in the following

year. In Turkey, classroom teachers usually take a class from the 1st grade to the end of the 5th grade at

elementary education. Teacher 3 does not want to leave his pupils until they finish the 5th grade because he

has made a great effort for them since their 1st grade.

The gaps in teacher education exacerbate the problem. Teacher education schools such as the District

Institutes for Education and Training do not distinguish between first and second language teaching. They

also reinforce the practices trainee teachers are familiar with from school, where most pass exams by

employing tricks to answer basic grammar questions, ignoring the comprehension section. So, School
students, teachers and teacher educators are caught in a vicious cycle, from which there seems to be no

escape.

The education department, however, is not overly concerned about this. Never mind engaging with

pedagogic arguments about the benefits of teaching in the mother tongue, even questions about the ability of

teachers to teach English as second language or use it as the medium of instruction are brushed aside. A

senior official who was until recently responsible for the introduction of English medium classes, said there

was no need to hire new teachers for English medium classes because existing teachers are “highly trained”

and that “They have been teaching English as a subject so they can teach in English.”

Trainee teachers disagree. Lakshmi, a trainee teacher at the District Institute for Education Training in
Vellore, said, speaking in Tamil, “Children will only learn in English if the teacher is fluent and can transfer
knowledge in that language. It will not happen if the teacher is like me, not comfortable in the language.”

Her classmate Anita pointed out that language was “something ingrained…through which we express ideas
and feelings”. English, she said, was “alright for communication and technology but cannot be like Tamil for
us, we think in Tamil.”

So, will they refuse to teach in English? “We will teach in English because it is government policy,” they
said.

They do what they are told to get or keep jobs. Teaching jobs in state schools are linked to enrolment.
Schools that enrol School students for English medium instruction can start a new section and, in theory,
create a new teaching position. It is a Faustian bargain: teachers, whatever their ability or inclination, agree
to teach “English medium” classes in exchange for a job.

How does the education department justify this bargain? First, by asserting, despite evidence to the contrary,
that all the teachers are “highly trained”. Second, by insisting that, “primary school teachers are trained every
year in teaching through English medium”.
Trainee teachers, whatever their ability or inclination, agree to teach English medium
classes to get a job. Photo credit: Anjali Mody

Trainee teachers, whatever their ability or inclination, agree to teach English medium
classes to get a job. Photo credit: Anjali Mody

In the department’s view, short duration in-service training programmes – four days at
a time – conducted by educators trained by the British Council will fix any shortcomings
in a teacher’s capacity to “teach through English medium”.

Indeed, from secretary of school education down to block level officials, the education
department had a standard reply to how teachers with little English and poor teaching
skills can use it as the medium of instruction: “We are giving them training.”

How effective was the training? Mary, a Block Resource Teacher Educator who
formerly taught secondary school English, said “after phonetic training”, teachers “are
able to speak up to 40-50 per cent level”. It is a grim statistic, she conceded. But then, she
said, no amount of in-service training can compensate for gaps in the teacher’s prior
education.

The education bureaucracy sees teachers as the problem. They are seen at best as
poorly trained and at worst lazy, unaccountable and protected by political interests
(teachers are a powerful political constituency in the state). However, it is bureaucrats
who set recruitment norms for teachers. A few thoughtful teacher educators pointed out
that the norms ignore the most important criterion – aptitude for teaching. Indeed, the
officials’ insistence that teachers who know little English teach in the language suggests
that even the requirement of basic skills is ignored.

The karur District has adopted a different method in its schools. It has handed over
classes in 32 schools to Teach for India. The non-profit’s teachers or fellows are young
people who have quit regular non-teaching jobs or are between degrees. They get a few
weeks training in a teaching methodology that is not Activity Based Learning and sign up
to teach for two years. They speak English and teach in English, and are not required to
know the local language.

Malini, a fellow in her second year teaching at a school in central Chennai, said it had
all been wonderful. Asked if she faced any problem in her classroom, she replied, “There
is still a problem with the children’s comprehension.” Her School students were in Class
4. At a northkarurschool, the Class 4 teacher is a young Indian-American. He was having
a time of it, trying to get his class to answer the question, “What functions does the
cerebellum control?” His eager School students kept pointing to different parts of their
heads to tell him where the cerebellum was located.

S Teresa, the harried principal of the school in central Chennai, said she should be
grateful for Teach for India fellows because the school is short of English teachers. But,
she added, “These are projects of NGOs given to District schools for just one-two years.”
The arrangement is “neither here nor there, no English and no Tamil”. She said Class 4
School students were “slipping in social science because writing is a problem. They have
no language; they do not know English to write”. If that was not worrying enough, Teresa
said, “Now the children do not like Tamil, they only want English.” Although they learn
Tamil as second language from a regular teacher, the principal fears the children are
losing reading and writing skills. The school’s Tamil teacher was doing two additional
hours a week with these School students as a consequence.

Tamil Nadu’s self-image is of a state making a difference. The education department’s


policy note for 2016-’17 declares that “Tamil Nadu is the only state that provides children
with the maximum entitlements and this eliminates all socio, economic barriers and
hindrances to, and opens new vistas for learning”. Further, it is “a pioneer state in
introducing welfare schemes for enabling children of all sections to attend schools without
any socio-economic barriers”.

All governments exaggerate their achievements. But even accepting these claims at
face value, it is clear that the education department’s approach to provisioning for
elementary education is about ticking off boxes on a checklist. So long as it can tick off
all the boxes – uniforms, geometry box, notebooks, English medium – its claims hold. But
changing the medium of instruction is not the same as providing school bags or a box of
crayons.

If we take into consideration the role of teacher and learner in acquiring the
knowledge of a language; the problems can be solved effectively. Only then the School
students will realize the practical use of English language. English will be used by them as
a medium of expression. They will be able to use English as a language of
communication. Fluency in the speech, proper knowledge of sentence structure,
confidence of speaking in the public will make them able to keep their pace with the
developing world.

coherently. This calls for an investigation to identify reasons for such poor proficiency
level of the learners in English so that necessary measures can be undertaken to address
the problem.

INFLUENCES OF BARRIERS

1. Attitude: Rubin & Thomspson defines attitude as one of the key factors that influences success or
failure for language learners. There is a clear relationship between attitude and achievement in
learning a language. A positive attitude will help learners to achieve their goals. Holmes , concludes
in his study that when language learners have a positive attitude towards a target language, they will be
successful in acquiring a target language 2. Theenvironment does not support the School students to speak
English frequently. The environment here means the people outside the class. Those people may think
that the School students just want to show off when they speak English for daily conversation. The
response that the School students get makes them loose their self-confidence to improve their speaking.
Since the School students do not want to be rejected by the people around them, so they use their native
language in daily conversation. That makes the School students unable to communicate in English
fluently outside the class.
3. Problem with grammar: Most School students are very easy to get confused with English grammar,
while grammar is very needed to form a right sentence. If the School students do not have grammar
mastery, of course they will not be able to produce sentences that grammatically right. Realizing that the
grammar School students have is very weak, so they feel embarrassed when they want to produce
English sentences orally.

4. Difficulties to speak English fluently: Now, English is an international language. Even technology and
working world use English. It is believed that the School students want to be the winner in working world
competition that is getting tight day by day. One of the conditions that the School students must require
is having ability to speak English fluently. This skill will be their plus point in facing the working
world.

5. Language Proficiency of School students and teachers In many places School students‟ low
proficiency in English worked as a barrier for teachers in using English as the only language of
instruction. That is by many teaches choose local language for teaching. Observation shows that
Classes are held in both Tamil and English so that the School students can comprehend better” • School
students‟ language proficiency is particularly low in rural areas and the socioeconomic status of the School
students in rural areas appeared to be a major reason for the low proficiency of the School students.
Many teachers in the rural area said that since School students in these areas came from under
privileged and uneducated poor families, they did not find anyone at home to help them learn English
and they received little exposure to English language outside the classroom. “School students are from
poor and uneducated family. • School students of rural area listen to English only when they are in
school. They do not get any language input when they are home whereas the kids of urban area get
help from their private tutors. Their educated parents can also help them with learning English.
That‟s why their English language skill is more developed. • Most of the teachers who teach English
had only a course on English in Bachelor in.
Table
1.1 Differences between the first language acquisition and second language
Learning

Sl. No. First Language(L1) Acquisition Second Language (L2)Learning

1. Subconscious process Purely conscious process


2. Informal activity Formal activity
3. Uses grammatical ‘feel’ Uses grammatical rules
4. Depends on attitude Depends on aptitude
5. Stable order of acquisition Simple to complex order of learning

Acquiring proficiency in a language involves the ability to perform efficiently in all


the four language skills viz. listening, speaking, reading and writing. Since the present
work attempts to study proficiency at High school s level and at this stage English is used
mainly as a language of reference, The study have tried to identify pragmatic components
such as following the student’s pre-existence knowledge, invisible meaning, contextual
meaning, deixis, reference, inference, antecedent, anaphora, speech acts, and politeness.
The basic assumption on which this work is based on is that the High school School
students of Karurdistrict who speak Tamil as their mother tongue possess low proficiency
levels of English even though they are pursuing highest level of education.

As mentioned earlier, knowledge of English and the ability to use it has assumed
greater importance in modern India. While in the past English was associated with elitism
and good upbringing, nowadays even the man of the street prides himself in using English
words and phrases, particularly when addressing himself to his social superior. The use of
English has become a hall mark of social standards and prestige. In a multilingual country
like India, English also acts as an important link language. Its significance as a window to
the world and as a means of gaining access to knowledge in the ever growing field of
science and technology has been well in schools and Schools. It is therefore imperative
that School students aim at learning it well and gaining adequate proficiency in it so as to
be able to use it profitable whenever recognized by the educational policy markets. Hence
English is retained as a compulsory subject of studies needed.

The English language has exercised a great influence over the past two centuries in
shaping the political, social, economic, intellectual and cultural life of India and still
serving as a dynamic instrument of social changes. English is today one of the widely
used international languages of the world. It provides easy access to the world’s rich
literature, science and technology, radio and T.V and ever-growing number of books,
periodicals and newspaper. We in India have gained immensely by being part of this great
heritage through the English language. The teaching of college and English learning by
School students are facing lot of hurdles, especially at Karurdistrict of Tamilnadu,
because their socioeconomic back ground, circumstances and parental education are poor.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

A critical study onTamil medium students difficulties to understand the englishlanguage at high school
level in karur

For the past few decades many efforts have been carried out for improving the
performance of the School students in English language. But still there exists some
linguistic impairment in the process of English Language learning. Based on the recent
researches taken place in English Language Teaching (ELT) in India in general, and in
Tamilnadu in particular, it is understood that the School students who learn English as a
second language are not able to perform at the expected level in English. Some early
studies reveal a bitter fact that the School students studying in the college encounter
plenty and numerous of problems which hurdle the language user to excel in their
linguistic behavior. Therefore, the School students of High school s are not able to fair
well in writing skill of English language. Of course they should have proper proficiency
in the Writing skill. Therefore, the present study tries to unearth some of the pragmatic
and discourse problems encountered by the High school School students and thereby try
to better the teaching- learning situation of English language.
INFLUENCES OF BARRIERS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE:

1. Attitude: Rubin & Thomspson defines attitude as one of the key factors that influences success or failure
for language learners. There is a clear relationship between attitude and achievement in learning a language.
A positive attitude will help learners to achieve their goals. Holmes , concludes in his study that when
language learners have a positive attitude towards a target language, they will be successful in acquiring a
target language

2. Theenvironment does not support the School students to speak English frequently. The environment here
means the people outside the class. Those people may think that the School students just want to show off
when they speak English for daily conversation. The response that the School students get makes them
loose their self-confidence to improve their speaking. Since the School students do not want to be rejected
by the people around them, so they use their native language in daily conversation. That makes the School
students unable to communicate in English fluently outside the class.

3. Problem with grammar: Most School students are very easy to get confused with English grammar, while
grammar is very needed to form a right sentence. If the School students do not have grammar mastery, of
course they will not be able to produce sentences that grammatically right. Realizing that the grammar
School students have is very weak, so they feel embarrassed when they want to produce English sentences
orally.

4. Difficulties to speak English fluently: Now, English is an international language. Even technology and
working world use English. It is believed that the School students want to be the winner in working world
competition that is getting tight day by day. One of the conditions that the School students must require is
having ability to speak English fluently. This skill will be their plus point in facing the working world.

5. Language Proficiency of School students and teachers In many places School students‟ low proficiency
in English worked as a barrier for teachers in using English as the only language of instruction. That is by
many teaches choose local language for teaching. Observation shows that Classes are held in both Tamil
and English so that the School students can comprehend better” School students‟ language proficiency is
particularly low in rural areas and the socioeconomic status of the School students in rural areas appeared
to be a major reason for the low proficiency of the School students. Many teachers in the rural area said that
since School students in these areas came from under privileged and uneducated poor families, they did not
find anyone at home to help them learn English and they received little exposure to English language
outside the classroom. “School students are from poor and uneducated family. School students of rural area
listen to English only when they are in school. They do not get any language input when they are home
whereas the kids of urban area get help from their private tutors. Their educated parents can also help them
with learning English. That‟s why their English language skill is more developed. Most of the teachers
who teach English had only a course on English in Bachelor in.

6. Regional Disparity The study showed visible difference in using English as the language of instruction
between the rural and urban areas in Tamilnadu. While teachers of urban areas used English and Tamil, the
teachers of rural areas taught only in Tamil.

Instructed learning or Classroom-based learning is the main way in which stud~nts in Tonga learn English
as a second language both at primary and secondary schools. It follows that what they learn is guided and
controlled a great deal by a fonnal curriculum of an English Language course designed by the Tongan
Ministry of Education. The curriculum for learning English at Form 5, for instance, outlines the aims,
objectives, content and the kind of examination for the course. For its implementation, the curriculum
recommends texts and the Curriculum Unit of the Ministry has also written a set of teaching materials to
aid the teaching. At the end of each year, School students' achievements on the English language course are
examined and the results are used for promotion purposes, for job applications and for further studies. The
English course prescription curriculum for Form 5 at secondary level (shown below) will reveal some
characteristics of how English is taught in bilinguaJ education in Tonga.

Most of the parents were uneducated farmers in rural areas and in many situations; the student was the first
person in his/her family to get the education. School students, therefore, did not get any help from their
home or family, and school was the only place where they learned English. By contrast, in urban areas
School students received additional out-of-school help from their parents at home. They found places
outside school where they could learn English and parents could also spend money for private tuition of the
children. These reasons worked as hindrances in developing the proficiency of School students in rural
areas.

THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL SYSTEM

SCHOOL SYSTEM

No The Impact of School System The Students of Responses

No English teachers at particular

1 schools …No English Teachers…

2 The students’ spoken …I don’t have many vocabulary so it makes me


English in

difficult to speaking. We rarely speak


difficulties at particular outside the class because my friends and I
schools always use the local language…

…because I know only a little bit about


English at the time. So it’s really difficult
if we speak English at school and no-one
wants to speak English at school.
Yeah…it’s like only some word, we know
the meaning but we rarely use it. It can be
never,
… pronunciation…

…so we was shy when we meet


the other students, and we have
to talk with them with English…
…difficult. But when I only made some for
example like Introduction ourselves, that
is easy because I have always make it in
the junior high school,

…we always think about grammar, the


most students feel difficult when they try
to speak English by using grammar, and
we don’t confident when we try to speak
English…

They never speak English with me or with us.

…My teacher always sometimes speaking


English if she meet us so just say, ‘Hello,
what are you going?...

3. Learning more
The difficult one because we never practice
theoretically
thanpractically
English, we only learn the material

Mostly they are talking about like making


a lot of in writing especially we need to
know about; almost junior and senior
same subject for me because all of the
questions around the advertisement,
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The review of related literature is an essential step in any research project. It is a survey of the
current status of research works already done. It's main function is to provide background
information on the research question and to identify what others have said or discovered about the
question. Carried

out systematically, the literature review acquaints the researcher with previous work in the field
and alerts him to problems and potential pitfalls in the chosen area. E L I being an extensive field
and a globally-controlled-discursive practice11 a lot of research has been done pertaining to the
study of the problems of teaching and learning English so that it is not possible to provide a
comprehensive review bringing in all those studies or researches that have been carried on so far
However an endeavour has been made here to review some important studies in India and abroad
as well as in the north-east so as to gain necessary information and insights to build the theoretical
framework, research design etc. for the present study.

Definitions of Speaking

Speaking is one of English skills used to express ideas and to communicate with other people in
the entire world with a variety of reason such as: relationship, business, networking, overseas
travelling, etc. Speaking is a skill which means not only to be known or learnt, but also to be
practiced. Speaking is not about what should be said only but what people should listen from you
to know and to understand each other. It determines how long it is listened, how well it is
understood, and applied between two people or among people.

To know and understand what speaking is, there are some definitions of Speaking as the
following:

According to Walter and Woodford (in Cambridge School Dictionary, 2008), “Speaking is to say
something using your voice or to make a speech to a large group of people”.
According to Walter (in Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008), “Speaking is

1. To say words, to use the voice, or to have a conversation with someone”,

2. To (be able to) talk in a language”,

3. To give a formal talk to a group of people”,

4. To show or express something without using words”.

Many people feel that speaking in a new language is harder than reading, writing, or listening for
two reasons. First, unlike reading or writing, speaking happens in real time usually the person you
are talking to is waiting for you to speak right then. Second, when you speak, you cannot edit and
revise what you wish to say, as you can if you are writing. (Nunan, 2003:48) It states that
speaking is more difficult than writing or listening and reading where in writing, you may
reconstruct it while making mistake.

According to Richards (2008:19), the mastery of speaking skill in English is a priority for many
second language or foreign language learners. Consequently, learners often evaluate their success
in language learning as well as the effectiveness of their English course on the basis of how much
they feel they have improved in their spoken language proficiency. It states that speaking skill is
a main goal in learning English as a foreign language or a second language before mastering other
skills of English Language such as: listening, reading, and writing. It is also as measurement
how well and successful people learn English.

According to Vangundy (2005; 21), “Problems as goals, one general definition describes a
problem in terms of some difficult obstacle or goal. In other words, anything difficult to overcome
is a problem. He implies that every difficulty is a problem and to overcome the problem is the
way to achieve the goal.
According to Walter (2008), “Problem is a situation, person or thing that needs attention and
needs to be dealt with or solved”. It is implied that wherever and whenever there is a problem. It
must be solved. In other words, never let the problems without solving them and solve the
problems without having a problem with.

According to Jonassen (2004:3), Problem is defined as First; a problem is an unknown entity in


some context (the difference between a goal state and a

current state). Second, finding or solving for the unknown must have some social, cultural, or
intellectual value. He means that something exists but it is not known and it must be found and
solved with social, cultural, or intellectual value.

Thus the following studies have been reviewed for the purpose of the study.

Rao Ramachandra K Nijlingappa P and Pillai Swaminathan,(1988):“To study and analysis


different aspects of competency in English as attained by polytechnic School School
students.Independent study – Technical Teacher’s Training Institute Madras. The Present review
identify the general level of proficiency attained by School School students in the chosen aspects.
Even its priorities the aspects in terms of their easiness difficulty and suggests suitable measures
to improve learner’s language skills. As we have t to mastery over the Language we need to go
through the skills in deeply.

Miss Rupa Sinha ,(1999):“The effects of language of performance a study of factors affecting the
learning transfer process in the study of English in standard VI and VII” Researcher has taken
following points for his study as a review, The Present study will be about to performance of the
School School students of the experimental group and the control group. It is shown that the
problems faced by the teachers during the teaching of English. Even over here they have studied
attitudes of parents towards English teaching. We even get the attitudes of experts in Education
towards English teaching. Children like to act how life is lived at the Ganesh festival and
Vegetable market. Children were found to perform better in small groups. We can use audio visual
aids for teaching English found effective in teaching field.

According to Michael (In www.EXLenglish.com, 2010:1), “He learned English for more than 10
years and he has been living in UK for 3 years. He is very good at reading English. He reads a
lot of textbooks, research papers, and so on. But he cannot speak English automatically and
fluently. He just cannot express himself. That’s so embarrassing. Because of this, he is just
afraid of talking to people.

According to Jinping from China (in BBC World Service, 2003:2), “He has learned English for
almost 15 years. He has no problem with reading and listening but speaking has always been a
problem for him because, when he was at school, they always focused on grammar, vocabulary
and exams. Now he really wants to improve his spoken English to a new level, to achieve that
freedom in speaking in the near future. He would try anything to help him achieve this”.

Mundhe Rajeshree,( 2003) Ph.D.,Level Developing a self study package in computer education
for slow learners. Pune University, Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review
Through this study develop self instructional package consisting of video programme and Printed
material in from of modules in Marathi and can test the effectiveness of the developed packages
by trying out on slow learners. Researcher has used the Experiment Method. The research has
concluded that Use of self study packages developed by the researcher for teaching programme of
computer education to slow learner was found effective. Even the Video programme for WordStar
was not found significant. It was concluded that video programme (G3) did not show a significant
improvement in the achievement of slow learner for teaching programme. And Printed module in
DOS was not effective it was concluded that the printed module for DOS did not Show significant
improvement in the achievement of slow learner.

2 Gore Prashant,( 2008) M.Phil Level A Study of Problem um Teaching-Learning Problem the
Degree topic in std. 8th English, Pune University. Researcher has taken following points for his
study as a review, through this we get identity the problems faced by the 8th std. English teachers
while teaching the topic of Comparison of the Degree. Researcher has used Survey method is used
in research. Overall it was observed that School School students studying & teachers teaching in
8th Std English Medium School in Pune city faces teaching – learning problem in the topic
Degree.
Anil Shrirang,(2004) At M.Phil level“A study of the effects of reading selected English newspaper
columns in enriching vocabulary and developing comprehension” Researcher has taken following
points for his study as a review Through this study we come to know how to enrich English
vocabulary of the School School students teachers. It also helps to develop comprehension of the
School student teachers. There is correlation between word and and idioms as well as between
vocabulary and comprehension. So we get that Reading English Newspaper columns reinforce the
day-to-day vocabulary and its comprehension of the School student teachers. There is English
Newspaper column is useful to enrich vocabulary of the School student teachers. In this study the
Researcher has used experimental method for the research, and it concluded that Children liked to
act out how life is lived at the Ganesh Festival and Vegetable market. Children were found to
perform better in small groups.

Jaya S,(1989)At M.Phil Level” Identification of the difficulties in teaching learning English as a
second language among the high school School School students. – University of Alagappa.
Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review This study is useful To find out the
difficulties of teachers in teaching English as a second language to the high school School School
students. It also help to find out which male and female teacher experience the same degree of
difficulty in teaching English to the high school School School students. Even through this
research we find out relationship between teaching experience and teaching difficulties in learning
English by teacher of English. The researcher has used Survey method. Researcher has found the
difficulties faced by English teachers included, the child’s improper listening nature, and their
inattentiveness in the class. Teachers experienced great difficulty in making School School
students understand English.

3 Patil Jayashree Y,(2003-2004)At the M.Phil Level” Study of reading difficulties in reading skills
of Marathi medium schools try out remedies for the improvement.” - University Pune. Researcher
has taken following points for his study as a review This study is based on to find out difficulties
in reading skill. It also helps to try out remedies for correcting the difficulties. Through this we get
mastery on each of reading skill. The researcher has used Experimental Method for the Research.
It is single group design with pretest and post test design. Researcher has found A large number of
School School students have reading difficulties in auditoria and visual field and correct word
reading. Even to reduce the reading difficulties to significant level, corrective strategies and
drilling can be useful. Even the Remedial material in reading programme helps the School School
students to improve the performance in reading skill. Teacher should use a variety of methods and
concrete material helps the School School students of 1st to improve their reading ability

Mane Rajkumar V,(2006-2007)At the M.Phil Level“A critical study of mistakes and remedial
programme to improve loud reading skill of School School students studying in 7th std. who study
English as a third language.” University of Pune. Researcher has taken following points for his
study as a review We get that to study the problems in loud reading skill of the School School
students studying in 7th std. who study English as a third language. It helps to encourage School
School students to read properly by giving the remedial programme. Even it shows the
effectiveness of the remedial programme for improving loud reading skills. The Researcher has
used Experimental Method for the Research. It is single group design with pretest and post test
design. The remedial programme proves to be useful in correcting the mistakes of the School
School students in loud reading. School School students improve their pronunciation. School
School students read with proper stress and intonation after listening to cassettes and model
reading by the teacher. School School students read with comprehension after the remedial
programme. School student should be given loud reading practice and made aware of their
mistakes.

Kranti Kulkarni,( 2005 )M.Ed Level Pune University,To develop and find out the effectiveness of
a programmed for improving the writing skills of the School School students of std VIII from
Marathi medium school. Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review We can
find develop a program for improving the writing skill of the School School students of standard
VIII from Marathi medium school.It also help us to find out the effectiveness of the
programme.The researcher has used the Experimental method The programme prepared for the
functional use of tense and voice was effective and significant. 4

Jagtap s.s,(2010) Difficulties in imparting reading skills to Indian.Researcher has taken following
points for his study as a review Reading is an important process in decoding information from a
text form. It is related with the ability to read and understand words phrases and sentence and
other symbols in text. the ability to read a given text critically is an essential component of
academic reading. It develop reading skills and get to read anything with comprehension to
develop reading ability. We get it that for mastering over the language we have to know the skills.
Dhawan A,(2010) Intrusion of Hindi sound into English sounds, University News, Volume no78
Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review,traditional grammars from Greco-
Latinate times until 19th and even the early 20thcentry,the whole emphasis used to be on word
formation and sentence construction. Grammar would discuss rules and their application in the
form of translation and composition of stories, letters, essays and paragraphs and comprehension
exercise. It also function as Phonetics: the articulation and perception of speech and sound in
general. Phonology: the patterning of speech sound of the language under study. Morphology: the
formation of words. Syntax: the formation of phrases and sentence. Semantics: the interpretation
of words and sentence.

According to Brophy (2004:1), “Learning is fun and exciting at least when the curriculum is well
matched to School School students’ interests and abilities and the teacher emphasizes hands-on
activities. When you teach the right things the right way, motivation takes care of itself. If School
School students aren’t enjoying learning, something is wrong with your curriculum and
instruction, you have somehow turned an inherently enjoyable activity into drudgery. School is
inherently boring and frustrating. We require School School students to come, then try to teach
them stuff that they don’t see a need for and don’t find meaningful. There is little support for
academic achievement in the peer culture, and frequently in the home as well “Learning is fun and
exciting at least when the curriculum is well matched to School School students’ interests and
abilities and the teacher emphasizes hands-on activities. When you teach the right things the right
way, motivation takes care of itself. If School School students aren’t enjoying learning, something
is wrong with your curriculum and instruction, you have somehow turned an inherently enjoyable
activity into drudgery. School is inherently boring and frustrating. We require School School
students to come, then try to teach them stuff that they don’t see a need for and don’t find
meaningful. There is little support for academic achievement in the peer culture, and frequently
in the home as well few School School students may be enthusiastic about learning, but most of
them require the grading system and the carrots and sticks that we connect to it to pressure them to
do at least enough to get by.” It means that what is taught in the school based on curriculum or
school system does not really focus School School students’ needs, abilities, purposes but it
emphasizes most theories or receptive skills such as; memorizing words, understanding texts,
doing exercises, dictation, learning grammar rules too much, listening comprehension and reading
comprehension in order to achieve grade system and to pass national examination. So School
School students feel bored, frustrated, etcetera because of pressure. In addition, School School
students do not even have an English teacher but they get national examination for English subject
finally. English teacher should have professionalism at English teaching in order to apply school
system better.

According to Lewis and Hill (1992:8-9), “In the majority of cases a basic textbook is chosen and it
is this which provides the practical classroom syllabus. Inevitably, teachers tend to follow the
book, deciding in advance how long they can spend on each unit so that they will finish the book
in a certain time. But the object of the course is to teach the School School students, not finish the
book!” It states that textbooks, syllabus, and lesson plan may distract an English teacher to focus
School School students’ needs especially to speak and to write, so the teacher just thinks to finish
the book of made syllabus. Therefore the teacher must not finish the book but focus School
School students’ needs and abilities.

Zanke subhash ,(2010) Challenges and opportunities in teaching of English,Research,Volume


no78, Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review, Even after so many years of
teaching English in India, teachers of English face various challenges while teaching English as a
foreign language. The digital age has brought drastic changes in almost every walk of life,
including teaching of English. We get how to know about various challenges in teaching English.
Even to know about various opportunities in teaching English. It should strengthen the teaching of
English of English by adapting to the new technology

Environment

Environment becomes an important factor to be able to speak English and to keep speaking
English as the wise words, “Environment becomes you or you become an environment” or in
other words, if you do not change your environment to be better so you will be changed to be bad
or good by the environment. Because environment cannot change itself if no-one change it. So
changing the environment to become a place where English is spoken only is compulsory to keep
speaking English as a foreign language. In order that, the School students and lecturers can speak
one another at English Language Education Study Program in the campus.

According to Wyse and Jones (2001: 178), “Pre-school experience of social interaction is a
desperately important factor in the child’s ongoing language development. The significance of the
adults around the child at this time should not be underestimated. It has been acknowledged that
they provide a number of important conditions for the child as they:
a. Provide access to an environment where talk has high status

b. Provide access to competent users of language

c. Provide opportunities to engage in talk

d. Provide responses which acknowledge the child as a competent language user. (Wray et
al, 1989:39)

It states that pre-school experience of social interaction is an important factor to develop a child’s
language where adults are around him speaking each other in order to be acquired speaking skill
naturally. It cannot be ignored because

first language that is used by most people acquired by listening then imitating and speaking the
language when they were babies. Therefore, a child who is still very young at beginning learning a
language, it needs to be provided a place to practice his language, to be created a condition where
the language is only practiced to stimulate him speaking the language with adults as competent
users, and to be provided responses to a child in order to encourage him speaking with other
people. In addition, A child beginning to speak a language seems like an EFL learner who speaks
English so as an EFL learner needs to be provided as like as a child’s needs.

According to Fill and Mühlhäusler (2001: 113), “In order to help achieve the shift in attitudes
and behavior that is essential if society is to become sustainable, people who seek to promote this
objective need to take a strong stand on language.” It means that language is used in speaking and
writing to preserve environment in order to build better relationship among people. So when some
people always speak a language which is not used in the area while other people speak another
language. It has some reasons depending on people used the language whether people speak a
language for keeping a secret, practicing a learned language, keeping identity, or preserving an
environment (the conditions that you live or work in and the way that they influence how you feel
or how effective you can work, or in other words, a particular place where you learn a language),
etcetera. Therefore that a language is used should be noticed based on the reasons. In that case,
speaking English at English Language Education Study Program has some essential reasons
consisting of practicing English language

learned, keeping English identity, and also preserving English environment. In addition, English
as a foreign language should be applied by English School students with their lecturers inside and
outside the classroom in order to become true English School students, to keep their identity
distinguishing them from non English School students, and preserving their English language at
English Language Education Study Program.

Furthermore, Environment identifies some other factors hampering School students to apply their
spoken English. They consist of

a. Teacher

English teachers as the most important factor to make their School students’ effectively spoken
English, what the teacher generally does is imitated by his School students. Therefore the English
teacher must not only be lay, amateur, technician, and academic, but also be professional. As it is
stated by Richards and Renandya (2002: 388-390) that a ‘professional’ is, broadly speaking,
someone whose work involves performing a certain function with some degree of expertise.

There are comparison and similarity of English teacher work as follows:

1. Professional versus Lay

A ‘lay’ population is a population that does not belong to a specified professional group. Members
of the professional group possess certain skill, knowledge, and conventions that the lay population
do not have. Typically, they communicate between themselves employing vocabulary that is not
readily comprehensible to a layperson (in our case, examples would be cloze, L1, l2, ESP etc.). It
states that a professional teacher must have certain skills, knowledge, and convention. Not only
teaching English because of knowing, understanding
English, or being able to speak English but also having expertise of English language consisting of
mastering four English skills, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, English terminology,
acronym, abbreviation, vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, psychology of language learners,
etcetera, mastering how to become an effective teacher, and having a good teaching
qualification, then English will be taught professionally.

Every English sentence must have a subject. Even if no propositional content is available to fill
subject position then we fill it with the so-called “dummy” elements it and there Introduction of
“it” and “there” are not recognized by L2 learners of English whose mother tongue is Tamil. In the
case of pro-drop parameter, the input for setting the value for pro-drop parameter is partly the
absence of subject-less sentences which is partly presence of subjects such as ‘it’ and ‘there’. E.g.
‘It rains from January to March.’, ‘It’s raining.’ It is hard to imagine language teaching not
reflecting these two aspects of the prodrop parameters, just as it is hard for any small sample of
speech not to use all the phonemes of English. (Cook, 2001)

The structure of the word of adjectives in Tamil language may give a concept similar to the use of
verbs in continuous form where a verb goes with ‘be’ before it and ‘ing’ is added to the verb but
an adjective takes ‘be’ just before it in a sentence. (E.g. He is studying, He is fine.) Sometimes,
however, learners produce sentences that are possible target-language sentences but not preferred
ones. An example is when Jean says: The big of them contained a snake. Way of reconstructing
the correct sentence is ‘The bigger of them contain a snake.’ It is difficult to reconstruct the
correct sentence because we are not sure what the learner meant to say. (Ellis, 2011) In general L2
learners complicate adjectives, adverbs with verbs and sometimes choses irrelevant form. Transfer
and overgeneralization are not distinct process. Indeed, they represent.

Jane Ellis(1999) New York, A Course in classroom language and teachings, in Teaching English
through English, Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review, Training Course
for teachers emphasizes the importance of games in English language Teaching. Doff gives
special emphasis to role-play, improvised dialogues and interviews as an art of teaching oral
English. Many readers have increased in this field. He has attainted communicative skill in
English. To create frankly atmosphere in the classrooms is the motto behind this article. Various
Games in Teaching-Learning process creates interest among the School School students. We have
to spent lot of time to know English for avoiding English Errors. It will help us to develop
Speaking Skill

Alireza Zarealf(2000) England, Improving the skills of Language, The most important thing to
have the command over the Language. Researcher has taken following points for his study as a
review, LSRW are the ways to put best in form of outputs. All the aspects of the skills are need to
learn in details because it becomes easy to us to grow in structure form. Receptive Skills are bit
difficult to grasp and Expressive Skills are easy to have in look and learn. It would be better to
keep ourselves up-to-date. Communication is best way to be prompt in our work series.

Sadaf Hashmi(2001) A new concept of learning and teaching, centum volume No.2, Researcher
has taken following points for his study as a review, A virtual classroom is a live teacher
instruction and online feedback that Enables a real –time voice interaction, whiteboard sharing and
breakout sessions to enables a School student’s learning experience. Virtual education also known
as E-learning Provides learning of different subjects across varied curriculums through the use of
course Management application, multimedia resources, the internet and video-conferencing. It
refers to instruction in an environment where the teacher and the School student are separated by
Time or distance, or both. Virtual learning environment systems are gaining popularity especially
for distance learning programs in India and abroad. It helps to analyze the effectiveness of virtual
classrooms in terms of the technology used for the learning programs for higher education, and it
compares the mechanism of School student teacher interaction through doubt solving, discussion
of

Petermaingay,(2003) ScocthThronbury, The distinguish between Method based and people based
Teaching, Researcher has taken following points for his study as a review Some people learn
language naturally without taking much effort. It is much difficult to explain aptitude for language
of them. His quality of interaction in the classroom determines the degree of authenticity of
language learning process. He has used metaphor language in this paper. Teaching needs to be
seen as the kind of the conversion. The teacher needs to develop the ability to work with people in
the room.
(Jayashree, 1989); ii) there was significant relationship between the problems faced by the School
School students in pronunciation, learning grammar, knowledge of sentence pattern, habit of
hearing news, rectification of homework, memorization without understanding, remedial teaching
and different variables regarding sex, locality and type of management (Singaravelu, 2001), and
iii) Structural differences between English and Malay have also been identified as another
problem faced by the School School students in learning English. Environment that is not
conducive to language learning further adds to the problem (Jalaluddin et al., 2009)

Bhattacharyya, R. 1976. A critical study of the Present Teaching of English in the Secondary
Schools of G reater Shillong. Ph. D. Thesis G. U. The work undertakes to study the educational
qualifications and professional equipment of the English teachers of the Secondary Schools of
Greater Shillong, their work load, financial status, views and opinions on various aspects of
teaching of English and evaluate their performance in actual classroom situation. The ultimate
purpose of the piece of work, as the investigator asserts, was to ensure better teaching of English
by way of suggesting some practical measures for improvement of the situation. The major
findings of the study are as follows On Teachers' Professional Qualification: Majority of the
teachers were graduate with a very small percentage of them being post-graduates and
undergraduates. Only 30.36% of them were trained, number of trained teachers being higher in
urban areas than in rural areas. Again, of the trained teachers, only 56.47% had English as method
subject in B.Ed. or B.T. 5% of the teachers possessed other professional degrees/diplomas like
diploma in English teaching and diploma in Montessori Method etc. On work load: Majority of
the teachers taught other subjects besides English. The teachers were used to doing correction
work, conducting of class test, utilization of the tiffin time and off periods in correction work,
spending 126 time on lesson planning, doing other extra academic work and making themselves
accessible to School School students beyond class hours. The investigator discovers similarity of
the workload of the English teachers of Meghalaya with those of the Madras State.

Walia, A. 1981
An evaluative study of English at the Secondary Level in Rajasthan, Ph.D. thesis, Eng., Rajasthan
University4 In this study Walia. A. comes out with a number o f interesting findings on the
teaching of English at the secondary level in Rajasthan. His evaluative 128 study of the
programme done with a thorough investigation into some core issues of ELT in the state including
the adequacy of curricular materials, teacher competency, the evaluation mechanism, rural-urban
variation in the quality of teaching, teachers' professional awareness and growth and School
School students' perceptions of the syllabus and teaching of English comes out with the discovery
of a number of inadequacies in the programme like curricular inadequacy in terms of a mismatch
between text books and other materials and curricular expectations, heavy workload and large
classes, inadequate question papers etc. The study further finds out that the teaching approach
followed by the teachers falls short of professional and pedagogic effectiveness as it was seen to
be one-way, detrimental to School student participation and resulting in classroom anxiety for the
learners. Yet another finding was that supplementary readers were not properly taught and
grammar rules were only mechanically presented.

Koul, B. N. 1981

A critical study of the fundamental curricular issues relevant to the teaching of English in India
leading to an Alternative Integrated ELT Curriculum. Ph. D. thesis (ELT) CIEFL, Hyderabad.5
This investigation critically studies the ELT curricular considerations specifically relevant to the
Indian situation and then suggests an Alternative ELT Curricular framework for India. The
researcher hypothesized that the crises in ELT in our country remained unsolved on account of a
failure on the part of the investigators or reformers to take cognizance of the curricular
considerations specifically related to the Indian context. The investigation is centred round three
basic questions - namely (1) why is English and should English be taught and learnt effectively on
a mass scale in India? (2) what are 129 the socio-cultural constraints that hinder'effective ELT and
reforms in ELT from being effective ? and (3) what are the instructional constraints that hinder
effective ELT in India? Investigation into these questions / domains were made on the basis of
data collected from the School School students of Rajasthan, Andhrapradesh and Kashmir using
the tools of questionnaires and experiments.

Rababa’h (2005) pointed out that there are many factors that cause difficulties in speaking
English among EFL learners. Some of these factors are related to the learners themselves,
the teaching strategies,the curriculum, and the environment. For example, many learners lack
thenecessary vocabulary to get their meaning across, and consequently, they cannot keep the
interacton going.Inadequate strategic competence and communication competence can be another
reason as well for not being able to keep the interaction going. Some learners also lack the
motivation to speak English. They do not see a real need to learn or speak English. Actually
―motivation is the crucial force which determines whether a learner
embarks in a task at all, how much energy he devotes to it, and how long he preservers‖
(Littlewood, 1984, The development of communicative skills can only take place if learners
have the motivation and opportunity to express their own identity and relate with the people
around them (Littlewood, 1981).

It was also concluded by some researchers that Second language learners often make systematic
errors in grammar, and these errors are usually based upon their first language. A study describes
the academic English language proficiency of immigrant youth after, on average, 7 years in the
United States and models factors that contribute to variation. Findings show that although
differences in individual School student characteristics partially explain variation in English
language proficiency, the schools that immigrant youth attended are also important. Thus, a
complete idea regarding learning difficulties was developed in the area of phonology, morphology
semantics, lexicon and syntax which surely help the present researcher to carry out her study.

Khan (2003) hypothesized that there was no significant difference between Urdu and Hindi
speaking School School students in terms of difficulties while English as a second language. The
main objectives of his study were: 1. To ascertain the extent to which the Urdu and Hindi speaking
School School students faced difficulties in learning English as a second language with special
reference to the English grammar, sound systems, vocabulary, spelling and close items in addition
to causes attributed to such difficulties. In their article titled, ‘Challenges and Strategies for
Teachers and Learners of English as a Second Language: The Case of an Urban Primary School in
Kenya’ (2013),

Dhillon and Wanjiru take up an urban multilingual primary school in Kenya while looking at the
many problems surrounding the acquisition of English as a second language both at the level of the
teachers as well as the learners. Focusing not so much on the content as on the form of teaching, the
researchers highlight the very struggle that goes into changing their way of lives in order to
facilitate a more fluid comprehensive adoption of the language. Research indicates that teaching
School School students specific strategies to acquire English as a second language is positively
influenced by comprehension of concepts and encouragement of critical faculty rather than by-rote
learning and grammatical and syntactic approaches. One important model for ESL acquisition is
CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach). This means using learning strategies,
age appropriate text, development of language tools, and overall expansion of knowledge rather
than specific learning while using English, is much more effective than traditional teaching theories.

(Rababa’ah,2005)
Teaching strategies also contribute to this problem as they are inadequate, and they do not put
emphasis on speaking, which results in a meagre development of this skill. Besides, vocabulary
items are taught in isolation, and listening materials are not used by the majority of schoolteachers
because of the large number of teachers compared with the number of cassettes available.
Teacher-training programs were found to be not very successful in changing the teachers’

Agnihotri (1995, 3) suggests some reparative measures to assist language learning in a multilingual
classroom: in order for language learning to be successful, the situation needs to be informal; the
learner should be free from any anxiety; the teacher should essentially be a friend, observer and
facilitator; and most of the learning process should be centred on meaningful tasks and peer-group
interactions. Snowden (2007, p.308) points out that ‘the qualities in a teacher are key to overall
success in the classroom, although concern with the latest techniques and methods has tended to
obscure this fact’. Ken Hyland (2003, 186) provides a detailed formulation of which errors to target
while providing feedback to learners in order to improve School School students’ written English
related to genre specific, stigmatizing, comprehension, frequency and so on.

Armendaris in “Writing Anxieties among English as a Second Language School School students
Enrolled in Academic English Writing Classes” (2009) takes up the question of learning English as
a second language (ESL) on an academic level and raises the following three important questions.
Firstly, what are the common roadblocks faced by School School students in the learning process;
secondly, the role played by the teaching methodology employed by teachers and its positive as
well as negative implications. However, studies have shown that the pragmatic strategies used by
ELF speakers include code-switching which is not considered a sign of lacking language knowledge
but instead a strategy that shows creative use of pluro-lingual resources to enable communication”
(Cogo, 2009).

Sociocultural Factors
Many cultural characteristics of a language also affect L2 or foreign language learning. From a
pragmatic perspective, language is a form of social action because linguistic communication occurs
in the context of structure interpersonal exchange, and meaning is thus socially regulated
(Dimitracopoulou, 1990 in Richards & Renandya). In other words, “shared values and beliefs create
the tradition and social structures that bind a community together and are expressed in their
language” (Carrasquillo, 1994, p 55 in Richards & Renandya). Thus, to speak a language, one must
know how the language is used in a social context. It is well known that each language has its own
rules of usage as to when, how, and to what degree a speaker may impose a given verbal behavior
on his or her conversational partner (Berns, 1990 in Richards & Renandya). They mean that
learning a language should also learn people’s principle, behavior, attitude, and culture because
speaking to people who have different culture will confuse them. Therefore, cross culture
understanding is really needed to build a good relationship in interpersonal communication.

Affective Factors
“The affective side of the learner is probably one of the most influences on language learning
success or failure” (Oxford, 1990, p. 140 in Richards & Renandya). The affective factors related to
L2 or foreign language learning are emotions, self esteem, empathy, anxiety, attitude, and
motivation. It states that feeling really affects learners in social interaction for instance;
nervousness, fear, and shyness making language learners cannot communicate effectively and
efficiently because of forgetting what they want to say, speak, tell, write, etcetera, thinking, and
doing well. In addition, so, English learners should be encouraged to build their self confidence
firstly in order to learn English as a second language or as a foreign language.

“In recent years it has become clear that much of what people learn about their jobs and professions
is picked up informally from conversations with their colleagues and others.” It states that what we
learn, we do, and keep doing cannot be separated by a social interaction. So people should have a
group to practice their job in order to have the abilities needed or should be in a group of practice
to be able to improve their skill of the job. In addition, speaking English can also be practiced in a
group where English is spoken in order to be able to improve both listening and speaking skills.
Communicating Online
“New technologies have radically expanded the opportunities for people to communicate, and with
that has come an explosion in the use of different types of online communities, ranging from closed
groups to discussion forums to loosely bounded social networks such as those on Facebook.” It
means that in this globalization era, people can communicate with other people by using both
spoken language and written language. Without knowing and understanding how to use
technologies consisting in computer, mobile phone, and so on, it is difficult to communicate with
other people around the world through social media; Facebook, Twitter, Video call, and so on. They
are used to interact with other people. So they may be used to practice four skills, listening,
speaking reading,

Gebre-eyesus (2014) conducted the research about “The Exploring the Causes of School students’
Reluctance in English Speaking Classroom”. This research attempted to explore the causes of the
School students’ reluctance to speak English in EFL classroom of Gode secondary and
Preparatory school in Somali regional state, Gode town. The researcher used three data gathering
instruments namely questionnaire, semi-structured interview and classroom observation. Seventy
Preparatory (Grade 11) School students answered a 20-item question regarding factors that cause
reluctance in English speaking classroom. In addition to this, 5 EFL teachers were interviewed.
Data gathered through these tools were analyzed using mixed approach data analysis method. The
research findings indicted that a considerable number of School students were reluctant to respond
to the teacher and remained silent in oral English language classrooms due to many causes
psychological factors like fear of stage, self undermining, shyness, lack of confidence, and fear of
making mistake and factors related to psychological factors related to classroom procedure like,
nervousness, anxiety, fear of comment, fear of over corrected ness and stern, fear of peers, seating
arrangements, language difficulties, performing real life situation in class or socio-cultural factors.

The researcher used three data gathering instruments namely questionnaire, semi-structured
interview and classroom observation. Seventy Preparatory (Grade 11) students answered a 20-item
question regarding factors that cause reluctance in English speaking classroom. In addition to
this, 5 EFL teachers were interviewed. Data gathered through these tools were analyzed using
mixed approach data analysis method. The research findings indicted that a considerable number
of students were reluctant to respond to the teacher and remained silent in oral English language
classrooms

Muhammad Dilshad. due to many causes psychological factors like fear of stage, self
undermining, shyness, lack of confidence, and fear of making mistake and factors related to
psychological factors related to classroom procedure like, nervousness, anxiety, fear of
comment, fear of over corrected and stern, fear of peers, seating arrangements, language
difficulties, performing real life situation in class or socio-cultural factors.

Nguyen Hoang Tuan Stated The Problems and Errors committed by the students in writing
English is known as learning difficulties. English learning includes Mastering of Listening,
Speaking, Reading and Writing skills. The First cause that makes the Students Difficulties in
speaking English is that the Environment does not support the students to speak English fluently."
Since English is a foreign language in our country, most students especially high school students
are not familiar with it, the second causes are students Themselves, they does not care for their
Communication.
CHAPTER III

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Objectives of the Study

Objectives of the study

This study focuses on problems faced by Tamil students in learning English language in

The objectives are as below:

1) To identify the problems faced by Tamil school students in learning English in karur district.

2) To identify the factors affecting Tamil school students in learning English in karur district.

3) To enable school students to learn a wide range of speaking skills, including how to speak
accurately and proficiently.

3.2 Aim of the Present Study

The present study has been undertaken in order to:


Identify the errors committed by the High school School students in written discourse of
writing skill of English composition.

Understand the errors based on the pragmatic perception Towards communication in


English language.

Unearth the errors based on the discourse perception of understanding communication in


English language.

Understand the reasons for committing errors and why the School students lack of
pragmatic communication and to create an awareness on pragmatic and discourse aspects of
writing skill in English..

The present study tries to analyse the performance of the High school School students of writing
skill in English language, and to suggest some possible remedial measures to annihilate those
problems or at least to minimize the severity of those hurdles and thereby ensuring optimal
learning achievements in learning to steer English in various domains of English use of their
routine life and professional interest.

3.3 Hypothesis
To realize the above objectives the following null hypothesis were formulated in null form, as they
are more akin for testing:

Statement

The inferential statistics, the null hypothesis is a general statement or default position that there is
no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.

1. The difficulty faced by students in Learning English at the high school level is low.

2. There is no significant relationship between subsamples and difficulties faced by students in


Learning English at the high school level.

3. There is no predictor of difficulties faced by students in Learning English at the high school
level.

4.The errors of School students studying in high school will be less than that of School students
from affiliated school.

3.4 Significance of the Study

Errors observed from the School students of High school s studying in Karurdistrict were taken
into account for the present study. This research is confined to the problems experienced by the
School students especially while writing English language. Since the present study assesses the
written communication of the High school School students in English language, the respondents
were asked to answer in the structured questionnaire. Based on the result of the study, suggestions
for remedial measures to improve the standard of teaching/learning English have been given. On
the whole, the present study directly and indirectly endeavors to develop the performance of the
High school School students in the English language.
Contemporary linguistic pragmatics is focused on a number of special relations between linguistic
meaning and context. On the narrower scope for pragmatics, concerned with context-dependent
meaning, the following topics have come to be central: deixis, context, anaphora, antecedent,
cataphora, reference, inference, speech acts, conversational inference and grammatical cohesion
which are discussed in turn.

Knowledge sharing, telling and knowledge transforming are clearly distinguished from each other.
Knowledge telling is similar to impromptu speaking where in there is a little planning. This kind
of writing is called ‘natural’ or ‘unproblematic’. As it is known, that the interaction elements in
conversation that are not present in writing ‘when people converse they help each other in
numerous, mostly unintentional way’

The study is intended to examine the above mentioned three sources that should be followed while
using written communication by High school School students in Karur District of Tamilnadu.

3.5 LIMITATIONS / RESTRICTION OF THE STUDY

The present study is restricted to the School students of High school s of KarurDistrict,
Tamilnadu. The other districts have not been included in this study.. The informants chosen are
those High school s who have Tamil as their mother tongue. They learn English as a second (SL)
language. The rationale behind the selection of the Tamil mother tongue School students is to
identify the influence of Tamil language over their English language performance

CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Data collection is the primary step to gain meaningful information. Data was collected from all the
relevant sources and it is mostly primary data. Secondary data is very rarely available on this
subject. It was emphasized that the data collected is genuine and pure.

Data Source:

Schools

High secondary school

School students

The data was collected from various Schools. For collecting the data, parents of students has been
interviewed and analyzed. Moreover parents of students residing in urban areas are also covered
and analyzed. However in Urban and semi urban areas, more numbers of parents are covered.

English language teachers from the selected School of urban, semi-Urban and rural are covered.
This helps us to know about their teaching methodology, student response and outlook of
students toward English.

Our study covered following undergraduate Schools.

DATA COLLECTION METHODS

 Questionnaires: A questionnaire requires respondents to fill out the form themselves, and
so requires some level of literacy. Questionnaires were prepared using the common
languages of the target group. Special care was taken in these cases to ensure accurate
translations. In order to maximize return rates, questionnaires were designed simple and
clear as possible, with targeted sections and questions.

 Interviews: In interviews information is obtained through inquiry and recorded by


enumerators. Structured interviews are performed by using survey forms, whereas open
interviews are notes taken while talking with respondents. The notes are subsequently
structured (interpreted) for further analysis.

 Direct Observation: Study was obtained through some audio texts with a post listening
activity sheet and oral presentations. First, the participants were given an audio text to
listen to. Then, they were asked whether or not they had understood the text fully, and if
not, what were the reasons. They were also given a list of all possible factors that
prevented them from understanding the text and they were to mark only those factors that
caused the listening problem. On the other hand, to identify the linguistic barriers of
speaking, participants’ oral presentations were carried out. Each participant was given a
topic to speak on for about five minutes. They had to start speaking immediately after
getting the topic without any preparation. While observing the presentations, the researcher
marked the factors using a chart that were hampering the participants’ oral proficiency.
Through these activities, however, the major linguistic barriers of oral communications as
perceived by the participants were pointed out.

The collected data were analysed with SPSS IBM19 and results were interpreted as below.

Table-1 Percentage analysis of English Learning Difficulty score of the


total sample

S.N English Score Percenta


o Learning ge
Difficulty
1 Low 61-122 0.5
2 Modera 123-183 19
te
3 High 184-285 80.5

The above table shows that 80.5% of high school student’s English Learning Difficulty
is high.

Table 2. Mean and Standard Deviation of English Learning


Difficulty Score for Total Sample
Variable Mean N Std. Deviation
English Learning 197.88 200 19.09
Difficulty

The above table shows the mean score and standard deviation of English Learning
Difficulty of high school students. It is found to be 197.88 and 19.09 respectively and concluded
that the student’s English Learning Difficulty is high.

1. TABLE 1

THE TABLE SHOWS AGE OF SCHOOL STUDENT


Age Mean SD t/f value Result

13-14 198.72 17.18 0.92 NS


15-16 196.06 22.75 0.92 NS

2. TABLE- 2

THE TABLE SHOWS GENDER OF SCHOOL STUDENT

Gender Mean SD t/f value Result

Male 200.19 21.02 1.82 NS


Female 195.29 16.38 NS

TABLE 3:

THE TABLE SHOWS LOCALITY OF SCHOOL STUDENT

Locality Mean SD t/f value Result

Rural 189.45 14.72 2.83 NS


Urban 191.33 17.37 NS

TABLE 4:

THE TABLE SHOWS NO OF FAMILY MEMBERS FOR SCHOOL STUDENT


No of family members Mean SD t/f value Result

below 4 191.33 17.37 - NS


2.58
above 4 199.68 19.20 NS

TABLE 5:

THIS TABLE SHOWS NO OF TYPE OF MANAGEMENT FOR SCHOOL STUDENT

Type of management Mean SD t/f value Result

Government 199.06 14.81 3.52 S


Aided 194.51 19.84 S

TABLE 6:

THIS TABLE SHOWS WHAT ARE THE MOTHER’S EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL
STUDENT

Mother’s education Mean SD t/f value Result

Illiterate 194.51 19.84 3.52 S


Literate 201.32 17.68 S
Graduate 208.00 22.63 S
TABLE 7:

THIS TABLE SHOWS WHAT ARE THE FATHER’S EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL
STUDENT

Father’s education Mean SD t/f value Result


Illiterate 201.75 17.81 2.54 NS S
Literate 196.41 20.06 NS
Graduate 188.86 19.44 NS

TABLE 8:

THIS TABLE SHOWS WHAT ARE THE PARENT OCCUPATION FOR SCHOOL
STUDENT

Parent Occupation Mean SD t/f value Result


Private 191.32 27.10 2.81 S S
Governmentt 193.65 16.23 S
Business 198.33 17.51 S
Cooli 200.99 16.98 S

TABLE 9:

THIS TABLE SHOWS WHAT ARE THE PARENT INCOME FOR SCHOOL
STUDENT

Parent Income Mean SD t/f value Result


Below 5000 201.66 18.21 3.92 S
5000-10000 195.60 21.38 S
11000-15000 188.75 19.09 S
16000-20000 192.43 12.79 S

TABLE10:

THIS TABLE SHOWS HOW MANY CLASS STRENGTH FOR SCHOOL STUDENT

Class strength Mean SD t/f value Result


Below 40 173.08 27.64 14.65 S
Below 50 32.00 16.00 S
Below 60 155.00 77.50 S

The members with below 4 members and above 4 members is statistically not significant. The
difference in score between students studying in different types of management is statistically not
significant. The difference in score between illiterate, literate and graduate mother’s children is
statistically significant. The difference in score between illiterate, literate and graduate father’s
children is statistically not significant. The difference in score between children with different
parental occupation is statistically significant. The difference in score between children with
different income group is statistically significant. The difference in score between children
studying in different class strength is statistically significant.

TABLE 11:

THIS TABLE SHOWS CASTE FOR SCHOOL STUDENT


Caste Mean SD t/f value Result
OBC 127.08 27.64 24.65 S
BC 22.00 16.00 S
SC 135.00 77.50 S
ST 122.01 44.90

Table.4
Stepwise Regression Between English Learning Difficulties And Other Variables

Model b SE-b Beta Pearson Sr2 Structure


r Coefficient
(Constant) 161.99 7.77
Class Strength* 11.02 2.06 .335 .335 0.112 0.699
Father’s Education* -9.11 2.46 -.251 -.157 0.054 0.327
Mother’s Education* 8.62 2.57 .235 .186 0.045 0.388
Parental Occupation* 2.85 1.07 .172 .202 0.028 0.421
Note. The dependent variable English Learning Difficulties.
R2= 0.230, Adjusted R2= 0.214. sr2 is squared semi-partial correlation. * p <
.05

The prediction model contained four of the ten predictors and was reached in sixth steps
with 6 variables removed. The model was statistically significant, F (4,195) = 14.581, p < .001,
and accounted for approximately 23% of the variance in English Learning Difficulties (R2=
0.230, Adjusted R2= 0.214). English Learning Difficulties is primarily predicted by the lower
levels of Parental Occupation, Father’s Education, and Mother’s Education and to the lesser
extent by the higher levels of Class Strength. The raw and standardized regression coefficient of
predictors together with their correlation with English Learning Difficulties, their squared semi-
partial correlations, and their structure coefficients are shown in table. No-4. The Class Strength
received the strongest weight in model followed by Parental Occupation, Father’s Education and
Mother’s Education. Parental Occupation received the lowest weight of the four weights. With
the sizeable correlations between the predictors, the unique variance explained by each of the
variables indexed by the squared semi- partial correlation was relatively low: Parental
Occupation, Father’s Education, Mother’s Education and Class Strength uniquely accounted for
approximately 11%, 5%, 4%, and 2% of the English Learning Difficulties. Inspection of the
structure coefficient suggests that, the Parental Occupation was relatively strong indicators
of English Learning Difficulties, and Father’s Education, Mother’s Education and Class
Strength were a moderate indicator of English Learning Difficulties.

Data of population covered (Boys /Girls)

2
0
2

5
0
5
2
175 1
1
0
10 Bo
125 7
6
0
5
100 ys
5
5
05
Gir
85
00
Urb Semi - Rur ls
an
Sem urban al
i
urba
n
Data of parents’ qualification

Data of parent’s qualification was also collected during the course of study
which reveals that most of the parents are either undergraduate or graduate
with poor understanding of English. They pursued basic qualification long
back in local language and have poor understanding of English. Lack of
parent’s education prevents in motivating their children to learn, which a very
important factor in language barrier. Notwithstanding this, I came across few
parents who are motivated to give their best to the children because they did
not have any opportunity to do well in life. This is a very encouraging factor
which can bring turn around.
Parents Qualification Caste
≤12th Graduate SC/ST OBC Gen
Urban 20% 80% 40% 15% 45%
Semi- 40% 60% 35% 30% 35%
Urban
Rural 80% 20% 45% 20% 35%

9
8 8
8
0
0 0
0 6
6

0 4 4 Urban
0 40
4
4 3 3 Semi
5 5 3 5 urban
3 0
0 2 20
2 2 5
7
2 1 0 Rural
0
0
10 0 0
0
0 5
5
Obc BC/ SC ST
0
Gradua ST

0
te
Data of Academic qualification of Lecturers and their proficiency. It has
been learned that Academic qualification of lecturer is of requisite standard
but the disturbing cause of concern is their medium with which they studied
i.e local language. Therefore, they are unable to impress the crowd with their
English. They are unable to give emphasis which is supposed to be given by
them. Data of lecturers was collected during the course of study considering
their qualification, medium of instruction, and proficiency level of English etc.

Type Basic Using Proficiency Confidence Subject


of Area qualification medium of in English level knowledge
instruction
as English
Urban 80% 50% 40% 40% 35%
Semi- 85% 45% 45% 35% 40%
Urban
Rural 85% 40% 35% 40% 40%

Basic qualification
Medium
8
Proficiency level
Confidence level
0

Subject
knowledge
20

0 Urb SemiUrba Rur


10
aaan nn all
For listening

The participants were given an audio text to listen to and a list of all possible
barriers to mark only those that caused the listening problem. The results have
been shown in the table-1. From the data analysis of the participants’ listening,
it was found that around 71% of the participants could not understand the
text fully because of their inability to understand the pronunciation of the
speaker. Approximately 45% participants had some difficulties to understand
the text properly due to their inability to get the meanings of certain words
used in the text. Only near about 30% of the participants marked that the
speech was fast while about 19% could not maintain attention as the text was
uninteresting to them.

Table-1: Barriers of Listening

Barriers of Listening No. of Respondents having Percentage (%)

difficulty
Pronunciation of the speaker 164 71.30
Unknown words 104 45.22
Fast speech 71 30.86
Lack of attention 43 18.70
Nos of students having problem

400 3
300
2 2
5
350 200 200
Urban
150
5 5
100 0
50
5
300 0 0 0 1
Semi-
75
Pronunciation Unknown Fast speech Lack of Urban
5
of the speaker words attention
250 Rural

200

150

100

0
Percen
80%

70%
t

60% Perce

nt
50%

pronounciation Unknown words Fast speech Lack of


40%

attention

30%
For Speaking

20%
Each of the participants was given a topic to speak on for about five
inutes without any preparation. From their presentations, several factors
10%
were dentified and marked that were responsible for causing speaking
problem. The results are shown in the table-2.
0%

Table-2: Barriers of Speaking

Barriers of Speaking No. of Respondents having Percentage (%)


difficulty
Diffidence & Shame 230 100
Fear 153 66.52
Family background 230 100
Prejudices and close mind 161 70
Difference between spellings
and sound 123 53.48
Recognition of English Sounds 151 50
Multiple sound of same letter 189 40
Inadequate range of 230 100
vocabulary

4
Urban

Semi-
Urban
2
Rural

From the data analysis it was learnt that students are more suffered from Defiance and shame.
On the other hand, all the participants failed to express themselves properly due to their
inadequate range of vocabulary and near about 53% participants faced problems in forming
grammatically correct sentences, especially WH-questions, passive sentences, reported
speeches, etc. About 70% of the participants had difficulties in using appropriate prepositions,
while only around 28% participants failed to maintain subject-verb agreement.
CHAPTER - V

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

Introduction

The present chapter deals with the summary and the conclusions of the results found during the
present study. Moreover, some recommendations related with the present study are suggested
and education implications are also mentioned.

The principle aim of the present study was to identify the effect of audio visual aids in the
improvement of listening and speaking skills in English which are difficult for them. To prepare
the audio, video and audio visual materials for polytechnic students was also one of the
objectives of the present study.

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.3.1 Findings
• After tryout of different audio visual aids in the classroom teaching, students can improve their
achievement score in listening skill.
• After tryout of different audio 202
• Most of the students were found more attentive while learning through audio visual aids.
• Even students below average were happy with the innovative style and got more involved in
learning due to use of audio visual aids.
• Students found it difficult to understand English movie, even if it was in very simple English.
• Students had no prior experience of speaking in English language before this experiment.
• Most of the students felt it difficult to understand English at beginning level.
• Almost all the students were confused and hesitated to speak in English in the beginning.
• Most of the English classes conducted, other than this, has used mother tongue as a medium of

instruction and translation method was preferred.

5.3.2 Recommendations

After this study researcher comes out with the following recommendations for the use of audio

visual aids to improve listening and speaking skills:

• While teaching English, teachers should use Audio – Visual Aids and other teaching aids. It

will help in deriving the attention of students.

• Teacher can use eclectic approach of teaching. Eclectic approach suggests that a teacher should

develop his/her own technique for teaching effectively. 203

• Teacher should use visuals to make teaching-learning easy.

• Teacher should use power point presentation to make teaching and learning more interesting.

• Teacher should create some tasks to improve listening speaking skills in English.

• Teacher should use language games to improve students’ listening and speaking skills.

• Teachers should accept new innovations of teaching leaning process. • New innovative

methods of English teaching should be introduced in the curriculum.

• Teachers should develop listening and speaking skills of the students along with reading and

writing.

• Teachers should enable the students to communicate in English in and outside the classroom.
• Teacher should enable the students to develop the skill of listening comprehension.

• Computer based learning, such as E- learning should be introduced in the schools and Schools.

5.4 CONCLUSIONS

The conclusions of the present study are : In the present study, it was found that the students

were not able to speak English well and cannot comprehend properly while listening. They had

many difficulties in vocabulary too, whereas many students were unable to speak even simple

words. 204 The possible reasons for weakness in listening and speaking English properly were:

• Less importance is given to listening and speaking than writing and reading in English subject.

• Lack of use of audio visual aids, almost no use of these aids in teaching English.

• Most of the polytechnics do not have audio visual aids.

• Lack of knowledge of appropriate use of audio visual aids like projector, computer, power

point presentation etc.

• No implementation of new methods in teaching English, just follow lecture method or

traditional method.

• Almost no opportunity rendered to listen and to speak English during English language

teaching process.
• Less stress given by the teacher on the listening and speaking skills while teaching

• Family background is not relevant to English language.

• Inadequate or no drilling process was performed during teaching for speaking skill

development.

• Lack of the primary knowledge regarding language skills. The experimental measures have

been taken to overcome the difficulties faced by the students in listening and speaking skills

were:

• Some basic knowledge of vocabulary and grammar was imparted

• Listening practice was emphasized

• choral drilling was practiced

• Individual practice, pair work and group work was emphasized

• To create situation for speaking students were not allowed to use any other languages except

English language in an English class 205

• Watching of English news on TV or reading of news paper was emphasized

• Watching of English movies was emphasized 5.5 Suggestions for further Research On the basis

of the findings the researcher has suggests the following for further research:

1. Experiment and analysis of improve listening and speaking skills at secondary school, higher

secondary school and college level.


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Appendix
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End-of-Semester Course Evaluation Form


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Kansas State University IDEA Center
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166–167
Faculty Information Form for Student Evaluations
168–169
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Private tutoring in English for secondary school students in Tamildadu178–182


Instructor Objectives Report
183–184