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MPTC MALAPPURAM 2018 -19

PROFILE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT

1. TMR Division shornur

T.M.R stands for TRANSFORMER AND METERS REPAIRING,


under K.S.E.B and includes energy meter testing and repairing centre too.
This is situated at kolappully, Shoranur. There repairs transformers and energy
meters. T.M .R also facilitates the testing for newly formed transformers before
installing. T.M.R mainly consists of two workshops (1,2).ln workshop 1,faulty
transformers repaired by replacing its faulty section whereas a transformer is
completely rewounded and servicing in workshop 2. T.M.R offers industrial
training for students as well as K.S.E.B workers. This centre is mainly reserved
for northern districts of kerala. Our training was started from 21/05/2018 to
25/05/2018 through this they provide theory as well as practical of transformer.

2. 110KV substation,Malappuram

110 KV MALAPPURAM Substation stand for electricity distribution and


transmission under the Kerala State Electricity Board Ltd. This is situated at
MALAPPURAM. It consist of many components such as transformers, circuit
breakers, isolators, battery and battery charger.

Our training was from 26/05/2018 to 31/05/2018. Through this they


provided theory as well as practical of working of substation.

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MPTC MALAPPURAM 2018 -19

INTRODUCTION

As the part of our curriculum ten days industrial visit included in the
diploma syllabus by the revision 2015.This will give the students practical
experiences of transformer construction and repairing. The students can compare
the theories they studied in their syllabus with the actual construction and
repairing of transformer. The staff members of electrical and electronics
engineering department polytechnic collage Malappuram have given necessity
guidance to our training.

We the students under revision '15 scheme are really lucky to have a
training period in an industry during our academic semester itself. Even
though we had industrial visits in the past year. In fact they were insufficient to
meet our needs. Especially due to the time limitation we had there. The room for
acquiring knowledge about the machineries and technology on which the
industry is running were very limited.

We were really in need for opportunity to spend much more time even
for days to work with the machines that we had so learned from our
lectures and books. So that we could experience and understand real life
situations in industrial organization and their related environments and
accelerating the learning process of how student knowledge could be used in a
realistic way.

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1.TMR DIVISION, SHORNUR

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MPTC MALAPPURAM 2018 -19

FLOW CHART OF TREATMENT OF TRANSFORMER


IN TMR

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0BJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

The main objectives of industrial training is to experience and understand


real life situations in industrial organizations and their related environments and
accelerating the learning process of how student knowledge could be used in a
realistic way. In addition to that industrial training also makes one understand
the formal and informal relationship in an industrial organization so as to
promote favourable human relation and team work. Besides, it provide exposure
to practice and apply the acquired knowledge-on so in the working environment.
Industrial training also provides a systematic introduction to ways of industry
and developing talent and attitudes so that one can understand how human
resource development works.

Moreover, students can gain hands-on experience that is related to the


students major in so that the student can relate to and widen the skills that have
been learnt while being in university. Industrial training also exposes the student
to the real career world and accustoms them to an organizational structure
business operations and administrative functions.

Furthermore students implement what they have learnt and learn


more throughout this training. Besides, students can also gain experience to
select the optimal solution in handling situation. During industrial training
students can learn the accepted safety practices in the industry. Students can also
develop a sense of responsibility towards society.

By this training we all are looking forward to have an efficient study of


the working of transformer, assembling, maintenance and controlling of TMR
shoranur division and also clear idea about substation.

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LEVEL OF TRAINING
TRANSFORMERS:

Transformer is a simple silent static efficient piece of apparatus which


transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another without changing its
power and frequency. The physical basis of transformers mutual induction
between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. If one coil is connected
to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is set up in the laminated
core ,most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces
mutually induced emf (Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction) a typical
transformer name plate is given below.

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TRSFORMER KEL

MAKERS SERIAL NO. 10787

KVA 100

VOLTAGE AT NO LOAD HV-11KV

LV-433V

AMPERE HV-5.24A

LV-133.3A

PHASE HV-3

LV-3

FREQUENCY 50Hz

TYPES OF COOLING ONAN

CONNECTIOD SYMBOL Dyn 11

CORE AND WINDING 263Kg

WEIGHT OF OIL 117Kg

OIL(LITER) 132L

TOTEL WEIGHT 300Kg

YEAR OF MANUFACTURE 1998

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PARTS OF TRANSFORMER
1. STEEL TANK:

It is a fabricated M.S plate tank, used to accommodate transformer winding.

2. CONSERVATER TANK:

It is drum tank placed over the steel tank to maintain the oil level inside
the tank.

3. BREATHER

t provides the air to go in and out of the transformer through silica gel it
remove moisture content of air.

4. TEMPERATUR GAUGE

This will indicate temperature of transformer oil.

5. EXPLOSION VENT

It is a pressure release devise. The pressure built inside the transformer is


made to go out through the explosion vent without explosion of Transformer.

6. COOLING TUBES

To radiate heat produced inside transformer to atmosphere increases by


increasing contact area.

7. TAP CHANGER:

It used to change the voltage of LV sides. It usually placed in HV side.

Table 2 shows the values of voltage on each studs.

STUD 1 +5%
STUD 2 +2.5%
STUD 3 0%
STUD 4 -2.5%
STUD 5 -5%

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TRANSFORMER DISMANTALING

FAULT LOCATION OF TRANSFORMER:

For any fault the transformer should be opened and checked. Steps
involved in opening is as follows,

First of all recorded the name plate details. Open up conservator Valve
and drain valve in order to decreases oil level in tank. Loosened nuts on the
transformer then lifted up its top cover using Crain. Examined physically for
faults. Conducted cold test, short circuit test by giving 433v at HV side, for
realizing which winding is faulty.

Supply is given to HV side and shorted one phase and neutral of LV side
with conductor. Observed it's after effect. If heavy sparking occurs winding of
that phase is considered as perfect. Otherwise, low or no sparking at LV side is
taken as defective phase winding. Checked several times and concluded how
many phases are defective or not.

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DISMANTILING OF CORE:

Removed the upper and lower channel of core. Opened each core
stampings of upper core. Disconnect all interconnections between windings;
remove each HV stacks one by one of three limbs. And removed all insulating
materials used (cotton tap, wood, press board etc....)

ASSEMBLING THE CORE:

Cleaned up the core with transformer oil and wiped away the oil content
on core with cotton waste. Wrapped the cotton tape around the limbs
using PVA (poly vinyl acetate) gum. Inserted LT winding on spacers and
tightened it with wedge. Wrapped the assembly with press board. Inserted HT
windings over LT windings after placing runners. The Upper portion of Core is
assembled. HT and LT winding are connected to delta and star respectively.

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TRANSFORMER TESTS
Replaced faulty winding and rewind the transformer if necessary and
assembled the core and introduced to oven.

Megger test is conducted. after getting the required insulation resistance


(Megger value), the core winding assembling us placed in to cleaned tank, filled
Purified transformer oil (Askeral), and subjected for following tests.

SL NO. TEST PURPOUSE


1 Megger(insulation test) Ensure the required insulation
resistance between body to HV and LV
winding, HV to LV winding
2 Open circuit test To find open circuit test, hence no load
loss
3 Short circuit test To find voltage required to flow rated
current, hence to full load loss
4 Ratio test To ensure the ratio of transformer
1. MEGGER TEST:

 Between body and winding (HV &LV winding}:

One of the megger (500v dc) terminals is connected to one terminal of any one
of winding (U1) and the other terminal of the Megger is connected to body.

 Between winding and winding (HV & LV winding}:

One of the megger (500v dc) terminals is connected to one terminal of any one
of winding (U1) and other terminal of the megger is connected to another
terminal (V1)

SL NO. BETWEEN INSULATION RESISTANCE


VALUES IN M
1 U and V 5000
2 U and W 5000
3 V and W 5000

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2. OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:

Supply is given to LV side (433v) through a 3 autotransformer provided


the HV is kept open. Adjust the autotransformer for the rated voltage of LV side
and measured currents through each line using clip on meter. And made
calculation for NO LOAD losses.

3. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:

Supply is given to HV side (11kv) through 3 phase auto transformer with


LV shorted. Adjusted autotransformer till the rated current of HV side.
Measured the voltage required using clip on meter and made calculations for full
load losses.

4. RATIO TEST:

11KV supply is given to HV side with an addition distribution


transformer and measured LV side voltage. It must be 433V. Verified the result.

5. BDV TEST OF TRANSFORMER OIL :

Break down voltage is the maximum voltage of the insulating oil it can
withstand. This test conducted for ensuring the required break down voltage of
insulating oil. This carried out in a BDV kit; it consists of a small chamber with
two contacts through which supply is given. The oil to be tested is admitted to
the BDV kit and supply is given across the contacts. The voltage of the supply is
automatically increased by the kit itself. The point at which (flashing point) the
oil breakdown, an arc establishes between the contacts. The voltage reading on
BDV kit provide us break down voltage of the oil (40KV)

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ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE TRAINING

Really this training provided us an unforgettable and valuable


experience. The actual transformer was entirely different from what we have
learn so far, mainly on the basis of construction ie; the assembly of core and
placement of windings etc were beyond our thoughts. Earlier I was awarded of
only theoretical aspects of transformer, but now I am well equipped with
practical important of transformer.

Experience and understand real life situations in industrial organizations


and their related environments and accelerating the learning process of how
student knowledge could be used in a realistic way. In addition to that industrial
training also makes one understand the formal and informal relationships in an
industrial organization so as to promote favourable human relation and team
work. Besides, it provides exposure to practice and supply the acquired
knowledge on so in the working environment. Industrial training also provides a
systematic introduction to the ways of industry and developing talent and
attitudes, so that one can understand how human resource development works.

By this training we all are looking forward to have an efficient study on


the working of Transformer, assembling, maintenance and Controlling of TMR
Shoranur Division and also a clear about Substation.

I proudly say, this industrial training program is necessary in the


diploma curriculum. Because the practical experience will give us more
knowledge than a description and figure in a text book.

''Learn by feel''.

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2.110 KV SUBSTATION, MALAPPURAM

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SUBSTATION OVER VIEW

110 KV FEEDERS

1.110 KV MRML – 1&2 [Malaparamba - Malappuram] - Incomers


2.110KV KIML – 1&2 [Kizhissery - Malappuram] – Incomers
3.110 KV MLED – [Malappuram - Edarikkode]
4.110 KV 15MVAR Capacitor Bank
66 KV FEEDERS (RADIAL CIRCUITS)
1.66 KV MLMA – [Malappuram - Mankada]
2.66 KV MLMJ - [Malappuram - Manjeri] Which is then feed 66 KV
substations Nilambur and Edakkara

33 V FEEDERS
1.33 KV MLMK – [Malappuram - Makkaraparamba]
1.33 KV MLVL – [Malappuram - Valluvambram]
11 KV FEEDERS
1.11 KV Chattiparamba
2.11 KV Anakkayam
3.11 KV Pookkottur
4.11 KV Kodur
5.11 KV Pallippuram
6.11 KV Spinning mill
7.11 KV Manorama
8.11 KV Malappuram
Station auxiliary – 3ph 415V [Using 11 KV/415 V TRF]

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BUSBARS
Busbar no.1

Two 110 KV feeders are from Kizhissery to Malappuram and this two
lines are connected to busbar no.1.

40 MVA - 110/66 KV - 2 Nos , 16 MVA - 110/33 KV – 1 No. and 12.5


MVA - 110/11 KV – 3 Nos. These six transformers and capacitor bank are
connected to busbar.

Busbar no.2

Two 110 KV feeders are from Malaparamba to Malappuram and this two
lines are connected to busbar no.2.

This feeder is normally used to feed 110 KV Malappuram – Edrikkode


feeder.

If supply through Kizhissery substation fails Malappuram substation Can


avail supply from Malaparamba substation through Bus 2.

66 KV Busbar:

In this substation there are two numbers 110/66 KV – 40 MVA


Transformer. Their secondaries are connected to a common 66 KV Bus. 66 KV
Malappuram - Manjeri and Malappuram – Mankada are feeders from this Bus.

33 KV Busbar:

In his substation there is one number of 110/33 KV – 16 MVA


Transformer. Their secondary is connected to a common 33 KV Bus. 33 KV
Malappuaram – Valluvambram and Malappuram – Makkaraparamba are feeders
from this Bus.

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11KV Busbar:

Incomer 1:

In this substation 12.5 MVA - 110/11 KV transformer No.1 secondary is


connected to Kodur & Manorama.

Incomer 2 :

In this substation 12.5 MVA - 110/11 KV transformer No.2 secondary is


connected to incomer 2. It feed supply 11 KV Malappuram, STN AUX,
Spinning mill and Pallippuram feeders.

Incomer 3:

In this substation 12.5 MVA - 110/11 KV transformer No.3 secondary is


connected to incomer 3. It feed supply 11 KV Malappuram to Pookotur,
Anakkayam and Chattiparamba feeders.

A busbar coupler is provided between the incomer 2 & incomer 3. It is


used for load sharing of two transformers [Transformer No.2 & Transformer
No.3].

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PROTECTION RELAY

1. Distance or Impedance Relay

2. Over Current Relay

3. Earth fault Relay

DISTANCE OR IMPEDANCE RELAY

This relay is which the operation is governed by the ratio of applied


voltage to current in the protected circuit. In a impedance relay the torque
produces by a current element is opposed by torque produced by voltage
element. The relay will operate when the ratio V/I is less than a predetermined
value.

OVER CURRENT RELAY

This type of relay works on the induction principle. This relay operate
when current flow become more than setted value in the over current relay.

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POWER TRANSFORMER
A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one
circuit to another without changing frequency. This is a very basic definition of
transformer. Since there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is a static
device. Transformer operates on ac supply. Transformer works on the principle
of mutual induction.

Electrical power transformer thus plays a vital role in power transmission.


Step up transformers are used to step up low voltages to high voltage. These are
mainly used in the power generation plants. Step down transformers are used to
step down high voltages to low voltages. These are commonly used in most of
the substations.

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CURRENT TRANSFORMER [CT]

A current transformer is used for measurement of AC current. When


current in the circuit is too high to apply to a measuring instrument. A current
transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in
the circuit. It is also used for providing current signal to protective relays.

CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER [CVT]

In this system CVT is used as a potential transformer to step down extra


high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal for measurements and to
protective relay.

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POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER [PT]

A Voltage transformer is used for measurement of voltage. When voltage


in the circuit is too high to apply to a measuring instrument. A voltage
transformer produces a reduced voltage accurately proportional to the voltage in
the circuit. It is also used for providing voltage signal to protective relays

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CONCLUSION

The industrial training of the year 2018-2019 conducted at various


operation of TMR and Substation during the days of 21/05/2018 to 31/05/2018.
This gives a practical experience of operating of a TMR and Substation. Now
we could understand the difficulties and responsibilities taken by the workmen
while work.

But we did not get enough time to analyse the maintenance and working
of substation completely if we get more time to visit industry then we would
have come back as a ready professional. By this time we could have made aware
of the organizational structure and working of KSEB also.

It is better to conduct at least 10days of training so that the students could


completely identify the complete functioning of the industry.

However under all above mentioned limitations, we could achieve several


things. Mainly we could develop some sort of skills. This is required while
working in an industry.

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