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Оглавление

Введение ................................................................................................................. 1

ЧАСТЬ I. ЛЕКЦИИ ................................................................................................... 3


Лекция № 1. Теория погрешностей .................................................................... 5
1.1.1. Источники и классификация погрешностей ......................................................... 5
1.1.2. Абсолютная и относительная погрешности. Формы записи данных ................. 7
1.1.3. Вычислительная погрешность ............................................................................... 9
1.1.4. Понятие погрешности машинных вычислений .................................................. 10

Лекция № 2. Решение уравнений с одной переменной ................................ 15


1.2.1. Постановка задачи ................................................................................................ 15
1.2.2. Отделение корней ................................................................................................. 16
1.2.3. Метод половинного деления................................................................................ 17
1.2.4. Метод простой итерации...................................................................................... 20
1.2.5. Оценка погрешности метода простой итерации ................................................ 23
1.2.6. Преобразование уравнения к итерационному виду ........................................... 24
1.2.7. Решение уравнений методом простой итерации в пакете Mathcad .................. 24

Лекция № 3. Методы решения систем


линейных алгебраических уравнений ............................................................. 27
1.3.1. Общие сведения и основные определения ......................................................... 27
1.3.2. Метод Гаусса и его реализация в пакете Mathcad.............................................. 28
1.3.3. Вычисление определителей ................................................................................. 32
1.3.4. Решение систем линейных уравнений методом простой итерации ................. 34
1.3.5. Метод Зейделя....................................................................................................... 40
IV Оглавление
Лекция № 4. Методы решения систем нелинейных уравнений.................. 44
1.4.1. Векторная запись нелинейных систем. Метод простых итераций ................... 44
1.4.2. Метод Ньютона решения систем нелинейных уравнений ................................ 48
1.4.3. Решение нелинейных систем методами спуска ................................................. 52
1.4.4. Модифицированный метод Ньютона .................................................................. 67

Лекция № 5. Интерполирование функций....................................................... 73


1.5.1. Постановка задачи ................................................................................................ 73
1.5.2. Интерполяционный полином Лагранжа ............................................................. 76
1.5.3. Интерполяционный полином Ньютона для равноотстоящих узлов ................. 78
1.5.4. Погрешность интерполяции ................................................................................ 82
1.5.5. Сплайн-интерполяция .......................................................................................... 83

Лекция № 6. Численное дифференцирование и интегрирование ............. 90


1.6.1. Дифференцирование функций, заданных аналитически ................................... 90
1.6.2. Особенности задачи численного дифференцирования функций,
заданных таблично ......................................................................................................... 93
1.6.3. Интегрирование функций, заданных аналитически
(формула прямоугольников, формула трапеций, формула Симпсона) ...................... 94
1.6.4. Погрешность численного интегрирования ......................................................... 98
1.6.5. Вычисление интегралов методом Монте-Карло .............................................. 101

Лекция № 7. Методы обработки экспериментальных данных ................. 104


1.7.1. Метод наименьших квадратов ........................................................................... 104
1.7.2. Нахождение приближающей функции в виде линейной функции
и квадратичного трехчлена .......................................................................................... 108
1.7.3. Нахождение приближающей функции в виде элементарных функций ......... 112
1.7.4. Аппроксимация линейной комбинацией функций .......................................... 115
1.7.5. Аппроксимация функцией произвольного вида............................................... 117

Лекция № 8. Преобразование Фурье ............................................................. 120


1.8.1. Разложение периодических функций в ряд Фурье .......................................... 120
1.8.2. Эффект Гиббса .................................................................................................... 123
1.8.3. Спектральный анализ дискретных функций конечной длительности............ 128
1.8.4. Быстрое преобразование Фурье ........................................................................ 129

Лекция № 9. Численные методы решения


обыкновенных дифференциальных уравнений ......................................... 134
1.9.1. Постановка задачи .............................................................................................. 134
1.9.2. Метод Пикара...................................................................................................... 137
Оглавление V

1.9.3. Метод Эйлера...................................................................................................... 139


1.9.4. Метод Рунге—Кутты.......................................................................................... 144
Лекция № 10. Численные методы решения
дифференциальных уравнений в частных производных ........................ 150
1.10.1. Примеры уравнений ......................................................................................... 150
1.10.2. Типы уравнений ................................................................................................ 151
1.10.3. Численные методы решения эллиптических уравнений ............................... 153
1.10.4. Явные разностные схемы ................................................................................. 158
1.10.5. Неявная разностная схема для уравнения параболического типа ................ 163
1.10.6. Решение уравнений методом Монте-Карло ................................................... 168
Лекция № 11. Численные методы решения интегральных уравнений ... 174
1.11.1. Общие сведения об интегральных уравнениях .............................................. 174
1.11.2. Квадратурный метод решения интегральных уравнений Фредгольма ........ 180
1.11.3. Квадратурный метод решения интегральных уравнений Вольтерры .......... 184

ЧАСТЬ II. ЛАБОРАТОРНЫЕ РАБОТЫ ............................................................. 193


Лабораторная работа № 1. Теория приближенных вычислений ............. 195
2.1.1. Абсолютная и относительная погрешности ..................................................... 195
2.1.2. Погрешность округленного числа..................................................................... 198
2.1.3. Погрешности арифметических действий.......................................................... 200
2.1.4. Погрешности элементарных функций .............................................................. 202
2.1.5. Способ границ ..................................................................................................... 205
2.1.6. Обратная задача теории погрешностей ............................................................ 210
2.1.7. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 212
2.1.8. Задания к лабораторной работе № 1 ................................................................. 213
Лабораторная работа № 2. Численные методы решения
скалярных уравнений ....................................................................................... 220
2.2.1. Метод хорд .......................................................................................................... 220
2.2.2. Метод касательных ............................................................................................. 223
2.2.3. Метод простой итерации.................................................................................... 226
2.2.4. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 230
2.2.5. Задания к лабораторной работе № 2 ................................................................. 231
Лабораторная работа № 3. Численные методы решения
систем линейных уравнений ........................................................................... 234
2.3.1. Метод Гаусса—Жордана.................................................................................... 235
2.3.2. Метод простой итерации.................................................................................... 236
VI Оглавление
2.3.3. Метод Зейделя..................................................................................................... 241
2.3.4. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 243
2.3.5. Задание к лабораторной работе № 3 ................................................................. 244
Лабораторная работа № 4. Численные методы решения
систем нелинейных уравнений....................................................................... 248
2.4.1. Метод Ньютона................................................................................................... 248
2.4.2. Задание к лабораторной работе № 4 ................................................................. 252
Лабораторная работа № 5. Приближение значения
таблично заданной функции в точке
с помощью интерполяционных многочленов ............................................. 255
2.5.1. Интерполяционный полином Лагранжа ........................................................... 256
2.5.2. Интерполяционные полиномы Ньютона .......................................................... 259
2.5.3. Интерполирование сплайнами........................................................................... 262
2.5.4. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 266
2.5.5. Задание к лабораторной работе № 5 ................................................................. 266
Лабораторная работа № 6. Обратное интерполирование ......................... 273
2.6.1. Обратное интерполирование с использованием формул Ньютона ................ 273
2.6.2. Обратное интерполирование с использованием формулы Лагранжа ............ 277
2.6.3. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 278
2.6.4. Задание к лабораторной работе № 6 ................................................................. 278
Лабораторная работа № 7. Дискретный вариант
среднеквадратичных приближений. Метод наименьших квадратов ...... 282
2.7.1. Линейная функция .............................................................................................. 282
2.7.2. Квадратичная функция ....................................................................................... 285
2.7.3. Степенная функция............................................................................................. 287
2.7.4. Показательная функция...................................................................................... 288
2.7.5. Логарифмическая функция ................................................................................ 290
2.7.6. Гиперболическая функция ................................................................................. 291
2.7.7. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 293
2.7.8. Задание для лабораторной работы № 7 ............................................................ 293
Лабораторная работа № 8. Численное дифференцирование................... 298
2.8.1. Дифференцирование с помощью интерполяционной
формулы Лагранжа ....................................................................................................... 298
2.8.2. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 302
2.8.3. Задание к лабораторной работе № 8 ................................................................. 303
Оглавление VII

Лабораторная работа № 9. Численное интегрирование ............................ 304


2.9.1. Метод прямоугольников .................................................................................... 305
2.9.2. Метод Симпсона ................................................................................................. 306
2.9.3. Метод трапеций .................................................................................................. 307
2.9.4. Метод Монте-Карло ........................................................................................... 308
2.9.5. Вопросы по теме ................................................................................................. 309
2.9.6. Задание к лабораторной работе № 9 ................................................................. 310
Лабораторная работа № 10. Решение обыкновенных
дифференциальных уравнений ..................................................................... 314
2.10.1. Метод Пикара.................................................................................................... 314
2.10.2. Метод Эйлера и его модификации .................................................................. 317
2.10.3. Метод Рунге—Кутты........................................................................................ 320
2.10.4. Метод Адамса ................................................................................................... 322
2.10.5. Вопросы по теме ............................................................................................... 324
2.10.6. Задание к лабораторной работе № 10 ............................................................. 325
Лабораторная работа № 11. Численное решение
дифференциальных уравнений в частных производных ........................ 329
2.11.1. Решение задачи Дирихле для уравнения Лапласа методом сеток ................ 329
2.11.2. Решение уравнения теплопроводности методом сеток ................................. 335
2.11.3. Решение уравнения колебания струны методом сеток.................................. 338
2.11.4. Вопросы по теме ............................................................................................... 341
2.11.5. Задание к лабораторной работе № 11 ............................................................. 342
Лабораторная работа № 12. Численное решение
интегральных уравнений ................................................................................. 352
2.12.1. Задание к лабораторной работе № 12 ............................................................. 352

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ .................................................................................................... 355


Приложение 1. Основные приемы работы с пакетом Mathcad ................ 357
П1.1. Основы работы с Mathcad .................................................................................. 357
П1.2. Справочная информация в Mathcad .................................................................. 367
П1.3. Основы программирования................................................................................ 375
П1.4. Графические возможности Mathcad .................................................................. 380
Приложение 2. Аналитические методы решения
дифференциальных уравнений в частных производных ........................ 394
П2.1. Точные методы решения дифференциальных
уравнений в частных производных ............................................................................. 394
VIII Оглавление
П2.2. Приближенные методы решения дифференциальных уравнений
в частных производных ................................................................................................ 428
П2.3. Метод обратной задачи рассеяния .................................................................... 439
Приложение 3. Описание компакт-диска....................................................... 445

Литература .......................................................................................................... 447

Предметный указатель ..................................................................................... 449




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