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A Century of Language

Teaching

Teacher-centered
18th Western world FLL = Latin and Greek The Classical method
memorization
Asian countries= focus on Reading/translation/ attention to rules
translation of texts

Late 18th Francois Gouin----overshadowed by Maximilian Berlitz ----Direct Method

The Series Method (language is a means of thinking and of representing reality directly
without translation,
no grammar rules)

19th The Grammar Translation Method (for the sake of being scholarly and gaining Reading
proficiency)

1887 The Direct Method (learned as the first language, spontaneous use of language)

Half of the 20th Audiolingual (tenets of the DM)- Revolution / US Military Sponsored Program/ WW II oral
proficiency
1950 AL M used widely ( MIM-MEM)

1950 The Designer Methods Era


Community Language Learning Carl Rogers Counseling Learning
Person-centered, focus on the learner
Social dynamics of the classroom, counselors
1972 The Silent Way Gattegno
More cognitive than affective
Humanistic approach—problem/solving
Discovery learning (Ausubel)
1972 Communicative Language Teaching Hymes (1972) (Communicative competence)
Grammatical knowledge
Canale/Swain Communicative competence Discourse
knowledge
Sociolinguistic knowledge
Strategic knowledge
1977 Total Physical Response/the Natural Approach (comprehension-based) Asher
Traced theory Memory increased if stimulated/traced
through
Association with motor activity
1979 Suggestopedia Lozanov
Right conditions for learning (a state of relaxation, giving over of control of the teacher)

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