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May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.

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Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable
copyright law.

Account: ns224396
AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.;
¡

I
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‬
£

EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣـﺤـﻤـﺪ ﺍﻟــﻘـﺎﺳـﻤـﻲ‬

‫ﻡ‪2010‬ﻫـ ‪1430 /‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﻳﺎﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬

‫‪810.9‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ ‪/‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻤﻲ ‪ _.‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﻳﺎﻓﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ‪.2009 ،‬‬
‫(ﺹ‬ ‫)‬
‫ﺭ‪.‬ﺇ ‪2009/8/3560 :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ‪/ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‪//‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‪//‬ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪//‬‬

‫‪ÌÈflôÁ÷[:Ìdh” ∑[:ÏÑÚ[~:ÿdŒ‬‬
‫* ‪:‡⁄ :ÌÈ÷Ê˙ [:ÌáÑ„À÷[:j \fi\Èc:~[Ä¡ a:#‬‬

‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅﺔ‬


‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻕ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅﺔ ﻭﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻁﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺸﺮﻩ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺫﻥ ﺧﻄﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻟﻒ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎءﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ‪2010 ،‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﻟﻠﻔﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ‪Van Gogh.‬‬


‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫‪II‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable

‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﻳـــﺎﻓــﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬


00962 6 4778770 ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ – ﻋﻤﺎﻥ – ﺗﻠﻔﺎﻛﺲ‬
‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬11152 ‫ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬520651 ‫ﺏ‬.‫ﺹ‬
E-mail: dar_yafa @yahoo.com
copyright law.

III

EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY
AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.;
Account: ns224396
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻤﻘﺪﻣـــﺔ‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻫـــــــﺪﺍء‬
‫‪5‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‬
‫‪5‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻳﺎﻭﺱ‪:‬‬
‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ‪:‬‬
‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪13‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﺰﺭ‪:‬‬
‫‪16‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻫﻮﺍﻣﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪18‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬
‫‪18‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺛــﺮﻩ ﻓــــﻲ ﺗـــﻄــــــﻮﺭ‬
‫‪18‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨــﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻟـﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬
‫‪21‬‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫‪22‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪23‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫‪26‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫‪31‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ‬
‫‪35‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﺎ‬
‫‪37‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ‪:‬‬
‫‪39‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‪ :‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫‪41‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺧﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺷﻬﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪42‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻱ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫‪44‬‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻱ‬
‫‪45‬‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻛﺪ ﻛﻮﻫﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺷﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺗﻤﺮ ﺑﻤﺮﺣﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪48‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺭﻭﺑﻮﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪48‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪51‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪53‬‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪56‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬
‫‪58‬‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪60‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺟﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬
‫‪63‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‬
‫‪68‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪73‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺴﻢ ﺭﻳﻔﺎﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺑﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻦ‪:‬‬
‫‪75‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪80‬‬ ‫ﻣـﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟـﺘـﻔـﻜـﻴــﺮ‬
‫‪80‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻨـﻘـﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟـﺒـﻼﻏﻲ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫‪80‬‬ ‫ﻋـﻨـﺪ ﺍﺑـﻦ ﺧـﻠـــﺪﻭﻥ‬

‫‪IV‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫‪82‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻲ‬


‫‪82‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪83‬‬ ‫‪ - 1‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫‪88‬‬ ‫‪ - 2‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﺷﺮﻭﻁﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪89‬‬ ‫* ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪91‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫‪92‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬
‫‪92‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬
‫‪94‬‬ ‫‪ - 4‬ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬
‫‪99‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺗﻤﺔ‬
‫‪101‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪103‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪103‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ‬
‫‪105‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪107‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﺪ‬
‫‪113‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫‪116‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫‪126‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪127‬‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫‪127‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸـﻌـﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟـﻌـﺮﺑـﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪130‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪134‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﺎﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻁﺎﺟﻨﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪138‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪140‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻀـﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟـﺸـﻌـﺮﻳـﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫‪140‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻫﻴﺪﻱ‬
‫‪149‬‬ ‫‪ - 3‬ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪152‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺗﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪153‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪154‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟـــﺘــــﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬
‫‪154‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫‪155‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬
‫‪158‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫‪161‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬
‫‪164‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪167‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟــﻬـــﻮﺍﻣــــﺶ‪:‬‬
‫‪169‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫‪V‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﺍﻟــﻤﻘﺪﻣـــﺔ‬
‫‪¢‬‬ ‫§‬
‫ﻴﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻫذا اﻟﻛﺘﺎب ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼرة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺎوزت‬
‫اﻟطﺎﺒﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻟﻠظﺎﻫرة اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻛوﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻨظوﻤﺔ ﻓﻛرﻴﺔ وﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻛن‬
‫ﺘطﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﺠز اﻹﺒداﻋﻲ واﻟﻨﻘدي ﺒﺼرف اﻟﻨظر ﻋن طﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ اﻟﻠﻐوﻴﺔ وﺤدودﻩ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻐراﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘدﻤﺔ ﺘﻠك اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺸﺄت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﻐرﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ ﻨظرﻴﺔ ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﺠدﻴدة ﺘﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ اﺴﺘﻠﻬﺎم اﻟﺘﺼورات اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ اﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﺒﺘﺤوﻴﻝ اﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﻤن اﻟﻤؤﻟف واﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻨص واﻟﻘﺎرئ ‪.‬ذﻟك ﺒﺄن ﻓﻬم اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺘم إﻻ ﺒواﺴطﺔ اﻟدور‬
‫اﻟذي ﻴﻨﻬض ﺒﻪ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن ﻤﺸروع ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻘوم‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ إﻗﺼﺎء اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﻌﻤﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎرﻫﺎ وﺘﺠﺎوز ﻨﻘﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟوﻗت ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫وﻨظ ار ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺜﻝ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻏﻨﺎء اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺠﺎ و ﻤوﻀوﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘد ﺨﺼﺼﻨﺎ ﺤﻴ از ﻤن ﻫذﻩ اﻟدراﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤدﻴث ﻋن‬
‫اﻟﺨطﺎب اﻟﻨﻘدي اﻟﻤﺘرﺠم وأﺜرﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺘطور اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻐرب‪ .‬وﻗد ﻻﺤظﻨﺎ ﻤن ﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺤرﻛﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻐرب أن اﻟﺘﺠرﺒﺔ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜرت ﺘﺄﺜ ار ﻛﺒﻴ ار ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻟﻨظرﻴﺔ‬
‫واﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻨﻤت وﺘطورت ﺒﻔرﻨﺴﺎ‪ ،‬واﺴﺘﻔﺎدت ﻤن ﻨظرﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫اﻹﺠراﺌﻴﺔ أﻛﺜر ﻤﻤﺎ اﺴﺘﻔﺎدت ﻤن اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻷﺨرى ﻓﻲ أﻗطﺎر ﻏرﺒﻴﺔ أﺨرى ‪.‬وﻴظﻬر ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌطﻰ ﺠﻠﻴﺎ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ اﻟﻛﺘب اﻟﻨظرﻴﺔ و اﻟﺘطﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤت ﺘرﺠﻤﺘﻬﺎ اﺒﺘداء ﻤن‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت ﻤن اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺸرﻴن‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﺒﺤﻛم ﺘﻀﺎﻓر ﻋدة ﻋواﻤﻝ ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ وﺠﻐراﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻟﻐوﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﻗد أدى اﻟﺘراﻛم اﻟذي ﺤﻘﻘﻪ اﻟﻨﻘﺎد واﻟﻤﺘرﺠﻤﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺒﻌض‬
‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ اﻟﻤرﺘﺒطﺔ ﺒﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ أدى إﻟﻰ ظﻬور ﻛﺘﺎﺒﺎت ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ رﺼﻴﻨﺔ أﺴﻬﻤت ﺒﺸﻛﻝ ﻛﺒﻴر ﻓﻲ ﺘطوﻴر ﻤﺴﻴرة اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤواﻛﺒﺔ ﺘطورات ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻐرﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼرة ‪.‬وﻫﻲ ظﺎﻫرة ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻔﺎوت ﻓﻲ درﺠﺔ اﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎدة و اﻟﻤواﻛﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ٕواذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﻌﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻏﻴر ﻴﺴﻴرة ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘد ﺨﺼﺼت اﻟدراﺴﺔ ﻤﺒﺤﺜﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤدﻴث ﻋن أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘواﺼﻝ اﻟﺤﻀﺎري ﺒﻴن اﻷﻤم ﺘﺄﺜﻴ ار وﺘﺄﺜرا‪ .‬ﻏﻴر أن‬
‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴق اﻟﻔﻌﻝ اﻟﺘواﺼﻠﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺼطدم ﺒﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻌواﺌق اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠت اﻟدراﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺸﺨﻴص ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ وﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻟﺸﻌر‬
‫ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ واﻗﺘراح ﺒﻌض اﻟﺤﻠوﻝ ﻟﺘﺠﺎوز ﺘﻠك اﻟﺼﻌوﺒﺎت‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻴﺠد اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻟﻛرﻴم ﻗﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ أﺨرى ﻤﺴﺘوﺤﺎة ﻤن ﺼﻤﻴم اﻫﺘﻤﺎم اﻟﻨﻘد‬
‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼر ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺒذاﺘﻪ وﺒﺎﻵﺨر‪.‬‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable

‫ﺍﻹﻫـــــــﺪﺍء‬
‫رﻤﻴﺴﺎء ﺘﺨطو ﻋﻠﻰ وردﺘﻴن‬
‫وﺘﺄﺴر ﻗﻠﺒﻲ ﻤن اﻟﺠـﻬﺘﻴن‬

‫ وأﻨﻘﻰ‬،‫رﻤﻴﺴﺎء أﺤﻠﻰ اﻟﺼﺒﺎﻴﺎ‬


‫وأﻋذب ﻤن ﻗطرة اﻟدﻤﻌﺘﻴن‬

‫إذا ﻏردت ﻫزت اﻟروح ﻟطﻔﺎ‬


‫ﺒﻬﻤس ﻛﻨﺠوى ﺠﻔوﻨﻲ ﻟﻌﻴﻨﻲ‬

‫ وأﺘرك ﻋﻤ ار‬،‫أﻏﺎدر ﻗﻠﺒﻲ‬


‫ﻷرﺴم ﻓﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟوﺠﻨﺘﻴن‬

‫ﺨﺎﻟد ﻋﺒد اﻟرؤوف اﻟﺠﺒر‬


‫ﺸﺎﻋر ﻤن اﻷردن‬
copyright law.

EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY
AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.;
Account: ns224396
Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable

‫ﺍﻟــﻘـــﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟـﺘــــﺄﻭﻳــﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬


copyright law.

EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY
AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.;
Account: ns224396
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ‬
‫♦‬
‫‪F‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫إن اﻟﺤدﻴث ﻋن ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ اﻟﻘراءة واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث ﻴﺴﺘﻠزم‬
‫اﻟوﻗوف ﻋﻨد ﺘﻴﺎرات وﻤدارس ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻨوﻋﺔ وﺘﺄﺜﻴرات ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻻﺒد ﻤن اﻹﺸﺎرة إﻟﻰ أﺜر اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠق ﺒﻌﻨﺼر‬
‫اﻹدراك واﻷداة وﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘﻐرﻴب ﺜم ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘطور اﻷدﺒﻲ وﻛذﻟك اﻹﺸﺎرة إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ روﻤﺎن إﻨﻛﺎردن وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤدﻴﺜﻪ ﻋن ﺒﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﻼﺘﺤدﻴد واﻟﺘﺤﻘق واﻟﺘﺠﺴﻴم‪،‬‬
‫وﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺠورج ﻛﺎداﻤﻴر وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤدﻴﺜﻪ ﻋن ﻋﻠم اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ واﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ وﺘﺎرﻴﺦ ﻋﻠم‬
‫اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ واﻵراء اﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ وأﻓق اﻟﻔﻬم ‪ .1‬وﻤﻊ ذﻟك ﻓﺈن ﻫذﻩ‬
‫‪F1‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎرات اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻗد ﻨظرت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻤن زاوﻴﺔ ﻤﺤددة‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت‬


‫اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﻠﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﺒﻨﻴوﻴﺔ ﻨظرت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﻛﺎﺌﻨﺎ ﻟﻐوﻴﺎ ﺒﻨﻴوﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺴم ﺒﺎﻨﻐﻼق ﻛوﻨﻪ اﻟﻠﻐوي‪ ،‬وﻋدم إﺤﺎﻟﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ أي ﻤرﺠﻊ واﻗﻌﻲ‪ ،‬واﻨﻔﺼﺎﻝ أﻨﺴﺎق‬
‫اﻷدﻟﺔ ﻋن اﻟذات أي ﻋدم ارﺘﺒﺎطﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺎﻤﻠﻲ إﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ وﺘﻠﻘﻴﻪ‪ ،‬وأﺨﻴ ار ﺘﺠرﻴد اﻟﻌﻤﻝ‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻤن ﻛﻝ وظﻴﻔﺔ اﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬أﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﻤرﻛﺴﻲ ﻓﺈن اﻟﻤﻔﺎرﻗﺔ اﻟﻤﺜﻴرة اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻴزﺘﻪ‪-‬ﺤﺴب أﻨﺼﺎر ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‪ -‬ﻓﻬﻲ "اﻋﺘراﻀﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﻴﻛون ﻟﻠﻔن وﻟﺴﺎﺌر‬
‫أﺸﻛﺎﻝ اﻟوﻋﻲ اﻷﺨرى– اﻷﺨﻼق واﻟدﻴن واﻟﻤﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴزﻴﻘﺎ‪ -‬ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ ﺨﺎص‪ ...‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﻤﻛن‬
‫ﻟﻸدب أو ﻟﻠﻔن أن ﻴﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﻛﺴﻴرورة ﺠﺎرﻴﺔ إﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﻠﻘﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺴﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎن‬
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‫وﻓﻲ وظﻴﻔﺘﻪ اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪".‬‬

‫♦ أﻟﻘﻴت ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤداﺨﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨدوة اﻟدوﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻨظﻤﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻬد اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻐﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻤوﻀوع اﻟﻘراءة و اﻟﺘﺎوﻴﻝ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫أﻴﺎم ‪ 17-16-15‬أﺒرﻴﻝ ‪ 2004‬ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻤﻬورﻴﺔ اﻟﺘوﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫وﻓﻲ ﺨﻀم ﻫذﻩ اﻟﺘﺼورات اﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻴزت ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺸﺄت ﻨظرﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ ﻨظرﻴﺔ ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﺠدﻴدة ﺘﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ اﺴﺘﻠﻬﺎم ﺘﻠك اﻟﺘﺼورات واﻟﺘﻐﻴرات‬
‫وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ اﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﺒﺘﺤوﻴﻝ اﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﻤن اﻟﻤؤﻟف واﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨص‬
‫واﻟﻘﺎرئ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﺴﺘﻐﻼﻝ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﻓﻬﻤﻪ وﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺘم إﻻ ﺒواﺴطﺔ اﻟدور‬
‫اﻟذي ﻴﻨﻬض ﺒﻪ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن ﻤﺸروع ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ –وﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺼرح ﺒذﻟك ﻛﻝ ﻤن ﻴﺎوس ٕواﻴزر‪-‬ﻻ ﻴﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ إﻗﺼﺎء اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ‬
‫ﻴﻌﻤﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎرﻫﺎ وﺘﺠﺎوز ﻨﻘﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗت ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬وﺒذﻟك ﺘﺤوﻟت ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻤن ﻤﺠﺎﻝ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻨﻘد اﻟﻨﻘد‪ ،‬أو ﺒﺘﻌﺒﻴر د‪.‬ﺤﻤﻴد اﻟﺤﻤﻴداﻨﻲ ﻤن ﻤﺠﺎﻝ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ‪ .‬وﻴﻤﻛن أن ﻨﺸﻴر ﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺼدد إﻟﻰ أن ﻴﺎوس ﻟم‬
‫ﻴﻘﻠﻝ ﻤن أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼور اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻲ ﻟﻸدب‪ ،‬وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤدﻴث ﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﻨوف ﻋن ﻤﻔﻬوم‬
‫اﻟﺘطور اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺤﻴث اﻋﺘرف ﺒﺄن اﻟﻔﻀﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺠدﻴد اﻟﻔﻬم اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻲ ﻟﻸدب ﻴرﺠﻊ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن‪ٕ ،‬وان ﻛﺎن ﻫذا اﻟﻔﻬم ﻻ ﻴﺘم ﻓﻲ إطﺎر إدراك اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴرورﺘﻪ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ وظﻴﻔﺘﻪ اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴر اﻟذي ﻴﻤﺎ رﺴﻪ اﻟﻘراء ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤرار‪.‬‬
‫وﻟﻬذا اﻟﺴﺒب ﻨص ﻴﺎوس ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻷدب ﻻ ﺘﻨﺤﺼر ﻓﻘط ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘطور‬
‫‪ .3‬وﻟﻴس اﻟﻤﻘﺼود‬ ‫اﻟداﺨﻠﻲ ﻟﻸﺸﻛﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﺘﺸﻤﻝ اﻟﺴﻴرورة اﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺎرﻴﺦ أﻴﻀﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻋﻨد ﻴﺎوس اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟذي ﻴﻬﺘم ﺒرﺼد ﺴﻴرة اﻟﻤؤﻟﻔﻴن وآﺜﺎرﻫم ﻷن ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﻨوع ﻤن اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ "ﻟﻴس ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﺎ ﺤﻘﺎ ﺒﻘد ر ﻤﺎ ﻫو طﻴف ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ"‪ .4‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن اﻝﻛﺸف‬
‫ﻋن ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘم اﻨطﻼﻗﺎ ﻤن ﻤﻌرﻓﺔ دﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻝ اﻟظروف‬
‫اﻟﺒﻴوﻏراﻓﻴﺔ أو اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺸﺄﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ اﻟﻨظر إﻟﻴﻪ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ دﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻛن إدراﻛﻬﺎ إﻻ ﻀﻤن ﺘﺤوﻻﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬وﻗدرة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫"اﻟوﻗﻊ" أي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﺜر اﻟذي ﻴﺤددﻩ اﻟﻨص‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻰ "اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ" اﻟذي ﻴﺤددﻩ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻤﻨﺘظﻤﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤرﺴﻝ إﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬وﻴﻔﺘرض اﻟوﻗﻊ اﻷﺜر" ﻨداء أو إﺸﻌﺎﻋﺎ آﺘﻴﺎ ﻤن اﻟﻨص‪ ،‬وﻛذا ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ‬
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‫اﻟﻤرﺴﻝ إﻟﻴﻪ ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﻨداء أو اﻹﺸﻌﺎع اﻟذي ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻛﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻳﺎﻭﺱ‪:‬‬


‫إن ﺒﻨﺎء ﺘﺼور ﺠدﻴد ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺘﻲ اﻟﻘراءة واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻋﻨد رواد ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻘﺘﻀﻲ رﺴم ﺘﺼور ﻤﻐﺎﻴر ﻟﻤﻔﻬوم ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻷدب‪ ،‬ورﺴم اﻟﺤدود ﺒﻴن اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻷدب ﺤﺴب ﻴﺎوس ﻻ ﺘﻨﻬض ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎﺴك اﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻴن اﻟظواﻫر اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪ٕ ،‬واﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻤرس اﻟﻘراء أوﻻ ﺒﺎﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺒذﻟك ﻴﺘﺤوﻝ ﻤؤرخ اﻷدب ﻨﻔﺴﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻗﺎرئ ﻗﺒﻝ أن ﻴﺘﻤﻛن ﻤن ﻓﻬم طﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻝ وﺘﺤدﻴدﻩ ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬وﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ وﻀﻊ ﺤﻛﻤﻪ ﻀﻤن اﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘراء‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﻴن‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻴرى ﻴﺎوس أن ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻷدب ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋن "ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺠدﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴن اﻹﻨﺘﺎج واﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ"‪ 6.‬أي أن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘطﻴﻊ اﻻﺴﺘﻤرار ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴر إﻻ إذا‬
‫اﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻪ اﻟﻘراء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤو داﺌم وﻤﺘﺠدد‪ ،‬وﻫؤﻻء اﻟﻘراء إﻤﺎ أﻨﻬم ﻴﻛﺘﻔون ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻬﻼﻛﻪ‬
‫وﺘﻘﻠﻴدﻩ‪ٕ ،‬واﻤﺎ أﻨﻬم ﻴﺘﺠﺎوزوﻨﻪ وﻴﻨﺘﻘدوﻨﻪ‪ .‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‬
‫ﻤوﻀوع ﺘﺠرﺒﺔ أدﺒﻴﺔ ﻟدى اﻟﺠﻤﻬور اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼر واﻟﻼﺤق‪ ،‬ﻗراء وﻨﻘﺎدا وﻛﺘﺎﺒﺎ ﻛﻝ ﺤﺴب‬
‫أﻓق ﺘوﻗﻌﻪ اﻟﺨﺎص ﺒﻪ‪.‬‬

‫إن إﻋطﺎء ﺘﺼور ﺠدﻴد ﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻴدﺨﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻤﻴم اﻟﻤﺸروع‬
‫اﻟﻨﻘدي ﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‪ ،‬وﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ؛ ذﻟك ﺒﺄن ﻗراءة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‬
‫‪ ،7‬أي‬ ‫وﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ ﺘﺘم ﻋﺒر إﻋﺎدة ﺒﻨﺎء ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺘﻪ ﺒﻘراﺌﻪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﻴن إﻨطﻼﻗﺎ ﻤن اﻟﺤﺎﻀر‬
‫وﻀﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎق زﻤﻨﻲ ﻴﺘﻴﺢ اﻟﺘﻐﻠب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘوﺠد ﺒﻴن اﻟﺤﺎﻀر‬
‫واﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟﻘراءات ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻴﺎوس ﻨظ ار ﻟﻠدور اﻟﺘوﺴطﻲ‬
‫اﻟذي ﺘؤدﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨص ﻤد ﺠﺴور اﻟﺤوار واﻟﺘواﺼﻝ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ واﻟﺤﺎﻀر‬
‫واﻻﺴﺘﺌﻨﺎس ﺒﻘراءات اﻷواﺌﻝ واﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎرﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻬم ﺤدود اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ‪.‬‬
‫وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن اﻟﻌودة إﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺎرب اﻟﻘراء اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﻴن" ﺘﺴﺎﻋد ﻋﻠﻰ وﻀﻊ ﺤدود ﻹﻤﻛﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻋﻨد اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻟذي ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ إﻟﻰ أﻓق اﻟﺤﺎﻀر إﻟﻰ ﺠﺎﻨب اﻟﺤدود اﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬
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‫اﻟﻨص أﻤﺎﻤﻪ"‪.‬‬

‫واﻨطﻼﻗﺎ ﻤن ﻫذا اﻟﺘﺼور ﻋﻤﻝ ﻴﺎوس ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴد اﻟﻬوة اﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ واﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟﻌﺎم‪ ،‬أو ﺒﻴن اﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﻌرﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺘﺄﻛﻴدﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ أن اﻟﺠوﻫر اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻛن أن ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ﻓﺤص‬
‫إﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ أو وﺼﻔﻪ ﻓﻘط‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ أن ﻨﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻷدب ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺠدﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻴن اﻹﻨﺘﺎج‬
‫واﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‪ 9.‬وﻫذﻩ اﻟﺠدﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤرة ﺒﻴن اﻹﻨﺘﺎج واﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘوﻓر إﻤﻛﺎﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘراءة‬
‫واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻟﻸﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﺘﻨﺒﻐﻲ اﻹﺸﺎرة ﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺼدد إﻟﻰ أن ﻴﺎوس ﻻ ﻴﻨظر‬
‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘراءة واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﻔﻬوﻤﻴن ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﻴن‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﻌﺘﺒرﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﻔﻬوﻤﻴن ﻤﺘراﺒطﻴن‬
‫وﻤﺘﻼزﻤﻴن ﻻﻴﻤﻛن اﻟﻔﺼﻝ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺼود ﺒﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻋﻨد ﻴﺎوس؟ وﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‬
‫أﺴﺴﻪ وأﻨﻤﺎطﻪ؟‬

‫إن ﺘﺤدﻴد ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻋﻨد ﻴﺎوس ﻤرﺘﺒط ﺒطرﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻬم اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ وﺒطرﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺤدﻴد ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ أو ﻤﻌﺎﻨﻴﻪ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻟم ﻴﺠد ﻴﺎوس ﺒدا ﻤن اﻟﻌودة إﻟﻰ‬
‫آراء أﺴﺘﺎذﻩ ﻛﺎداﻤﻴر‪ ،‬وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤدﻴﺜﻪ ﻋن ﻤراﺤﻝ ﻓﻬم اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﺴﻴرورة‬
‫ﻫﻴرﻤﻴﻨوطﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴرى ﻛداﻤﻴر أن ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻫﺎ ﺴﻴرورة ﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻴرﺘﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼث‬
‫‪les‬‬ ‫ﻤراﺤﻝ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ اﻟﻔﻬم واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ واﻟﺘطﺒﻴق‪ .‬وﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻬم ﻛﻝ اﻷﺤﻛﺎم اﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫أﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪ préjugés‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘوﺠد ﻓﻲ وﻋﻲ اﻟﻤؤوﻝ وﻫو ﺒﺼدد ﻤواﺠﻬﺔ اﻟﻨص ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﻓﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﻪ ذﻟك اﻟوﺠﻪ اﻟﺠﻠﻲ‪ ،‬أو اﻟﻤﺤك اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴطرح ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺘﻠك‬
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‫وﺒطﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﺈن ﻫﺎﺘﻴن‬ ‫اﻷﺤﻛﺎم ﻤﻊ ﻤﻌطﻴﺎت اﻟﻨص أو ﻋدم ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫اﻟﻤرﺤﻠﺘﻴن ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻴﺎن إﻟﻰ اﻷﻓق اﻟﺤﺎﻀر اﻟذي ﻴﻌﻴش ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﻤؤوﻝ‪ ،‬وﻤﻌﻨﻰ ذﻟك أن ﻓﻬم‬
‫اﻟﻨص ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺸﺎﻤﻼ ﻟن ﻴﻛﺘﻤﻝ إﻻ إذا اﻨﺘﻘﻝ اﻟﻤؤوﻝ إﻟﻰ ﻤرﺤﻠﺔ اﻟﺘطﺒﻴق ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻌﻴد ﻤن‬
‫‪horizons‬‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ أﺴﻨدت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻨص ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ آﻓﺎق ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫‪ historiques‬ﺘﺘﻀﻤن ﺘﺄوﻴﻼت اﻵﺨرﻴن وﻗراءاﺘﻬم‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﺨﻠص ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻼﺌم أﻓﻘﻪ‬


‫اﻟراﻫن‪ .‬وﺒﻬذا اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ وﻏﻴر اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻗﺎﺒﻼ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻴﻴن واﻟﺘطﺒﻴق ﻓﻲ‬
‫بﺤﺴب اﻟوﻀﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺤواﻝ وأزﻤﺎن ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬وﻗﺎﺒﻼ ﻷن ﻴﺄﺨذ ﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﺠدﻴدة‬
‫‪12‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤؤوﻝ وأﺤﻛﺎﻤﻪ اﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﻗد اﺴﺘﺜﻤر ﻴﺎوس ﻫذﻩ اﻷﻓﻛﺎر واﻵراء اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﺴواء ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺒﻪ "ﻨﺤو ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ" أو ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺒﻪ "ﻨﺤو ﻫﻴرﻤﻴﻨوطﻴﻘﺎ أدﺒﻴﺔ" ﺤﻴث رﻛز ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺒﻪ اﻷﺨﻴر ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺜﻼث ﻤراﺤﻝ ﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏرار اﻟﻤراﺤﻝ اﻟﺜﻼث اﻟﺘﻲ ارﺘﻛز ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓن‬
‫كداﻤﻴر‪ ،‬وﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻔﻬم ﻋﻨد ا‬

‫‪ -1‬اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ أو أﻓق اﻹدراك اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ‪horizon de la reception‬‬


‫‪ esthetique‬وﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﻘوم اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﺒﺈﻨﺠﺎز ﻓﻬم ﻤﺘدرج ﻟﺸﻛﻝ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﻤدروس‬
‫أو ﺒﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪-2‬اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ أو أﻓق اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ اﻻﺴﺘرﺠﺎﻋﻲ ‪horizon d'interprétation‬‬


‫‪ rétrospective‬وﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﺒرز اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻷﻓق اﻟﺴﺎﺒق ﻋن طرﻴق ﺒﻨﺎء أﺤد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ اﻟﻤﻤﻛﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ horizon d' application‬وﻴﻌﻴد‬ ‫‪ -3‬اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ أو أﻓق اﻟﺘطﺒﻴق‬


‫اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﻤؤرﺨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﻨﺎء أﻓق اﻨﺘظﺎر اﻟﻘراء اﻷواﺌﻝ وﻤراﺠﻌﺔ آﻓﺎق‬
‫‪1313‬‬
‫اﻟﻘراء اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﻴن‪.‬‬

‫وﻴﺴﺘﻔﺎد ﻤن ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤراﺤﻝ اﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ أ ن ﻓﻬم اﻟﻨص وﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ ﻴﺘم ﻋﺒر رﺒط‬
‫اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺒﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻨﻔس اﻟﺠﻨس‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﺼدد ﻴرى ﻴﺎوس أن "اﻟﻨص اﻟﺠدﻴد ﻴﺴﺘدﻋﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎرئ ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤن‬
‫اﻟﺘوﻗﻌﺎت واﻟﺘداﺒﻴر اﻟﺘﻲ ﻋودﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻛﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎق‬
‫اﻟﻘراءة‪ ،‬أن ﺘﻌدﻝ أو ﺘﺼﺤﺢ أو ﺘﻐﻴر أو ﺘﻛرر‪ .‬وﻴﻨدرج اﻟﺘﻌدﻴﻝ واﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻀﻤن‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫اﻟﺤﻘﻝ اﻟذي ﻴﺘطور ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﺠﻨس ‪ .14‬وﻗرﻴب ﻤن ﻫذا اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺤدﻴث رﻴﻛور ﻋن اﻟﻘراءة‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ‪ ،‬وﻋن ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ إﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ وﺘﻠﻘﻴﻪ وﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻘد ﻋﺎﻟﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﻤﻘﺎم‬
‫ﻤﻔﻬوﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻎ اﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫو اﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋد ‪ distantiation15‬إذ ذﻫب إﻟﻰ أن اﻟﻨص ﻴﺘﺒﺎﻋد‬
‫ﻋن اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺼد اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻛﺎﺘب‪ ،‬واﻟﻤﻘﺎﺼد اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ واﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻴﺔ واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻴط ﺒﺈﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺜم اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺼد اﻟذاﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺎرئ‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎ أن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺒﺎﻋد ﺘﺘﺤﻘق ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺘﺠﺎذب ﻗطﺒﻴن أﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴن ﻫﻤﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﻟم اﻟﻨص وﻋﺎﻟم اﻟﻘﺎرئ‪.‬ﻓﺎﻷوﻝ ﻴﺨﻠق ﻋﺎﻟﻤﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻪ ﺒﻌﻴدا ﻋن اﻟﻤؤﺜرات اﻟواﻗﻌﻴﺔ وﻋن ﻤﻘﺎﺼد اﻟﻛﺎﺘب وﻨواﻴﺎﻩ اﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷن ﻤﺎ ﻴدﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﻨص ﻻ ﻴطﺎﺒق ﺘﻤﺎم اﻟﻤطﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴرﻴد اﻟﻛﺎﺘب أن ﻴﺒوح ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬أﻤﺎ اﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ أي ﻋﺎﻟم‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻓذﻫب رﻴﻛور إﻟﻰ أن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘراءة ﺘﻌد ﺘﺤﻘﻘﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻹﻤﻛﺎﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻨص‬
‫اﻟدﻻﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر أﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﻴد إﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ وﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬وﺘرﺒط ﺨطﺎﺒﻪ ﺒﺨطﺎﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬وﻓق ﺴﻴﺎق‬
‫اﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ وﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺎﻟف ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎق اﻟذي ظﻬر ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﻨص أي وﻓق اﻻﻨﺘظﺎرات‬
‫اﻟﻤرﺘﺒطﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻓق اﻟﺨﺎص ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎرئ‪ .‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ وﻀﻊ رﻴﻛور ﻤﻔﻬوﻤﻴن ﻟﻘراءة اﻟﻨص‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ ظﻼ ﻤﺘﻌﺎرﻀﻴن ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘﻝ اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﻠﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﺒﻨﻴوﻴﺔ واﻟﺴﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ وﻫﻤﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴر اﻟﺒﻨﻴوي أو اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺒﻨﻴوﻴﺔ ﺜم اﻟﻔﻬم اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻲ أو اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ اﻟﻘراءة‬
‫اﻷوﻟﻰ –أي اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺒﻨﻴوﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﻴﺘم ﻋزﻝ اﻟﻨص ﻋن ﻤﺤﻴطﻪ اﻟﺨﺎرﺠﻲ وﺘﻌﻠﻴق ﺘوﻗﻌﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎرئ واﻨﺘظﺎرات أﻓﻘﻪ‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﻗﺼد وﺼف اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻴﺜﺔ أو اﻟدﻻﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻨص‪ .‬أﻤﺎ اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ –أي اﻟﻘراءة اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﺘم ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓك اﻟﻌزﻟﺔ ﻋن اﻟﻨص ﻗﺼد‬
‫رﺒطﻪ ﺒﻤﺤﻴطﻪ اﻟﺨﺎرﺠﻲ وﺒﺄﻓق اﻟﻘﺎرئ أو ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘوﻝ رﻴﻛور‪" :‬اﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴر واﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻌﺎرﻀﺎن وﻴﻠﺘﻘﻴﺎن ﻓﻲ ﻗﻠب ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة ﻨﻔﺴﻪ" وﻫﻛذا ﺤﺎوﻝ ﻛﻝ ﻤن ﻴﺎوس ٕواﻴزر –‬
‫وﻫﻤﺎ ﻤن ﺘﻼﻤﻴذ ﻛﺎداﻤﻴر‪ -‬أن ﻴﻌﻴدا اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻬﻴرﻤﻴﻨوطﻴﻘﺎ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺘﻘدﻴم ﺒدﻴﻝ ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻲ ﻴﺨص ﺘﺄوﻴﻝ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ورﻏم أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫذا اﻟﺘﺼور اﻟذي ﻋﺒر ﻋﻨﻪ رﻴﻛور ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﺸروع ﻴﺎوس ﻓﻲ ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﺼدد ﻤﺘﻤﻴ از ﻋن ﻏﻴرﻩ ﻷن اﺴﺘﻨد ﻓﻲ ﺘﺄﺴﻴس ﻤﺸروﻋﻪ اﻟﻨﻘدي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن‬
‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم اﻹﺠراﺌﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﺒط ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘراءة وﻓﻲ ﻤﻘدﻤﺘﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻤﻨطق اﻟﺴؤاﻝ واﻟﺠواب‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫وأﻓق اﻻﻨﺘظﺎر وﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻣﻨﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﺏ ‪:‬‬


‫ﺘﻨﺒﻐﻲ اﻹﺸﺎرة ﻤﻨذ اﻟﺒداﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ أن ﻴﺎوس ﻗد اﺴﺘﻘﻰ ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺴؤاﻝ واﻟﺠواب ﻤن‬
‫ﻛﺎداﻤﻴر اﻟذي ذﻫب إﻟﻰ أن ﻓﻬم اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﻬم اﻟﺴؤاﻝ اﻟذي ﻴﻘدﻤﻪ ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻝ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻩ ﺠواﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻷن اﻟﻨص ﻋﻨدﻤﺎ ﻴﻛون ﺒﻴن ﻴدي اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻤوﻀوﻋﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺄوﻴﻝ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺘظ ار ﺠواﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻋن ﺴؤاﻟﻪ‪.‬‬

‫وﻗد ﺘﻨﻘﻠب اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻘﺎرئ واﻟﻨص ﺒﺤﻴث ﻴﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻫو‬
‫ﺼﺎﺤب اﻟﺴؤاﻝ‪ ،‬وﻴﻨﺘظر ﻤن اﻟﻨص ﺠواﺒﺎ ﻤﺤددا‪ .‬وﻫﻛذا ﺘﺨﻀﻊ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴن‬
‫‪la logique de la question et de la‬‬ ‫اﻟطرﻓﻴن ﻟﻤﻨطق اﻟﺴؤاﻝ واﻟﺠواب‬
‫‪ .reponse‬وﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺼدد ﻴﺸﻴر ﻴﺎوس إﻟﻰ أن ﻓﻬم اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟذي ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻴﻘﺘﻀﻲ إﻋﺎدة اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﺴؤاﻝ اﻟذي ﻗدم ﻟﻪ ﺠواﺒﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺼﻝ‪ ،‬أي إﻋﺎدة‬
‫ﺒﻨﺎء أﻓق اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘراء اﻷواﺌﻝ‪ .‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﺘدﺨﻝ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ اﻟﻤؤرخ اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟذي ﻴﺘﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ وﺼوﻻ إﻟﻰ ﻤرﺤﻠﺔ ﻴﺘم ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﺴﺘﻨطﺎق اﻟﻨص ﻟﻴﺠﻴب ﻋن‬
‫ﺴؤاﻝ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻲ إﻟﻰ أﻓق اﻟﺤﺎﻀر‪ .‬وﺒذﻟك ﻴﺼﻴر ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ ﻗراءات ﻨص أدﺒﻲ ﻤﻌﻴن ﻋﺒﺎرة‬
‫ﻋن ﻟﻌﺒﺔ ﺤوارﻴﺔ وﻤﻔﺘوﺤﺔ ﻤن اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ واﻷﺠوﺒﺔ‪ .‬وﻫﻨﺎ ﺘﺒرز ﻗوة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻹﺒداﻋﻲ‬
‫وﻏﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬وﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻗدرﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋن اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘطرح ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤر اﻟﻌﺼور‪.‬‬
‫وﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺒﻝ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﺒﻌض اﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺒﺘذﻟﺔ وﻤﺄﻟوﻓﺔ ﺒﺴﺒب ﻋﺠزﻫﺎ ﻋن‬
‫اﻟﺴؤاﻝ‪ ،‬وﺒﺴﺒب أن اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻨت ﺘﺘﻀﻤن أﺠوﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻟم ﺘﻌد ﻟﻬﺎ ﺴوى ﻓﺎﺌدة‬
‫ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨص اﻟﻔﻨﻲ‪ ،‬واﻟﺸﻌري ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻴﻘوﻝ ﻴﺎوس "ﻟﻴس ﻤدوﻨﺔ أﺤﻛﺎم‬
‫ﺴﻤﺎوﻴﺔ ﺘﻘدم ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ أﺠوﺒﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺘطرﺤﻪ ﻤن أﺴﺌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﻼﻓﺎ ﻟﻠﻨص اﻟدﻴﻨﻲ اﻟﺸرﻋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫اﻟذي ﻴﻌﺘﺒر ﺤﺠﺔ واﻟذي ﻴﺘﻌﻴن إدراك ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ اﻟﺠﺎﻫز‪ ...‬ﻓﺈن اﻟﻨص اﻟﺸﻌري ﻤﺘﺼور‬
‫ﻛﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻔﺘوﺤﺔ ﺘﻘﺘﻀﻲ أن ﻴﻨﻤو ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ...‬ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻤﻨزﻻ ﻤن أوﻝ وﻫﻠﺔ ﺒﻝ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﺘم‬
‫ﺘﻔﻌﻴﻠﻪ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ﺘﻠﻘﻴﺎﺘﻪ اﻝم ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ تطﺎﺒق ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻝ اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ واﻷﺠوﺒﺔ"‪.16‬‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺃﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‪:‬‬


‫ﻴرى ﻴﺎوس أن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻤﻝ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌطﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻛﻝ ﻨﺴﻘﺎ ﻤن اﻻﻨﺘظﺎرات واﻟﻌﻼﻤﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘرﺴب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﺄﺜرﻩ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺼوص اﻷﺨرى اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻨﻔس اﻟﺠﻨس اﻷدﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﻤﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺨﻠق ﻟدى ﺠﻤﻬورﻩ ﻨﻤطﺎ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻤن اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ وﻴدﻓﻌﻪ إﻟﻰ اﺴﺘﺤظﺎر ﺘﺠرﺒﺘﻪ اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻋن‬
‫اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺒق أن ﻗرأﻫﺎ ‪.17‬وﻫﻨﺎ ﻴرى ﻴﺎوس أن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘراءة ﻻﺒد ﻟﻬﺎ أن‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﺤﻀر أﻓﻘﻴن اﺜﻨﻴن‪ ،‬اﻷﻓق اﻟذي ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻪ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‪ ،‬واﻷﻓق اﻟذي ﻴوﺠد ﻓﻲ‬
‫وﻋﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷوﻝ ﻤرﺴوم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص وﻴدﻋﻰ اﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴر ‪ Effect‬واﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻌطﻰ ﻤن‬
‫ﻗﺒﻝ اﻟﻘﺎرئ وﻴدﻋﻰ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ‪ .18‬وﻴﻀﻴف ﻴﺎوس أن اﻷﻓق اﻟذي ﻴﺤﻤﻠﻪ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‬
‫‪ Deception‬ﺜم اﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ أو‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻴز ﺒﺨﺎﺼﻴﺘﻴن ﺘﺄﺜﻴرﻴﺘﻴن ﻫﻤﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﺘﺨﻴﻴب‬
‫اﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴد‪ ،Confirmation‬ﻤؤﻛدا أن اﻟﻌﺎﻤﻝ اﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ إﻨﺠﺎز أي ﻤﺸروع ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ أو أي ﺘﺠرﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻴﺘﻤﺜﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨﻴﻴب اﻻﻨﺘظﺎر‬
‫‪ deception de L- attente‬ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر أﻨﻪ ﻋﻨدﻤﺎ "ﻨﺴﺘﺨﻠص ﺒﺄن ﻓرﻀﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬
‫‪ . 19‬وﻫﻨﺎ ﻴﻨص أن اﻟطرح‬ ‫‪19‬‬
‫ﺨﺎطﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﻛون آﻨذاك ﻤﻬﻴﺌﻴن أﻛﺜر ﻟﻼﺤﺘﻛﺎك ﺒﺎﻟواﻗﻊ"‬
‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻟﺘﺨﻴﻴب اﻻﻨﺘظﺎر ﻴﺴﺎﻋد ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤدﻴد وظﻴﻔﺔ اﻷدب ﻤن اﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻛﺘﻔﻲ ﺒﺘﺨﻴﻴب أﻓق اﻨﺘظﺎر ﻗراﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﺜﻴر أﻴﻀﺎ أﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻤﺨﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫وﻤﺸﺎﻛﺴﺔ ﻗد ﺘﻤس اﻟﺤﻛوﻤﺔ أو اﻟدوﻟﺔ أو اﻟدﻴن أو اﻟﺠﻨس‪ .‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴدﻓﻊ اﻟﻘﺎرئ‪/‬اﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫إﻟﻰ ﻤراﺠﻌﺔ ﻤﻌﺘﻘداﺘﻪ وﺘﺼوراﺘﻪ‪ .‬وﻴﻤﻛن اﻟﻘوﻝ إن ﻗدرة اﻷدب ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺨﻴﻴب أﻓق‬
‫اﻨﺘظﺎر اﻟﻘراء ﻻ ﻴﻘﺘﺼر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴر اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺸﻛﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﺸﻤﻝ ﻛذﻟك اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴر‬
‫اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻫذا ﻴﺠﺴد ارﺘﺒﺎط اﻟﺘطور اﻟداﺨﻠﻲ ﻟﻸدب ﺒﺘﻌﺎﻗب اﻟﻘراءات وﺘطور‬
‫اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟﻌﺎم‪.‬‬

‫وﻤن ﺠﻬﺔ أﺨرى ﻴﻘﻴم ﻴﺎوس ﻋﻼﻗﺔ وﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻴن ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻷﻓق وﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ .‬ذﻟك ﺒﺄن ﻗراءة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻴﻨﺠم ﻋﻨﻪ ﺤدوث ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻴن‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫أﻓق اﻻﻨﺘظﺎر اﻟﺴﺎﺌد وﺒﻴن أﻓق اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤدث ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﺠﻴد‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻴن أﻓق اﻟﺘوﻗﻊ‬
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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫واﻟﻌﻤﻝ أي ﺒﻴن ﻤﺎ ﺘﻘدﻤﻪ اﻟﺘﺠرﺒﺔ اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤن أﺸﻴﺎء ﻤﺄﻟوﻓﺔ و "ﺘﺤوﻝ اﻷﻓق‬
‫اﻟذي ﻴﺴﺘﻠزﻤﻪ اﺴﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﺠﻴد ﺘﺤدد ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ اﻟﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻌﻤﻝ أدﺒﻲ ﻤﺎ‪" ،‬ﻓﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﻠﺼت ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ وﺘﺤرر وﻋﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻤن إرﻏﺎم إﻋﺎدة‬
‫ﺘوﺠﻬﻪ ﻨﺤو أﻓق ﺘﺠرﺒﺔ ﺘﻌد ﻤﺠﻬوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ أﻗرب ﻤن ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻓن اﻟطﺒﺦ أو‬
‫‪.20‬‬
‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻪ إﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻛﺘب ﻓن اﻷدب "‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍءﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻳﺰﺭ‪:‬‬


‫ﺘﻨﺒﻐﻲ اﻹﺸﺎرة ﻤﻨذ اﻟﺒداﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ أن اﻟﻤﺸروع اﻟﻨﻘدي ﻋﻨد إﻴزر ﻴﺨﺘﻠف ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺠﺎﻨب ﻛﺒﻴر ﻤﻨﻪ ﻋن ﺘوﺠﻪ ﻴﺎوس ﻓﻲ ﻗراءة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ اﻫﺘم ﻴﺎوس ﻓﻲ إطﺎر‬
‫ﻤﺸروﻋﻪ اﻟﻤﻌروف ﺒﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﺒﺈدﻤﺎج ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻷدب‪ ،‬وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘطور‬
‫اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻋﻨد ﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﻨوف ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟظﺎﻫرة اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺒﺘوظﻴف ﻤﺎ اﻨﺘﻬﻰ إﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﺎداﻤﻴر‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﻠم اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻝ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠد إﻴزر‪ ،‬وﻫو اﻟﺒﺎﺤث ﻓﻲ اﻷدب اﻻﻨﺠﻠﻴزي‪ ،‬ﻴﻬﺘم أﻛﺜر‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘد اﻟﺠدﻴد وﺒﺎﻟﻨظرﻴﺎت اﻟﺴردﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺘﺄﺜر ﻛﺜﻴ ار ﺒﺘﺼورات‬
‫إﻨﻛﺎردن وﺒﻌدد ﻤن ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻪ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻴﺒﻘﻰ اﻟﻔﺎرق اﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻨﺎﻗدﻴن أن ﻴﺎوس‬
‫ﻴﻬﺘم ﺒﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ذات طﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ واﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴن ﻴﻬﺘم إﻴزر ﺒﺎﻟﻨص اﻟﻔردي‬
‫وﻋﻼﻗﺔ اﻟﻘراء ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬وﻫذا ﻤﺎ ﺤدا ﺒـ ﻫوﻻب إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘوﻝ ‪":‬إذا اﻋﺘﺒرﻨﺎ أن ﻴﺎوس ﻴﺘﻨﺎوﻝ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻛﺒﻴر ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﻓﺈن إﻴزر ﻴﻬﺘم ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﺼﻐﻴر ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎوب"‪.21‬‬

‫وﻫﻛذا ﻓﺈن اﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎد اﻟﺠواﻨب اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ واﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‪ ،‬أو ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻷﻗﻝ وﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟدرﺠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﻌﻝ إﻴزر ﻴﻌﻴد اﻟﻨظر ﻓﻲ ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ اﻟذات واﻟﻤوﻀوع‬
‫أﺜﻨﺎء ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘراءة‪ ،‬وذﻟك ﻋﺒر ﺘﺠﺎوز ﻫذﻩ اﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ واﻟﺘرﻛﻴز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟذات اﻟﻘﺎرئ‪ .‬وﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻫذا اﻟﺼدد ﻴﻨص إﻴزر ﻋﻠﻰ أن ﻗراءة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺘﻔﺘرض اﻨﻘﺴﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟذات وﻟﻴس‬
‫اﻨﻘﺴﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﻴن اﻟذات واﻟﻤوﻀوع‪ ،‬وﻴوﻀﺢ إﻴزر ذﻟك ﺒﻘوﻟﻪ ‪":‬إذا ﻓﻬﻤﻨﺎ اﻟﻘراءة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨواﻝ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺤدث ﻓﻲ اﻟواﻗﻊ ﺘﺼﺎﻋدا ﻓﻲ اﻹدراك اﻟذاﺘﻲ اﻟذي ﻴﺘطور ﺨﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪22‬‬
‫اﻟﻘراءة‪ ...‬وﻫﻛذا ﺘﺼﺒﺢ اﻟﻘراءة وﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻴﺤﻘق اﻟوﻋﻲ ذاﺘﻪ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫إن اﻟﺘرﻛﻴز ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼر اﻟذات اﻟﻘﺎرﺌﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤﻝ ﻤﻊ اﻟظﺎﻫرة اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﻤرﺘﺒط‬
‫ﺒطﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺘﺤدﻴد اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺈذا ﻛﺎﻨت اﻟﻨزﻋﺔ اﻟﻤوﻀوﻋﻴﺔ ﺘؤﻛد أﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻟﻴس ﻫﻨﺎك ﺴوى ﻤﻌﻨﻰ واﺤد وﻤﺤدد ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻛﻝ ﻋﻤﻝ أدﺒﻲ‪ ،‬وﻫذا اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﻛون‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﻟب اﻷﺤﻴﺎن ﻤرﺘﺒطﺎ ﺒﻘﺼد اﻟﻤؤﻟف‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن إﻴزر ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ﺘرﻛﻴزﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟذات‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎرﺌﺔ ﻴؤﻛد أن اﻟﻨص ﻴﻘدم ﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬وأن اﻟذي ﻴﺤدد إﻤﻛﺎﻨﺎت ﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﺘﻠك‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻫو اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻋﺘﻤﺎدا ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻘراﺌن اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ اﻟﻘﺎرئ‬
‫ﺤرﻴﺔ أﻛﺒر ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤدﻴد اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ أو اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻨص‪ ،‬أو ﺨﻠق ﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫أﺨرى ﺒطرق ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن ﻤﺎ ﻴﻬم إﻴزر ﻓﻲ ﻗراءة ﻛﻝ ﻋﻤﻝ أدﺒﻲ ﻫو‬
‫اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ ﺒﻴن ﺒﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﻨص وﻤﺘﻠﻘﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺈذا ﻛﺎﻨت اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎت ﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص "ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ‬
‫‪ .[26]23‬ﻓﻘراءة اﻟﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘوﻓﻲ وظﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ إﻻ إذا ﻛﺎن ﻟﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎرئ"‬
‫بﺤﺴب إﻴزر داﺌﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺠب أن ﺘﻬﺘم ﺒﺎﻟﻨص اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻓﺤﺴب‪ ،‬ﺒﻝ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ أن ﺘﻬﺘم‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻨﻔس اﻟﻤﺴﺘوى‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ اﻟﻤرﺘﺒطﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎوب ﻤﻊ ذﻟك اﻟﻨص‪" ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨص ذاﺘﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻘدم‬
‫إﻻ ﻤظﺎﻫر ﺨطﺎطﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻛن ﻤن ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ أن ﻴﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻤوﻀوع اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻨص‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺤدث اﻹﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﺘﺤﻘق‪ ،‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻴﻤﻛن أن ﻨﺴﺘﺨﻠص أن‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻝ اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻗطﺒﻴن ﻗد ﻨﺴﻤﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﻘطب اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﻘطب اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬اﻷوﻝ ﻫو ﻨص‬
‫‪[27]24‬‬
‫وﺒذﻟك ﻴﺤﺎوﻝ إﻴزر أن ﻴﺴﻠك‬ ‫اﻟﻤؤﻟف‪ ،‬واﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻫو اﻟﺘﺤﻘق اﻟذي ﻴﻨﺠزﻩ اﻟﻘﺎرئ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺴﻠﻛﺎ ﻴﻬدف إﻟﻰ ﻨوع ﻤن اﻟﺘﻘﺎرب ﺒﻴن اﻟذات واﻟﻤوﻀوع‪ ،‬ﺒﻴن اﻟﻘﺎرئ واﻟﻨص‪ ،‬ﻷن‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻨظرﻩ ﻫو ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ ﺒﻴن اﻟطرﻓﻴن أي ﺒﻴن اﻟﻨص واﻟﻘﺎرئ ﺨﻼﻓﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄوﻴﻝ اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴدي اﻟذي ﻴرﻛز اﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘوﻀﻴﺢ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﺨﻔﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻛن ﻛﻴف ﻴﺘم اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻨص واﻟﻘﺎرئ؟ وﻛﻴف ﻴﺘم ﺘﺤدﻴد اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻤن‬
‫ﺨﻼﻝ ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة؟ ﻴرى إﻴزر أن ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻴز اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ واﻟﻨص‬
‫اﻟﺴردي ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻫو ﻋدم اﻻﺘﺴﺎق ﺒﻴن أﺠزاء اﻟﻨص‪ ،‬أي أن اﻟﻨص ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋن‬
‫أﺠزاء ﻤﺘﺠﺎورة وﻟﻛﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﻴر ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤﻬﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻫﻲ ﺠﻌﻝ ﺘﻠك اﻷﺠزاء واﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

‫اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ وﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻛﺔ‪ ،‬وﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ إطﺎر ﻤﺸﺘرك‪ .‬وﻴطﻠق إﻴزر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدم‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫اﻻرﺘﺒﺎط ﺒﻴن أﺠزاء اﻟﻨص اﺴم اﻟﻔراغ أو اﻟﺒﻴﺎض وﻴﺼﻔﻪ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ "ﺸﺎﻏر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨظﺎم‬
‫‪ .[28]25‬واﻟﻔراغ ﺸﻲء‬ ‫اﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص‪ ،‬ﻴؤدي ﻤﻠؤﻩ إﻟﻰ ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ أﻨﻤﺎط اﻟﻨص"‬
‫ﻤﻘﺼود ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻷن ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻔﺠوات –أي ﻋدم اﻟﺘواﻓق ﺒﻴن اﻟﻨص واﻟﻘﺎرئ‬
‫ﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻘق اﻻﺘﺼﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻘراءة‪ ،‬وﺘرﺴم اﻟطرﻴق ﻤن أﺠﻝ ﻗراءة‬
‫اﻟﻨص‪ ...،‬وﻓﻲ ﻨﻔس اﻟوﻗت ﺘﻠزم اﻟﻘﺎرئ إﺘﻤﺎم اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺒذﻟك ﻴﺘم إﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻤوﻀوع‬
‫‪26‬‬
‫اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ"‬

‫ﻫﻛذا ﻴﻀﻊ إﻴزر اﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻓﻲ ﻤرﻛز ﻤﺸروﻋﻪ اﻟﺘﺄوﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻋﻨدﻩ ﻟم ﻴﻌد‬
‫طرﻓﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻛﺎ ﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ اﻟﻨص وﻗﺼدﻴﺔ اﻟﻤؤﻟف ٕواﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺤوﻝ إﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺼر ﻓﺎﻋﻝ إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ إﻨﺘﺎج اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‪ .‬وﺒطﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻝ ﻓﺈن اﻟﻤﻘﺼود ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎرئ ﻋﻨد إﻴزر ﻴﺨﺘﻠف ﻋن‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻘراء اﻟذﻴن ﺤددت ﻫوﻴﺎﺘﻬم ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻤﺜﻝ "اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻟـرﻴﻔﺎﺘﻴر‪،‬‬
‫واﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻟﻤﺨﺒر ﻟـﻔﻴش واﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻟﻤﻘﺼود ﻟـووﻟف‪ ،‬ﻷن ﻫؤﻻء اﻟﻘراء ﻟﻬم وﺠود ﻓﻌﻠﻲ‬
‫بﺤﺴب رﻴﻔﺎﺘﻴر ﻤﺜﻼ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋن ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺔ ﻤن اﻟوﻗﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫وﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨص اﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬
‫اﻷﺴﻠوﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﻤوﺴوﻤﺔ وﻏﻴر اﻟﻤوﺴوﻤﺔ واﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴز ﺒﻴن ﻫذﻩ اﻟوﻗﺎﺌﻊ ﻻ ﺘﺘم إﻻ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ‬
‫ذات ﻤﺘﺒﺼرة‪ ،‬أﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ إﻴزر ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻘﺘرح ﻨﻤطﺎ آﺨر ﻤن اﻟﻘراء ﺴﻤﺎﻩ اﻟﻘﺎرئ‬
‫اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ وﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﻪ دور ﻤﻛﺘوب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨص وﻤﺠﺴد ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺼد اﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘوي ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪27‬‬
‫وﻫذﻩ اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺘوﻗﻊ ﻗﺎرﺌﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻛﻝ اﻓﺘراﻀﻲ‪ ،‬إﻨﻪ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻨﺼﻴﺔ وﻟﻴس ﺸﺨﺼﺎ ﺨﻴﺎﻟﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻗﺎد ار ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ ﻤﻊ اﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴرات اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﺈن اﻟﻘﺎرئ اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ ﻋﻨد‬
‫إﻴزر ﻫو داﺌم اﻹﻨﺠﺎز واﻟﺘﺤﻘق وﻻ ﻴﻤﻛن ﺘﺼورﻩ ﻤﻨﻔﺼﻼ ﻋن ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة‪.‬‬
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:‫ﺍﻝﻫﻮﺍﻣﺶ‬
‫ اﻟﻤرﻛز اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ اﻟدار‬،‫ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻤﺤﻤد اﻟوﻟﻲ‬،‫ ﺘﺄﻟﻴف ﻓﻴﻛﺘور إرﻟﻴﺦ‬: ‫اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ‬ 1
.2000 ،‫ اﻟطﺒﻌﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‬،‫اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء‬
2 -Hans George Gadamer. verite et Methode : les grandes lignes d une
hermeneutique philosophique.seuil.paris 1976
‫ اﻟطﺒﻌﺔ‬،‫ ﻤطﺒﻌﺔ اﻟﻨﺠﺎح اﻟﺠدﻴدة‬،‫رﺸﻴد ﺒﻨﺤدو‬.‫ د‬،‫ ﺘﻘدﻴم وﺘرﺠﻤﺔ‬،‫ ﻫﺎﻨس روﺒرت ﻴﺎوس‬:‫ﺠﻤﺎﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬ 3
.37-36‫ ص‬،2003 ‫اﻷوﻟﻰ‬
4 1[4]-Hans Robert Jaus.pour une esthetique de la reception traduit par
claude Maillard preface de Jean Starobinski gallimard paris 1978p 43.
.24‫ ص‬،‫ﺠﻤﺎﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬ 5

.160 ‫ ص‬،‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ 6

.59 ‫ ص‬،‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ 7
8 pour une esthetique de la reception p13
9 pour une hermeneutique litteraire p 366.
.55‫ ص‬،‫ ﻫوﻻب‬:‫ ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬10
11 Verite et Methode p104-
.107-104‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬12

.108-104‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬13


14 Jauss. Pour une hermeneutique litteraire traduit par Maurice Jacob Edition
Gallimard 1988 p 357- 416
.66‫ ص‬،‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬15
16 Paul Ricoeur du texte a l action Essai d hermeneutique Edition Seuil Paris
p 112. p126.
.159 ‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬17
18 Verite et Methode p216-217.
.163-162‫ ص‬،‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬19
copyright law.

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20 Pour une esthetique de la reception p50.


21 Pour une hermeneutique litteraire p 430-431
22 Pour une esthetique de la reception p 47
.70‫ ص‬،‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬23

.77‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬24

.84‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬25

.13‫ ص‬،‫ إﻴزر‬،‫ ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة‬26

.12‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬27

.82‫ ص‬،‫ ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة‬28

.86‫ ص‬،‫ ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬29

.30‫ ص‬،‫ ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﻘراءة‬30


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‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺛــﺮﻩ ﻓــــﻲ ﺗـــﻄــــــﻮﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨــﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻟـﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬

¢
§
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‫ﺍﻟﺨﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻩ‬


‫‪28‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬

‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻻﺸك ﻓﻴﻪ أن ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻤن اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﺎت اﻷﺨرى ﻀرورة ﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘواﺼﻝ واﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻝ ﺒﻴن اﻟﺤﻀﺎرات واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ أن أﻨﻤﺎط اﻟﻤﻌﺎرف واﻟﻌﻠوم ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼرﻨﺎ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺠﺎوز اﻟﺤدود اﻟﺠﻐراﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ واﻟﻌرﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺴﻬم ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠورة ﻓﻛر إﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﺸﺎﻤﻝ‪ .‬وﻤن ﻫﻨﺎ إذا ﻛﺎﻨت ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺒﺎ ﻴﻤﻨﺢ اﻟﻨص اﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﺤﻴﺎة ﺠدﻴدة ﻓﻲ أﻓق ﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ وﺤﻀﺎري‬
‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠف‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ﻫدﻓﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻫو إﻏﻨﺎء ﻫذا اﻟﻨص ﺒﺄﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺠدﻴدة رﺒﻤﺎ ﻟم ﺘﻛن ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺒﺎن ﻤؤﻟﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ذﻟك ﺒﺄن ﻓﻌﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺘﺄوﻴﻝ ﺠدﻴد ﻟﻠﻨص اﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤن ﺤﻴث إﺠﺎﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋن أﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻛﺔ وﻤﻌﻤﻘﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﺤﻴث إﺜﺎرﺘﻬﺎ ﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ أﺨرى ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘطور واﻟﻨﻘﺎش‪.‬‬

‫واﻨطﻼﻗﺎ ﻤن أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘطور اﻟﻌﻠوم واﻟﻤﻌﺎرف ﻓﻲ ﺸﺘﻰ اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‪،‬‬


‫ﺴﺎر اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼر ﻓﻲ اﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت ﻋدة وﺒﺨطﻰ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ وذﻟك ﺒﻔﻀﻝ اﺠﺘﻬﺎدات‬
‫ﻓردﻴﺔ أو ﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻌض اﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴن اﻷﻛﺎدﻴﻤﻴﻴن‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺎﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎء اﻟدور اﻟذي ﺘﻘوم ﺒﻪ ﻤدرﺴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻠك ﻓﻬد اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﻋﺒد اﻟﻤﻠك اﻟﺴﻌدي ﺒطﻨﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻘوم ﺒﺈﺼدار دورﻴﺔ "ﺘرﺠﻤﺎن" اﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻀﺎﻴﺎ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻨﻛﺎد ﻨرى ﺘوﺠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺤﺜﻴﺎ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻐرب‪ .‬ورﻏم ﻏﻴﺎب ﻤؤﺴﺴﺎت رﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺒوﻀﻊ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ واﻀﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ وﺒﺎﺤﺘﻀﺎن أﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﻤﺘرﺠﻤﻴن‪ ،‬ﻤﻨظرﻴن‬
‫وﻨﻘﺎد‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن ﻤﺠﻬودات اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ اﻟﻔردﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺠﺎءت ﻤﺘﻛﺎﻤﻠﺔ وﻤﺘﻨﺎﺴﻘﺔ‬
‫وﻤﺴﺘﺠﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠف اﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ اﻟﻤطروﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث واﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼر‪ ،‬ﺴواء‬
‫ﻤن ﺤﻴث ﺘرﺠﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻷﺠﻨﺒﻲ ة اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ أم ﻤن ﺤﻴث ﺘطﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﺠز اﻹﺒداﻋﻲ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ واﻟﻌرﺒﻲ‪.‬‬
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‫وﻴﺴﺘﻔﺎد ﻤن ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺤرﻛﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻐرب أن اﻟﺘﺠرﺒﺔ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜرت‬


‫ﺘﺄﺜ ار ﻛﺒﻴ ار ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻟﻨظرﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻨﻤت وﺘطورت ﺒﻔرﻨﺴﺎ‪ ،‬واﺴﺘﻔﺎدت ﻤن‬
‫ﻨظرﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ اﻹﺠراﺌﻴﺔ أﻛﺜر ﻤﻤﺎ اﺴﺘﻔﺎدت ﻤن اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻷﺨرى ﻓﻲ‬
‫أﻗطﺎر ﻏرﺒﻴﺔ أﺨرى‪ .‬وﻴظﻬر ﻫذا اﻟﻤﻌطﻰ ﺠﻠﻴﺎ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ اﻟﻛﺘب اﻟﻨظرﻴﺔ واﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤت ﺘرﺠﻤﺘﻬﺎ اﺒﺘداء ﻤن اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت ﻤن اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺸرﻴن‪ .‬وﻻ ﻴﻤﻛن ﺘﻔﺴﻴر ﻫذﻩ‬
‫اﻟظﺎﻫرة ﺒﻀﻴق ﻓﻲ اﻷﻓق أو اﻨﺤﻴﺎز إﻟﻰ ﻤرﺠﻌﻴﺔ ﻨظرﻴﺔ وﻨﻘدﻴﺔ دون ﻏﻴرﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺤﻛم‬
‫ﺘﻀﺎﻓر ﺒﻌض اﻟﻌواﻤﻝ اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻴﺔ واﻟﺠﻐراﻓﻴﺔ ﻛﺎن ﻻﺒد ﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔرﻨﺴﻴﺔ أن ﺘﻔرض ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬
‫وﻫﻴﻤﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺜﻴر ﻤن اﻟﻨﻘﺎد اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫إن اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ ﻗد ﻤر ﺒﺜﻼث ﻤﺤطﺎت أﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺤطﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‬


‫ارﺘﺒط ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺘراث اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎ ودراﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜم اﻟﻤﺤطﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ وﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻤت ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ واﻷدﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﻛﺒرى اﻟﺘﻲ أﺜﺎرﻫﺎ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﺸرﻗﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠف‬
‫اﻷﺠﻨﺎس اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‪ ،‬أﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﺤطﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ ،‬وﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻨﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻴﻬﺎ أﺨذ‬
‫اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﻨظﻴر واﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺴﺔ ﺒﻌد ﻨﺸﺎط ﺤرﻛﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ اﺒﺘداء‬
‫ﻤن اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت ﻤن اﻟﻘرن اﻟﻌﺸرﻴن‪ ،‬وظﻬور ﻋدد ﻤن اﻟﻤﺘرﺠﻤﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺘرﻓﻴن‪،‬‬
‫وﻫم ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺘﻬم ﺒﺎﺤﺜون ﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴون ﻤﺎرﺴوا ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﺒﺤﻛم ﺘدرﻴﺴﻬم ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬
‫اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼرة وﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺘﻬم ﻓﻲ ﻨداوت ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﻴﻼﺤظ ﻤن ﺘﺘﺒﻊ أﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﻤﺘرﺠﻤﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ أن ﺠﻠﻬم ﺠﻤﻊ ﺒﻴن ﻓﻌﻝ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤؤﻟﻔﺎت اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ وﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘطﺒﻴق ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ وﻨظرﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻹﺒداﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺜرﻴﺔ‬
‫واﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﺘﻬدف ﻫذﻩ اﻟدراﺴﺔ إﻟﻰ إﺒراز ﺠﻬود اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫واﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ودورﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ إﺜراء اﻟﺤرﻛﺔ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻐرب‪ .‬وﺴﻨرﻛز ﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﺴﻴﺎق ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺒﻌض اﻹﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎت اﻟﻨوﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘرﻛت ﺒﺼﻤﺎﺘﻬﺎ واﻀﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺸﻬد اﻟﻨﻘدي اﻷدﺒﻲ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
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‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ واﻟﻌرﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤد ﺴواء‪ ،‬آﺨذﻴن ﺒﻌﻴن اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻤﺒدأ ﺘﻨوع اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺘرﺠﻤﺔ واﺨﺘﻼف اﻷﺠﻨﺎس اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﻤوﻀوع اﻟدراﺴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺨﺼوص‪:‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ أﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟروس )ﺒورﻴس إﺨﻨﺒﺎوم‪ ،‬ﻴﺎﻛﺒﺴون‪،‬ﺘﻨﻴﺎﻨوف(‬


‫وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﺘطﺒﻴق ﺘﺼوراﺘﻬﺎ وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ وأدواﺘﻬﺎ اﻹﺠراﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺼوص‬
‫إﺒداﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ وﻋرﺒﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬اﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ واﻷﺴﻠوﺒﻴﺔ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﺼﺎﻏﻬﺎ ﺠﺎن ﻛوﻫن‪ ،‬ﻤﻴﺸﻴﺎﻝ رﻴﻔﺎﺘﻴر‪ ،‬ﺼﺎﻤوﻴﻝ‬


‫ﻟﻴﻔن( وﻤﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﺘﺠدﻴد اﻟدرس اﻟﺒﻼﻏﻲ اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ )ﻴﺎوس‪ ،‬إﻴزر‪ ،‬وﻏﻴرﻫﻤﺎ( واﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎدة ﻤن ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ إﻋﺎدة‬


‫ﻗراءة اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ وﺘﺎرﻴﺦ ﺘﻠﻘﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪-1‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ‬
‫ﻅﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻴرﺠﻊ اﻟﻔﻀﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺄﺴﻴس ﺘﻴﺎرات اﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ اﻟﺤدﻴﺜﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن‬
‫اﻟروس‪ ،‬ﺘﻠك اﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻛﻠت ﺒﻴن )ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻤوﺴﻛو اﻟﻠﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ( و)ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ( اﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺸطت ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴن ‪ 1915‬و‪ . 1930‬وﺘﻬدف ﻫذﻩ اﻟﻤدرﺴﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺎوز ﻤﺎ‬
‫دأب ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴدي ﻤن دراﺴﺔ اﻟﻨﺼوص دراﺴﺔ ﺨﺎرﺠﻴﺔ ﻋوض اﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺒﺠوﻫر اﻟﺸﻌر‪.‬‬

‫وﻴرﺠﻊ أﺜر اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟدرس اﻟﻨﻘدي اﻟﺤدﻴث إﻟﻰ اﺘﺴﺎم أﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬم ﺒطﺎﺒﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺠﺎد‪ ،‬أدى إﻟﻰ اﻟﻛﺸف ﻋن ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌص اﻟﻨوﻋﻴﺔ وﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻬﺎ داﺨﻝ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻬذا اﻟﺴﺒب ﺸﻛﻠت اﻟﻤﻔﺎرﻗﺔ ﺒﻴن اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﺸﻌرﻴﺔ واﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤرﺤﻠﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻤﻨطﻠق ﺘﺼوراﺘﻬم اﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺘؤدي ﻓﻲ ﻤرﺤﻠﺔ ﻻﺤﻘﺔ إﻟﻰ إدراج اﻟﺘﺎرﻴﺦ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﻀﻤن ﻤﺴﻠﺴﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻹدراك اﻟﺸﻌري‪ ،‬ﻋﻨد ﺤدﻴﺜﻬم ﻋن ﺘطور اﻟوﻗﺎﺌﻊ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫وﺒذﻟك ﺤﻝ ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﺘطور اﻷدﺒﻲ ﻤﺤﻝ ﻤﻔﻬوم ذاﺘﻴﺔ اﻟﻐﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺤﻴث ﻻ ﻴﺘم إدراك اﻷدب‬
‫إﻻ ﻓﻲ إطﺎر ﺘﺎرﻴﺨﻲ وﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﺒوﺼﻔﻪ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺘﺘطور ﻋﺒر اﻻﻨﻘطﺎﻋﺎت وﻫذا ﻤﺎ أﻛدﻩ‬
‫إﺨﻨﺒﺎوم ﻗﺎﺌﻼ‪" :‬اﻟواﻗﻌﺔ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻤرﺤﻠﺔ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻔﻬوﻤﺎن ﻤرﻛﺒﺎن وﻤﺘﻐﻴران ﺒﻘدر ﻤﺎ‬
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‫ﻫﻲ ﻤﺘﻐﻴرة اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﺒﻴن اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼر اﻟﻤؤﻟﻔﺔ ﻟﻸدب"‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‪:‬‬


‫رﻏم أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼورات اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺈن ﻫذﻩ اﻟﺤرﻛﺔ ﻟم ﺘﻌرف ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻐرﺒﻲ‬
‫إﻻ ﺒﻌد ‪ 1955‬وﻫﻲ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ظﻬر ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻛﺘﺎب ﻓﻴﻛﺘور إرﻟﻴﺦ ﻋن اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴزﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻤﻨذ ذﻟك اﻟوﻗت ﺘم إدﺨﺎﻝ ﻛﺜﻴر ﻤن ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻤﺼطﻠﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺨطﺎب اﻟﻨﻘدي اﻟﻐرﺒﻲ‪.‬‬

‫أﻤﺎ ﻋن ﺒداﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻌرف ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻬود اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ ﻓﻘد‬
‫ﺘﻤت ﻤﻊ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻛﺘﺎب "ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻷدب" إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1987‬وﻫو ﻤن ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻤﺤﻤد‬
‫اﻟﻌﺼﻔور اﻟذي أﺸﺎر إﻟﻰ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻝ اﻷدب‪.‬‬
‫وﻤﻊ ذﻟك ﻟم ﻴﻛﺘب ﻟﺘﻠك اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم واﻟﻤﺼطﻠﺤﺎت اﻟﺘداوﻝ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤؤﺴﺴﺎت اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻷﻛﺎدﻴﻤﻴﺔ واﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ وﻻ ﻓﻲ اﻷوﺴﺎط اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺈذا ﻨظرﻨﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻟﻨﻘد‬
‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺒداﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎت ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻨﻛﺎد ﻨﻌﺜر ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻲء ﻫﺎم ﻋن اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻨظرﻴﺎﺘﻬم وﻤﻨﺎﻫﺠﻬم وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬم اﻹﺠراﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻗد ﻛﺎن ﻤن اﻟﻤﻤﻛن أن ﻴﺘرك ﻛﺘﺎب‬
‫ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻷدب ﻟروﻨﻴﻪ وﻴﻠﻴك وأوﺴﺘن ورﻴن اﻟذي ﺘرﺠﻤﻪ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻴﻲ اﻟدﻴن‬
‫‪ ،1972‬ووﺼﻝ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﺒﺤﻲ وراﺠﻌﻪ اﻟدﻛﺘور ﻤﺤﻤد اﻟﺨطﻴب ﻓﻲ ﺴورﻴﺔ ﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐرب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺘرة ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ أﺜرﻩ اﻟواﻀﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدراﺴﺎت اﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ واﻷوﺴﺎط اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻨﻪ ﻟم ﻴﺜر اﻫﺘﻤﺎم اﻟﻨﺎﻗد واﻟﺒﺎﺤث اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻐرب إﻟﻰ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ وﺘﺼوراﺘﻬﺎ وﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻊ اﻟﻌﻠم أن ﻓﻲ ﺜﻨﺎﻴﺎ ﻛﺘﺎب اﻟﻤﺘرﺠم إﺸﺎرات ﻫﺎﻤﺔ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
‫;‪AN: 858466 ; , Al Manhal FZLLC.‬‬
‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﺼورات اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠق ﺒـ ﺘﺎرﻴﺦ اﻷدب‪ ،‬ﻤﻼﻤﺢ اﻟدراﺴﺔ‬


‫اﻟداﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻸدب‪ ،‬ﻤﻔﻬوم اﻟﻨﺴق واﻟﻤﻬﻴﻤﻨﺎت إﻟﺦ‪.‬‬

‫وﻴرى اﻟدﻛﺘور أﺤﻤد ﺒوﺤﺴن أن ﻋدم اﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد‬


‫اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ وﻗت ﻤﺒﻛر ﻴﻤﻛن ﻓﻬﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ إطﺎر اﻟرأي اﻟﻌﺎم اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺴﺎﺌد آﻨذاك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻌرﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴث ﻛﺎن ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤﻝ ﻤﻊ اﻟﻨظرﻴﺎت أو اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ اﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺜﻴر اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ اﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ إطﺎر اﻟواﻗﻌﻴﺔ واﻻﺸﺘراﻛﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﺘﻬﺘم ﺒﺎﻟﺠواﻨب‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫اﻹﻴدﻴوﻟوﺠﻴﺔ واﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ وﻤﺎ ﻴرﺘﺒط ﺒﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ اﻷدﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺛﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ‪.‬‬


‫أﻤﺎ ﻋن أﺜر اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘطور اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻛن‬
‫اﻟﻘوﻝ إن اﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴر اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸر ﻟﻬذﻩ اﻟﺤرﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻘﺎد واﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ ﻟم ﻴﺘم إﻻ ﺒﻌد‬
‫ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ اﻟﻌدﻴد ﻤن أﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن إﻟﻰ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻔرﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺨﺎﺼﺔ ظﻬور ﺒﻌض‬
‫اﻟﻛﺘب اﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﺜﻝ " ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻷدب ‪ ،‬ﻨﺼوص اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟروس" ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫‪ 1970‬و"ﻨظرﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘزﻴﻔﻴطﺎن ﺘودوروف ‪ 1965‬و"ﻤورﻓوﻟوﺠﻴﺔ اﻟﺨراﻓﺔ" ﻟـﺒروب ﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺜر" ﻟـﺸﻠوﻓﺴﻛﻲ ‪ 1973‬و"ﺸﻌرﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺜر" ﻟـﺘودوروف ‪ .1971‬ﻤﻊ ﻫذا اﻟﺘراﻛم اﻟﻨﻘدي‬
‫اﻟذي ﺤﻘﻘﻪ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻔرﻨﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ أﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟروس‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﺠﻪ اﻫﺘﻤﺎم‬
‫اﻟﻨﻘﺎد واﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ ﻨﺤو ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻛﺜﻴر ﻤن اﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺘﻤدﻴن ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫اﻟﻤرﺠﻌﻴﺔ اﻟﻔرﻨﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺴﻴﻛون ذﻟك ﺒداﻴﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﻴر ﻤﺴﺎر اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ ﻤن‬
‫ﺤﻴث ﺘطﻌﻴم أﻓﻛﺎرﻩ وﻤﻨﺎﻫﺠﻪ ﺒﻤرﺠﻌﻴﺎت إﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ وﺘﺼورات ﺠدﻴدة‪ ،‬وﻤن ﺤﻴث‬
‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﺘﻠك اﻟﺘﺼورات واﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻝ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻹﺒداﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ واﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﻴﻛﺎد ﻴرﺘﺒط اﺴم اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ أذﻫﺎن اﻟﻨﻘﺎد واﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴن اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ وﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻷوﺴﺎط اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴم اﻟﻨﺎﻗد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ إﺒراﻫﻴم اﻟﺨطﻴب‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻷﻨﻪ أﻛﺜر اﻟﻨﻘﺎد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ اﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎ ﺒﺄﻋﻤﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟروس‪ ،‬وﻟﻛﻨﻪ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻤن اﻟﻨﻘﺎد اﻷواﺌﻝ اﻟذﻴن‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
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‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫‪Copyright © 2010. dar yafa. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable‬‬

‫ﺠﻤﻌوا ﺒﻴن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ وﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎر ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ وﻤﺼطﻠﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻝ اﻟﻨﺼوص اﻹﺒداﻋﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ واﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟرواﺌﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ .‬وﺘﻛﻤن‬
‫أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ إﺒراﻫﻴم اﻟﺨطﻴب ﻟﻛﺘﺎب "ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺸﻛﻠﻲ" اﻟذي ﻴﻀم ﻨﺼوص‬
‫ﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟروس‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘرﺠﻤت ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌظﻤﻬﺎ ﻋن ﻛﺘﺎب "ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻷدب" اﻟذي أﻋدﻩ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔرﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﺘودوروف‪ ،‬ﻤن ﺤﻴث اﺨﺘﻴﺎرﻩ ﻟﻨﺼوص ﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ ذات ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻛﺒرى‬
‫ﺘظم ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم وأدوات إﺠراﺌﻴﺔ ﻤن ﺸﺄﻨﻬﺎ إﻋطﺎء اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻝ اﻟﻨﺼﻲ دﻓﻌﺔ ﻗوﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﻤن ﺤﻴث‬
‫ﺘرﺠﻤﺘﻪ ﻟﻨص ﻨﻘدي آﺨر ﻟﻴﺎﻛﺒﺴون ﻟم ﻴرد ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎب "ﻨظرﻴﺔ اﻷدب" ‪ ،‬إﻀﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺘطﻌﻴم ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻌدﻴد ﻤن اﻹﺸﺎرات اﻟﺘوﻀﻴﺤﻴﺔ واﻟﻌﻤﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺘودوروف ﺒﺘرﺠﻤﺎت أﺨرى ‪ .‬وﻟم ﻴﻘف ﻤﺘرﺠم ﻤﻐرﺒﻲ إﺒراﻫﻴم اﻟﺨطﻴب ﻋﻨد ﻫذا‬
‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘوى ﺒﻝ ﻀﻤن اﻟﻛﺘﺎب ﻤﻌﺠﻤﺎ ﻷﻫم اﻟﻤﺼطﻠﺤﺎت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨدﻤﺔ ﻋﻨد اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن‬
‫وﺘﻌرﻴﻔﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﺼ ار ﺒﺄﻫم اﻟﻨﻘﺎد اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﻴن اﻟذﻴن ﺘﻤت ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ أﻋﻤﺎﻟﻬم‪.‬‬

‫وﻗد أدت ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘرﺠﻤﺔ ﻨﺼوص اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌرﺒﻴﺔ إﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺒﻠورة أﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺠدﻴدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻷدﺒﻲ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ‪ٕ ،‬واﻟﻰ ﻏرس ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم ﺠدﻴدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ اﻟﺤدﻴث ﻤن ﺨﻝ ﺒﻌض اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﺎوﻟت اﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎر اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬
‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ واﻟﺘﺼورات اﻟﻨﻘدﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ اﻟروﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻝ ﻋدة ﻨﺼوص ﺴردﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﺒذﻟك أﺼﺒﺤت اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﺎرس ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨص اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ وﺘزاﺤم اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬
‫اﻷﺨرى اﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻴﻤﻨت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﻀﺎء اﻟﻨﻘدي اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎت‪ .‬وﻗد ﻛﺎن إﺒراﻫﻴم‬
‫اﻟﺨطﻴب ﻤن أﻫم اﻟﻨﻘﺎد اﻟﻤﻐﺎرﺒﺔ اﻟذﻴن ﺤﺎوﻟوا ﺘﺠرﻴب اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺠز‬
‫اﻹﺒداﻋﻲ اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ‪ .‬وﺤﺎوﻝ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ذﻟك أن ﻴﻌطﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم واﻟﻨﺼوص اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻲ ﺘرﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻌوﻻ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻘد اﻟﻤﻐرﺒﻲ ﻤن ﺨﻼﻝ ﺘطﺒﻴق اﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴم اﻟﺸﻛﻼﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدة ﻨﺼوص ﺴردﻴﺔ ﻤﻐرﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻫﻛذا ظﻬرت ﻟﻪ دراﺴﺔ ﺤوﻝ رواﻴﺔ "رﻓﻘﺔ اﻟﺴﻼح‬
‫واﻟﻘﻤر ﻟﻤﺒﺎرك رﺒﻴﻊ" ‪ ،31‬وﻟم ﻴﻬﺘم اﻟﺨطﻴب ﻓﻲ ﻫذﻩ اﻟرواﻴﺔ إﻻ ﺒﺎﻟﺠواﻨب اﻟﺸﻛﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫وﺼرح ﺒﺄﻨﻪ "ﻟﻴس ﻤن اﻟﻼزم ﻤﺤﺎﻛﻤﺔ اﻟﻛﺎﺘب ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬وﻤﺎ ﻴﻬﻤﻨﺎ اﻵن ﻫو ﻤﻌرﻓﺔ‬
‫‪copyright law.‬‬

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‫‪EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 10/28/2017 2:28 AM via SAUDI DIGITAL LIBRARY‬‬
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‫‪Account: ns224396‬‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻤﻲ‬
Al Manhal Collections (www.almanhal.com) - 07/11/2017 User: @ King Saud University
Copyright © ‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﻳﺎﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬. All right reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted
under applicable copyright law.
http://platform.almanhal.com/Details/Book/1201
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻤﻲ‬
Al Manhal Collections (www.almanhal.com) - 07/11/2017 User: @ King Saud University
Copyright © ‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﻳﺎﻓﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬. All right reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted
under applicable copyright law.
http://platform.almanhal.com/Details/Book/1201
‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﺮ‬

‫ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬، ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻤﻲ‬
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