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Sensing in Automotive -

Powertrain and Braking Systems

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Agenda
• Brief Introduction
• Automotive electronics & sensors
• Capabilities available from ON Semiconductor

• Powertrain Systems
• Gasoline and diesel engines
• Main powertrain sensors

• Braking and Stability Control Systems


• Basic systems: ABS, EBD, TCS, ESC
• Sensors for dynamic braking

• Examples of automotive sense interface ICs


• Sensing interface IP from ON Semiconductor

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Automotive Electronics
• Value added by ON Semiconductor APG
– Proprietary High-Voltage Processes
– Innovative Solutions: Sensor Interfaces, ← focus area for green electronics
IVN, High-Voltage System-on-Chip
– Harsh Environment Applications
– Extensive Automotive Portfolio
• Key Successes in sensing
– Steering/Pedal Angle Sensor
– Pressure sensors for Powertrain / Braking
– Position Sensors for Headlight Control
– Gyro Sensors for Stability Control
• Main drivers for new electronics
– Safety
– Emissions
– Fuel consumption
• Regulation plays a key role

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Modern Automotive Sensors
• External sensing element or MEMS
• Built-in protections (shorts, EMI, ESD…)
• Diagnostic modes / redundancy
• Accuracy / linearity reaching ~0.1% to 1%
• NVM for trimming and calibration
• Nonlinear temperature compensation
• TJ at IC: from –40 oC up to +125~200 oC
• Target failure rate: zero ppm

4
Automotive Technologies Portfolio
Voltage

100 V

80 V
HBIMOS
I2T100 I3T80

50 V
I3T50 I4T
25 V I2T30(E)
5V ABX I3T25
C5X D3
3.3 V
C07
1.8 V C035
C3,C035U C018
1K 5K 100K 500K Gate Count
>1.5 u 0.7 u 0.6 u 0.35 u 0.18 u Geometry
Features (drawn poly)
(OTP, EEPROM, etc.)

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Non-volatile Memory (NVM) IP
• EEPROM
– Long experience, started with C5 NASTEE release in 1999
– Non-added-steps EEPROMS available today for C5 / C3 / I3T50
– I3T50 EEPROM is capable of 175 oC operation (reading)
– EE being released for I3T25U (Q4 2009)
– Development for 0.18 u ongoing
• OTP
– OTP is Zener diode zap
– Available in I2T100, I3T25, I3T50, I3T80
• Flash
– Requires 5 added process steps
– Special technology developed only for I3T80
– Technology is qualified to 150 oC read (50 oC for write)

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Analog Control
and Signal Processing :
I3T Example
Vdc < 65V/36V/18V
Voltage regulators
Amplifiers, comparators Digital Signal Processing
ADC, DAC and Control :
Filters (SC, GMC, RC) …
Vbat : 5 V ROM or State Machine or
Regulator uController based
Flash

Peripheral Extension

Peripheral Extension
S/H JTAG
AMUX

Sensor Int. :
PGA ADC
RAM Timer
HV / LV
Inductive
Capacitive PWM
Resistive
Temperature BUF DAC

ARM7 GPIO
R8051
HV Comm.
Temp sense LIN
Control BSD
HV Unit RS-232
Drivers : …
OTP
Motor
Relay
Diag- Logic Control LIN
Lamp nostics EEPROM Block Transceiver
Heat

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8
Gasoline Engine System Concept

Source: Continental

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Diesel Engine

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The Internal Combustion Engine
Chemical equation for
stoichiometric hydrocarbon burning

⎛ y⎞ ⎛ y⎞
C x H y + ⎜ x + ⎟O 2 → xCO 2 + ⎜ ⎟ H 2 O + Heat
⎝ 4⎠ ⎝2⎠

Partial combustion
Nikolaus Otto Rudolf Diesel
Fuel evaporation
Nitrogen from air
Sulfur from fuel

HC – Hydrocarbons (unburned)
CO – Carbon monoxide
NO, NO2 – Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
SO2 – Sulfur dioxide
Diesel particulate matter (DPM)

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Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
• Stringent emission regulations
obsoleted the carburetor (~80’s)
• Advantages of EFI
– Precise and accurate fuel measurement
– Improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel
distribution (MPFI, GDI, DDI)
– Predictable exhaust composition
– Enables use of optimized catalytic
converters
• Net benefits
– #1: Lower emissions
– #2: Higher efficiency
– #3: Increased power

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The ECU Control Loop

PROCESS
SENSORS CONTROL LOOPS ACTUATORS
Î Throttle position
Î Intake air temperature ╠ Fuel injection
Î Manifold air pressure ╠ Idle speed control
Î Mass air flow (MAF) ╠ Ignition timing
Î Fuel pressure ╠ Multispark timing
Î In-cylinder pressure ╠ Dwell angle
Î Coolant temperature ╠ Valve timing (VVT)
Î Crankshaft position ╠ Camless valve actuation
Î Camshaft position ╠ Exhaust gas recirc. (EGR)
Î Engine speed ╠ Turbo boost
Î Engine knocking ╠ Transmission control
Î Exhaust gas oxygen Engine Control Unit
(ECU)

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Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensors

Source:
“Air Flow Sensor - Key Device of A/F ratio control Engine”
Engine Technology No.48 (February, 2007)
Sankaido Publishing Co., Ltd, Japan

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Oxygen (lambda) Sensors
(ZrO2)0.92 (Y2O3)0.08 Pt

O2 + 4 e- = 2 O2-

Basic electrochemical cell


“Nernst Cell”

RT ⎛ POref ⎞
ES = ⋅ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟
4F ⎜ PO ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

Wideband Universal Exhaust


Gas Oxygen (UEGO) Sensor

(lean-burn / diesel engines)


Amperometric UEGO sensor
Potentiometric sensor characteristics
High sensitivity for a wide range of λ
λ=1 equals A/F~14.7 (stoichiometric ratio) Sources: Damien Chazal, Bosch

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Environmental Effects

← smog

Global concentrations of major greenhouse gases

internal combustion engines


contribute to CO2 and NOx

Source: NOAA

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Engine Management - Market Drivers
California Air Resources Board (CARB) Ratings

0.40

HC (g/mile)
0.30 NOx (g/mile)

0.20

0.10

0.00
EPA(US) TLEV LEV ULEV SULEV
('83) (~'99) (~'00) (~'04) (~'07)
SULEV*:Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

Source: Hitachi, Ltd., Automotive Systems Group

US NHTSA Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)

Source: CAS

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Reducing NOx in Lean-burn Engines

NOx adsorption Urea selective catalytic


(SCR) reduction

AdBlue™ is a registered trademark by Verband der


Automobilindustrie (VDA) for AUS32 (Aqueous Urea Solution 32%)

Source: Honda Motor Source: VDA

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Urea SCR needs strict control

Electronics used to:


Sense urea solution level in tank
Check quality and concentration
Inject known amount of urea
Low urea level warning
Engine shut-off
Source: Mitsui

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The ABS Principle
During emergency braking, ABS automatically cycles
tire slip around point of maximum braking efficiency

⎛ (Vehicle _ speed ) − (Wheel _ speed ) ⎞


⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ×100%
⎝ Vehicle _ speed ⎠

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First ABS-like Automotive System

Sure-Brake System supplied by Bendix


for the 1971 Chrysler Imperial

First ABS supplied by Bosch for 1978 S-class Mercedes and BMW 7

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Two Generations of ABS

Source: Robert Bosch GmbH

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Electronic Brake-Force Distribution (EBD)
• Braking causes a dynamic weight transfer to the front
wheels depending on:
– Vehicle construction / geometry
– Deceleration
• Consequence: rear wheels tend to lock first
• EBD reduces rear pressure to avoid rear wheel locking
– Similar to mechanical brake proportioning valves
• EBD bases rear wheel control on slip rather than pressure
• Wheel control kicks in before ABS in the low-G region
– EBD events occur frequently and are transparent to the driver
• ABS and EBD usually share the same hardware
– Brake proportioning valve is eliminated
– Better braking performance independent of vehicle loading

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Traction Control Systems (TCS)

• Limits torque applied to wheels to prevent spinning


– Also known as Anti-Slip Regulation (ASR)
• Usually shares the electro-hydraulic brake actuator and
the wheel speed sensors with the ABS
• Methods to achieve traction control:
– Brake one or more wheels
– Retard or suppress spark to one or more cylinders
– Reduce fuel supply to one or more cylinders
– Close throttle (with drive-by-wire throttle) or sub-throttle
– Actuate boost control solenoid in turbocharged engines
• Brake-only systems are simpler, but less functional

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A Complete ABS/TCS System

Source: LEXUS Technical Training Manual

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Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
• Enhances stability through
asymmetric braking (yaw)
• ESC may be required during
ABS, DRP or TCS events

Source: IIHS
• Sensors collect information
– Individual wheel speeds
– Steering angle
– Yaw rate
– Lateral acceleration…
• ECU runs algorithms to detect
and correct ESC events
• Mercedes W-140 S-Class had
first complete ESC in 1995
• Key precursors (no yaw rate):
Mitsubishi Diamante/Sigma 1990
BMW all model line in 1992

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Marketed Names for ESC
• Acura: Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) • Lexus: Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) with
• Alfa Romeo: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) Vehicle Stability Control (VSC)
• Audi: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Lincoln: AdvanceTrac
• Bentley: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Maserati: Maserati Stability Program (MSP)
• Bugatti: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Mazda: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (Including Dynamic Traction
• Buick: StabiliTrak Control)
• BMW: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (including Dynamic Traction • Mercedes-Benz (co-inventor): Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
Control) • Mercury: AdvanceTrac
• Cadillac: StabiliTrak & Active Front Steering (AFS) • MINI: Dynamic Stability Control
• Chery: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Mitsubishi: Active Skid and Traction Control (ASTC) and Active
• Chevrolet: StabiliTrak; Active Handling (Corvette only) Stability Control (ASC)
• Chrysler: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Nissan: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC)
• Citroën: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Oldsmobile: Precision Control System (PCS)
• Dodge: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Opel: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Daimler: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Peugeot: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Fiat: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Vehicle Dynamic • Pontiac: StabiliTrak
Control (VDC) • Porsche: Porsche Stability Management (PSM)
• Ferrari: Controllo Stabilità (CST) • Renault: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Ford: AdvanceTrac with Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Interactive • Rover Group: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC)
Vehicle Dynamics (IVD) and Electronic Stability Program (ESP); • Saab: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) (Australia only) • Saturn: StabiliTrak
• General Motors: StabiliTrak • Scania: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Honda: Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) • SEAT: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Holden: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) • Škoda: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Hyundai: Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Electronic Stability • Smart: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
Control (ESC), and Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) • Subaru: Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC)
• Infiniti: Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) • Suzuki: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Jaguar: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) • Toyota: Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) with
• Jeep: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) Vehicle Stability Control (VSC)
• Kia: Electronic Stability Control (ESC), Electronic Stability Program • Vauxhall: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
(ESP) • Volvo: Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC)
• Lamborghini: ESP - Electronic Stability Program • Volkswagen: Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
• Land Rover: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC)

Source: Wikipedia

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Importance of ESC
• High visibility after “moose test” by a Swedish car magazine in 1997
• Today considered the most important safety feature since the seat belt,
studies show ESC reduces fatal car accidents by about 35%
• National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) will require
ESC on all new light passenger vehicles in US by 2012
– ABS will not be mandatory but usually comes “for free” with ESC
• ChooseESC! educational campaign across Europe
• United Nations working group for adopting ESC as a Global Technical
Regulation (GTR)
• What ESC cannot do:
– Improve tire traction characteristics (μ-slip curve)
– Increase vehicle lateral acceleration capacity
– Change any of the Laws of Physics

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ESC Systems Keep Evolving

Source: Continental Teves, Inc.

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Sensors and Actuators in ESC Control

Pressure Interface LDO


sensor ASIC regulator
(wheels x4) (PS) +- 150 mA

Lateral Interface MCU


acceleration ASIC 16 or 32-bit
sensor (LAS) +
software Interface Steering
Yaw ・Gyro Interface ASIC Wheel
Sensor ASIC (SWS) Sensor
(GS)

Wheel speed
sensor (x4)
Central DC
Sensor interface
Braking fluid Motor
Pressure sensor ASIC Motor Driver
(master cylinder) (FET)
Solenoid 2/2
valve driver Valve
(FET)

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Advanced Braking Systems
• Active Rollover Protection (ARP)
– Extra gyroscopic sensor to monitor roll motion
– AdvanceTrac® with Roll Stability ControlTM (Ford)
• Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
– Sensors based on radar or LIDAR (laser) to measure distance
• Brake Assist (BA or BAS)
– Sensors to detect panic braking or that a collision is likely
– Possible actions: warn driver, pre-charge brakes with maximum
pressure, apply full braking automatically
• Brake-by-wire
– Eliminates traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems
– Uses sensors, electromechanical actuators and human-machine
interfaces, such as pedal and steering feel emulators

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A brake-by-wire system

Source: Reza Hoseinnezhad

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Sensors & Sensor
Interface

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Converting for Signal Processing
Signals to sense Available electrical signals
Temperature Voltage
Force / Pressure Current
Torque Charge
Rotation / Position Resistance
Level Capacitance
Inductance
Speed / Acceleration
Impedance
Flow
Acoustic
Domains for processing
Magnetic field
RF Analog
Light / Radiation Digital
Chemical… Mixed signal

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Sensing ASICs Requested by our Customers
Physical quantity Sensor Electrical signal
Pressure piezoresistive bridge voltage
Æ

Air flow thermistor resistance


Angle / position magnetic inductance, resistance
Å Automotive

Acceleration MEMS capacitors capacitance


Orientation (gyro) MEMS tuning fork charge
O2 concentration electrochemical voltage
Urea concentration thermistor resistance
Distance ultrasonic voltage
Light photodiode current
CsI scintillator +
X-ray radiation charge
photodetector
Blood glucose biochemical current
Gas flow ultrasonic current

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Process depends on Application

Voltage

100 V

80 V
HBIMOS
I2T100 I3T80

50 V
I3T50 I4T
25 V I2T30
5V ABX I3T25
C5X D3
3.3 V
C07
1.8 V C035
C3,C035U C018
1K 5K 100K 500K Gate Count
>1.5 u 0.7 u 0.6 u 0.35 u 0.18 u Geometry
Features (drawn poly)
(OTP, EEPROM, etc.)

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Automotive Protections
• Overvoltage and reverse battery (OVRB) protections
• Electrostatic discharge (HBM, MM, CDM…)
• Automotive transients:
– AEC Q100 automotive standards
– ISO 7637 pulses
• Load dump
• Schaffner pulses
– Other local standards
• Output shorted to battery or ground
• Current sensing and limiting
less common in
• Over-temperature protection sensor interface

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On-chip Overvoltage Protection
Low voltage drop switch

Ext. +5V supply Int. ASIC supply

GND

• 5 V supply with on-chip overvoltage / reverse batt protection


– Solution covered by patents

• At least ±18 V protection allowed (process dependent)

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Passive Wheel Speed Sensors
• Wheel speed ➛ sinusoidal voltage
• Both frequency and amplitude are
proportional to wheel speed
• Noise-limited at low wheel speeds
• NCV1124 (dual) and NCV7001
(quad) generate square waveform

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Active Wheel Speed Sensors
• Commonly based on Hall effect
• Only frequency varies with speed
• Can sense speed down to zero
• Delivers a square current waveform
• Sensitive to contamination by rust
or metal fillings
• Other possible technologies:
– Magnetoresistive (MR) and Giant
Magnetoresistive (GMR)
– Based on Eddy current
– Optical sensing
– Wiegand effect
• Sensor interface circuit depends on
the technology

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Wheel Speed Interface
• Interface for Active and Passive Speed Sensors
• Compact Digital/Analog tracking loop with ~1 MHz sampling
• Programmable Hysteresis levels and filtering to increase noise robustness
• Fast and slow tracking mode (1 DAC + 1 comparator per wheel)
=> Low cost and small size
• Diagnostic for fail safe logic (short to battery or ground, open inputs)
• Proven on silicon

Speed Sensor Wheel Speed


Hysteresis Output
value Peak And Valley
Output
Detection

D
A
C
+
[x] bits
Hysteresis
value +/- [y] lsb
(Fast tracking)

Analog/Digital interaction
Delay Delay Delay Delay Delay
for smallest size

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Steering Angle Sensors
• Different technologies are available
– Optical
– Potentiometric
– Inductive
– Hall-effect
– Magneto resistive
– and others
• Technologies and ICs may be used
in other angle or position applications
– Pedal position
– Throttle control
– Headlamp control
– Height/level regulation

Source: Bosch, Hella

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A MR Angle Sensor ASIC
• Two magneto-resistive bridges are offset by 45o
• 90o signals (sine/cosine) are divided and arctangent gives the angle

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Longitudinal or Lateral Accelerometers

• Not strictly required for ABS control


but increasingly present in more
recent ESC systems
• Used as a “sanity check” for wheel
and vehicle speed calculations
• Lateral accelerometer used to
prevent artificially low speed
calculations
• Longitudinal accelerometer used in
4-wheel-drive vehicles where all
wheels can be mechanically coupled
• Capacitive MEMS technology
becoming dominant

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Sensor Interface for Accelerometer

C/V PGA
conv Buf

Digital 12b
filters D/A
Analog DSP
GND ref
MUX ΣΔ for TC
Digital 12b
filters D/A

C/V PGA
Buf
conv
Temperature
sensor

• Single module or IC can accommodate 1, 2, or 3-axis accelerometers


• Each channel is calibrated for accuracy and temperature compensated
• Outputs can be analog or digital

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Gyroscopic Sensors

• Measures angular speed (rotation)


• Initial automotive gyros derived from
military / aerospace products
• Yaw rate (rotation around vertical axis)
is mandatory in ESC
• Roll rate is a recent addition in some
rollover prevention systems
• Pitch rate has no current automotive
application
• Today MEMS-based solutions allow
ESC sensor cluster with gyro
compact and inexpensive gyros for
and accelerometers
automotive applications
Source: Continental

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Example: Systron Donner (BEI) GyroChip™

• Quartz Rate Sensor (QRS) proprietary technology


• Coriolis effect: converts momentum of a vibrating object into a force
• Piezoelectric property of the quartz converts the Coriolis force into
electrical charge signals proportional to the angular rate

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Pressure Sensor Auto Applications

• MAP Manifold Absolute Pressure


• TMAP Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure
• DMPS Differential Manifold Pressure Sensor
• DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
• DDI Diesel Direct Injection
• GDI Gasoline Direct Injection
• HCCI In-Cylinder Pressure (future)
• ABS Anti-Lock Braking Systems
• ESC Electronic Stability Control

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Pressure Sensor Interface (Example)

Nonlinear temperature compensation


for gain and offset

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NVM and Nonlinearity Compensation

• All sensing elements have nonlinearities (NL)


– Intrinsic nonlinearity over sensing range
– Offset & sensitivity NL variations over temperature
• Market requirements for sensors with higher
accuracy and extended range
– Trimpots / manual methods not viable for mass production
– Laser trimming: expensive, requires special technologies
– LUT not always can provide enough accuracy

Solution: embedded programmable


compensation with NV memory

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Our Proprietary Solution for NL
• Methods and circuits based on Pade’ Approximants, the ratio
between two power series
PL ( x ) = p 0 + p1 x + p 2 x 2 + L + p L x L
QM ( x ) = 1 + q1 x + q 2 x 2 + L + q M x M

a 1stst order Padė Approximant


P1 ( x ) ax + b
y ( x) = =
Q1 ( x ) cx + 1
• Accuracy and cost advantages when compared to
– Lookup table (LUT)
– Piecewise linear approach
– Polynomial approximation (Taylor expansion series)
• Patents granted and pending worldwide

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Mapping a NL Function into a Linear one
Vin Vout
Calibrated and
Nonlinear input from compensated output
sensing element

v2

mapping

v0
vi2

vi0 v1
vi1
x x
x1 x0 x2 x1 x0 x2

By
By applying
applying Padé
Padé to
to Vin
Vin and
and replacing
replacing values
values at
at calibration
calibration points
points xx00,, xx11,, xx22

⇒ aa system
system with
with 33 linear
linear equations
equations and
and 33 variables
variables (a,
(a, b,
b, c)
c) is
is generated
generated

⎧ a ⋅ vi0 + b − c ⋅ vi0 ⋅ v0 = v0 ⎫
a ⋅ Vin + b ⎪ ⎪
= Vout ⎨ a ⋅ vi1 + b − c ⋅ vi1 ⋅ v1 = v1 ⎬
c ⋅ Vin + 1
⎪ a ⋅ vi + b − c ⋅ vi ⋅ v = v ⎪
⎩ 2 2 2 2⎭

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Two Practical Circuit Implementations
GAIN
GAIN OFFSET REGISTER
REGISTER REGISTER
OFFSET G
REGISTER D/A
G voff
D/A D/A
voff
D/A G
+
Vin Vout signal
+
G Σ compensated
Input signal for nonlinearity +
_ Vout
Vin +
Σ
G
kvf
D/A _

kvf
D/A
FEEDBACK
REGISTER
FEEDBACK
REGISTER

The
The following
following transfer
transfer functions
functions are
are realized
realized
Vout = G ⋅ (1 − kvf ⋅ Vout ) ⋅ Vin + voff Vout = G ⋅ (1 − kvf ⋅ Vout ) ⋅ Vin + G ⋅ voff

Isolating
Isolating Vout,
Vout, we
we verify
verify both
both functions
functions to
to be
be Padé
Padé Approximants
Approximants
G ⋅ Vin + voff G ⋅ (Vin + voff )
Vout = Vout =
G ⋅ kvf ⋅ Vin + 1 G ⋅ kvf ⋅ Vin + 1

54
Application in NL Temperature Compensation

• Temperature compensation is a basic


building block in sensor interface TEMP T
A/D
SENSOR

• A temperature reference is needed T (dig)

OFFSET TC a,b,c a,b,c GAIN TC


either internal or external to the IC COEFFIC.
ALU
COEFFIC.

• Applies temperature dependent


OFFSET DAC GAIN DAC
nonlinear offset and gain to the signal REGISTER REGISTER

path to cancel out the sensor D/A D/A

temperature dependency +
+/- Vout
Vin Σ G
• Many possible implementations can
be realized

55
Methods for Temperature Compensation
• Error plot shows PWL has • But when implemented using
greatest error integer math (for RTL), the
• Padé and 4th order Taylor Padé benefit is evident
series about the same error

56
Communication – Embedded IVN
• Integrate high voltage communication transceiver on chip
– LIN-Spec. 2.1 (SAEJ2602)
– CAN-HS
– CAN-LS
– K-Line (ISO9141)
– SENT Single Edge Nibble Transmission
ON solution: excellent EMI performance, small area (patent pending)
– Other standards (2-wire SENT, PSI5, etc…)

ASIC ASIC
BUS Phys.
ECU
BUS Phys. Upper SPI ECU
Layer Layer layer
Interrupt

Flexibility Higher integration


57
Released Products
Transceivers
WPN OPN (T&R) Description Standard
AMIS-30600 AMIS30600LINI1RG LIN Transceiver LINv1.3/v2.1
J2602
NCV7321 NCV7321D10R2G Stand-alone LIN Transceiver
NCV7420 NCV7420D23R2G LIN Transceiver with 3.3V VReg.
NCV7420D25R2G LIN Transceiver with 5V VReg.
AMIS-30660 AMIS30660CANH2RG CAN HS Transceiver (5V) ISO11898-2
AMIS-30663 AMIS30663CANG2RG CAN HS Transceiver (3.3V)
AMIS-42700 AMIS42700WCGA4RH Dual CAN HS Transceiver

AMIS-42665 AMIS42665TJAA1RG HS LP CAN Transceiver ISO11898-5


(Level WakeUp - Matte Sn)
AMIS42665TJAA3RL HS LP CAN Transceiver
(Level WakeUp - NiPdAu)
AMIS42665TJAA6RG HS LP CAN Transceiver
(Edge WakeUp - Matte Sn)
NCV7341 NCV7341D20R2G Improved HS LP CAN Transceiver
with Error Detection (>6KV)
NCV7341D21R2G HS LP CAN Transceiver with Error Detection
AMIS-41682 AMIS41682CANM1RG CAN LS Transceiver (5V) ISO11898-3
AMIS-41683 AMIS41683CANN1RG CAN LS Transceiver (3.3V)
NCV7356 See One Pager SW CAN

58
Failsafe Logic Functions
1. Between MCU and ASIC
• Checks that MCU and ASIC are not disconnected (watchdog)
• Checks that software inside MCU is following proper sequence and issuing proper flags (no code
jumps)
• Generate references for MCU (clock, voltage etc …)
• Monitor SPI activity from MCU
2. ASIC related ASIC Reference
• Undervoltage / Overvoltage Generation
• Start-up check for proper working of failsafe logic Watchdog
Micro-
• Monitor of critical functions (solenoid and motor)
Controller
ECU monitor
• Possibility to only connect supply for solenoid Failsafe logic
enable
and motor when MCU and ASIC agree Under/over
FSFlag
voltage

Disable ABS
Critical function
functions
monitor

Failsafe logic: System FMEA


In case something goes wrong then disable ABS functions
but “normal” braking can still be performed by driver.

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Sensor Interface: Partial Redundant System
• Two independent measurement channels on one die
• Synchronicity check performed also inside the ASIC

60
Full Redundant Application
• Safety is guaranteed by redundancy – two ASICs can be
used
• Synchronicity between outputs is checked by ECU

Receiving Analog
Input Digital
meas.
coils Mux processing Output A
path Analog
Driver
Sensor
Excitation
coil Excitation
LC Failure Supporting
oscillator
driver detections blocks
Rotor ASIC A

Receiving Analog
Input Digital
meas.
coils Mux processing Output B
path Analog
Driver
Sensor
Excitation
coil Excitation
LC Failure Supporting
oscillator
driver detections blocks
Sensor ASIC B

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Opportunities for Cost Reduction

• Advantage of digital communication using SENT protocol


– One driver is sufficient to transmit data from both sensors
– Several checks are performed to validate the received SENT frame
• Use of two external set of sensors with different output
signals
• One measurement path inside the ASIC
• Failure detections / calibrations / self tests

62
Final Diagram
• New proposed architecture uses one measurement path
– Satisfying very high safety requirements
– Highly cost effective

63
For More Information

• View the extensive portfolio of power management products from ON


Semiconductor at www.onsemi.com

• View reference designs, design notes, and other material supporting


automotive applications at www.onsemi.com/automotive

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