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6/15/2019 Types of Bitumen Mixes for Pavements -Applications in Road


Types of Bitumen Mixes for Pavement Constr

their Applications

There are various types of bitumen mixes with aggregates for pavement construction. A
bitumen mixes for pavements is discussed in this article.

Types of Bitumen Mixes for Pavement Construction an

Based on the nature of gradation selected for the bitumen mixes, they can be classified in

Dense Graded Bitumen Mixes

Semi-Dense Graded Bitumen Mixes

Open Graded Bitumen Mixes

Gap Graded Bitumen Mixes

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Fig.1: Gradation Chart for Dense, Open Graded and Gap Graded Bitumen

The bitumen mix that is densely graded has continuous gradation, say in the proximity o
The bitumen mix with a large amount of fine aggregate i.e. sand will form open graded b

When the mix lack materials of two or more sizes, it will form gap graded bitumen mix. T
have a gradation lying in between the open graded and the gap graded. All the gradation
in figure-1.

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Dense Graded Bitumen Mixes for Pavements

These mixes possess continuous gradation of all primary aggregates. These particles are
inter-particle surface friction is the reason behind their property of strength gain.

All most all possible flexible pavements constructed in the world employ dense graded bi

There are two main types of dense graded mix used. They are:

Dense Bitumen Macadam (DBM)

Bituminous Concrete(BC)

Dense Bitumen Mixes

This mix is mainly employed for base course and the binder course. This itself consist of
and Grading-2. Grading-1 has 37.5mm as the nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS).
NMAS of 25mm.

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The fine aggregate percentages in both the grading are same in a range of 28 to 42%. The
both the grading are that the grading 1 consist of large size particles i.e. 25mm to 45mm.

The grading-1 with NMAS of 37.5mm has many disadvantages like segregation. This segr
honeycombing. At lower air-void levels, these mixes become permeable compared to the

Hence, the grading-1 causes problems related to water exposure. With the increase of NM
increase the multi-fold at a present void level condition.

Fig.2: Dense Bitumen Mixes Grade-1, NMAS mix of 37.5mm -Honeycombing Defe

The effect of the nominal maximum aggregate size on the permeability of the flexible pav
the graph shown in figure-3.

The grade-1, have the advantage of rutting resistance compared to the grading-2. During
pavement made of NMAS 37.5MM, Grade 1 must be sealed or overlaid. This will avoid pe
the pavement and reach the Wet mix macadam. This is the WMM course also called as c

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6/15/2019 Types of Bitumen Mixes for Pavements -Applications in Road

Fig.3: Effect of Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size on Permeability of Flex

Bituminous Concrete Mixes (BC)

The bituminous concrete mix is used in two forms: Grade-1 and Grade-2. Grade-1 with N
of 13mm as the NMAS.

From the above description about dense bitumen mixes, it was clear that dense bitumen
use as the base course due to its fewer disadvantages compared to dense bitumen mix G
necessary to determine a grade for the binder and the surface course.

The bituminous concrete grading-1 with nominal maximum aggregate size 19mm as the
base course (dense bitumen mix Grade-1) as well as the wearing course bituminous conc
maximum aggregate size 13mm, with NMAS 19 mm employed as a transition. The bitum
good to be used as a wearing course.

To facilitate medium and low traffic, a bituminous concrete grade of nominal maximum
necessary to considered for the construction of smooth and impermeable pavement in u

To facilitate thin asphalt lifts, bituminous concrete grading-3 is more suitable than grade
concrete grade-2 of NMAS 9.5mm has been efficiently used in the highway construction
traffic BC grade-2 are recommended.

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6/15/2019 Types of Bitumen Mixes for Pavements -Applications in Road

Table-1: Recommended Bitumen Concrete(BC) Gradations

Semi-Dense Bitumen Mixes

The two types of semi-bituminous mixes used in the pavement construction in India are;

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC)

Mixed Sealed Surfacing (MSS)

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC)

The semi-dense bituminous concrete mixes have neither dense or open graded characte
called pessimum voids when they are fully constructed.

The word is an anonym of optimum. So, it is advised to make the mix get rid of pessimum
capture moisture or water that will later cause stripping.

When the semi dense bituminous concrete is employed above the bitumen macadam (BM
for the penetration of rainwater through the SDBC and reach the BM.

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This will create the separation of aggregate and the bitumen in the BM layer. This will ca
scaling of SDBC. The scaling later with time will result in the potholes on the road.

Fig.4: Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete Highways with Shallow Po

Mixed Seal Surfacing (MSS)

The Mixed Seal Surfacing design mix is based on the IRC: SP:78-2008. This is an alternativ
carpet (PMC). Both the PMC and the MSS are employed in 20mm thickness.

There are two gradations that are specified for the mixed seal surfacing mix. They ar

Type A – Closed Gradation with an NMAS value of 9.5mm

Type B- Open Gradation with an NMAS value of 9.5mm or 12mm

The aggregate grading for the MSS mix is mentioned in table-2.

Table-2: Aggregate Grading for Mixed Seal Surfacing Mix

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Open Graded Bitumen Mixes

The open graded Bitumen Mixes have fine aggregates in a minimum amount, hence they
water. They are employed based on specific functions in the base and for surface mixes.

Open Graded Bitumen Base Mixes

Three open graded mix types are employed as the base mixes. They are the

Asphalt Treated Permeable Base (ATPB)

Bituminous Macadam(BM)

Built up Spray Grout (BUSG)

Asphalt Treated Permeable Base (ATPB)

Permeable asphalt treated base (PATB) is used extensively on major highway constructio
will help to have sub surface drainage. The PATB is also called as the Asphalt Treated Per
system consists of separate course for the subsurface drainage. The thickness of the PAT

The PATB is given between the granular sub-base (GSB) and the bituminous course. The g
flexible pavement too have the intention to provide subsurface drainage.

The GSB consist of large quantity of fines that are passing through 0.075mm sieve, which
excellent drainage system. A two-layer drainage system is implemented by this system.

Bituminous Macadam (BM)

The BM mix is open graded and highly permeable in nature. This is a recipe type mix pro
quality in terms of strength and volumetric. The void content is 20 to 25% higher than th
(DBM). The DBM have a void content of 3 to 5%. The BM have high potential to attract wa

Built-up spray Grout (BUSG)

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For flexible pavements, BUSG has been recommended as a base course. It is a two-layer c
with single size aggregates, which are nicely compacted. This has a hot bitumen layer ap
the top, single sized key aggregate is applied.

As the sprayed bitumen does not help in filling the voids that are created by the coarse ag
behave to be highly permeable in nature. This does have a property to attract moisture a
of BUSG as a remedy for the removal of potholes is stopped.

Open Graded Bitumen Surface Mixes

Three open graded mix types are employed as the surface mixes. They are:

Open graded Friction course (OGFC)

Premix Carpet (PMC)

Surface Dressing

Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC)

The OGFC system consists of interconnected voids that help to improve the surface drain
rainwater will drain through the OGFC and reach the bituminous concrete grade 2 (BC),
within the OGFC. Which is later ended at the shoulder. The last OGFC layer will have a th

This system will have no trace of water on the surface. The OGFC system was developed
nationals. The safety and the environmental features of OGFC are mentioned below:

Improvement of frictional resistance of wet pavement

Hydroplaning: Hydroplaning is the effect of skidding on ice and the loss of control p
is due to the presence of water during and after rain. The OGFC lets removal of water
water trace on the pavement.

The splash and the spray are reduced: The high-speed movement of vehicles will ca
of water to the nearby vehicles, which will cause problems to the visibility. The OGFC r
in the road hence no splashing or spraying.

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Glare: The OGFC results in the reduction of glare from the headlights in the wet con
better visibility and have reduced driver fatigue.

Noise Reduction

Premix Carpet (PC)

Here the PC is laid as a wearing course with a thickness of 20mm. The mix will compose
One is the aggregate that is passing through 22.5mm and that will retain in 11.2mm.

The second aggregate type will pass through 13.2mm and retain on 5.6mm sieve. Here w
and the traffic intensities, the viscosity grade bitumen are employed. It can be either VG-1

Based on the aggregate and aggregate application rates that are specified in IRC: 14-2004
Practice for Open Graded Premix Carpet”, the bitumen content by weight of mix is 3.3%.

Surface Dressing

As per IRC:110 -2005, ” Specification and Code of Practice for Design AND Construction of
surface dressing has the following significances and objectives:

The surface dressing will provide a dust free wearing course over a granular base c
water bound macadam (WBM) or a wet mixed Macadam (WMM).

The surface Dressing will help in providing impermeability for water percolation fo

Surface Dressing provide high friction for the riding surface

This will provide a renewal coat for periodic maintenance of bituminous wearing su

The surface dressing work involves the process of spraying of proper grade paving b
the rapid setting cationic emulsion. This is applied over an aggregate layer of appropr

Surface dressing does not increase the structural strength and the riding quality of the p

Gap Graded Bitumen Mixes

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The Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) is the most commonly used gap graded bituminous mixe
traffic and the high pressure of tires of the vehicles will give large stresses to the road pa
subjected to overloading conditions in certain cases.

The stone matrix asphalt mix is tough, highly stable in structure and rut resistant asphal
on the stone to stone contact that will facilitate in strength. The rich mortar used in the s

The advantages of stone matrix asphalt mix are:

Surface Frictional Resistance are improved

The noise is reduced

Compared to the conventional dense graded asphalt mix, the night visibility is redu

The following steps are involved in the stone matrix asphalt mix design:

1. The selection of the materials i.e. aggregates, binder and the cellulose fiber.

2. Three trial gradations are involved to ensure stone to stone contact.

3. Optimum binder content is used for the all the gradation chosen

4. The binder drains down as well as the moisture susceptibility is evaluated.

The performance of the stone matrix asphalt mix pavement as studied by the US, based o
the road pavement. The figure-5 below shows the rut depth caused for different ranges o

Fig.5: As per NCAT, the rutting performance of the stone matrix asphalt mix pavem

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The performance of the SMA pavements that are constructed in India has performed we

Compared to bitumen concrete, the cost for stone matrix asphalt mix has been found to b
increased cost of the SMA material is due to its composing materials like cellulose fiber, m
binder content.

In the US, the life cycle study conducted showed that the stone matrix asphalt mix is mor
performance and lesser maintenance.

Read More:

Why is Bitumen Used in Road Construction? Properties and Advantage of Bitumen for

Different Types of Bitumen, their Properties and Uses (https://theconstructor.org/trans


Various Lab Tests on Bitumen for Pavement Construction (https://theconstructor.org/tr


Bituminous Materials – Types, Properties and Uses in Construction


Processes in Bituminous Road Construction (https://theconstructor.org/transportation/


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About Neenu Arjun (https://theconstructor.org/autho

Neenu is a Civil and Structural Engineer and has experience in Design of Concrete and S
Author, Editor and Partner at theconstructor.org.

©2019 The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home

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