Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 170

The Geological Interpretation of Well Logs

Malcolm Rider 1st Edition

The Geological Interpretation of Well Logs Malcolm Rider 1st Edition

Contents

I

Introduction

 

1.1

Well logs

a definition

1.2

Well logs

the necmity

1.3

Well logs

the making

1.4 Log runs

1.5 Log presentations

1.6 The logging companie>

1.7 Well自log interpretation and us"

1.8 This book aims anrl content

2

The logging environment

2.1

Introduction

2

2

The premll"e

en viront訕,ents of borehole logging 缸且 d invasion

2.3

Temperatnre environment of borehole Jogging

2

4

Logging tool 間 pabiliti囚

2.5

Conclusion

3

Caliper logs

 
 

恥 1echanical c明 Jiper

the tc ols

 

3.2

Log pre忘entations

3

3 Interpretation and uses

3.4

Three-dimensional calipers

4

Temperature logging

4.1

Geotemperatures

4

2

Borehole temp叫 ature me,,urement

4.3

True formation temperatures

4

4

Significance of geoternpe> atures interpretation

5

Self·potential or SP logs 5 1 Generalities

5.2

Principles of measurement

5.3

Log characteristics

5.4

Quantitative us閏

5.5 Qualitative uses

 

6

Resistivity and conductivity logs

6.1

Generalities

6.2

Theoretbl considerntions

6.3

Zones of invasion and resistivity

6.4

Resistivity tools

6

5 Induction tools

 

6.6

Log characteristics

6.7 Quantitative uses of the r田 istivity logs

6.8 Qualitatiie us自

 

7

The gamma ray and spectral gamma ray logs 7 1 Generalities

7.2 Natural gamma radiation

7.3 Tools

 

7.4 Log characteristrcs

7.5 Geochemical behaviour of potassium, thorium and uranium and natural radioactivity

7.6 Radioactivity of shales and clays

7.7 Quantitative use of the simple gamma ray log

7.8 Quantitati>e use of the spectral gamma ray log

7.9

Qualitative use of the simple gamma ray log

7.10

Quah個 tive use

of the spectral gamma ray log

8

Sonic or acoustic logs

8.1 Generalities

8.2 Principles of measurement.

8.3 Tools

8.4 Log characteristics

1123

8811

l11

1ll26671

viii

CONTENTS

8.6 Qualitative us目

8.7 日eismic appli凹 tions of the sonic log

84

90

9

The density log

 

9.1 Generalities

 

999993466

9.2

Principl的 of me"8urement

9.3

1ools

9.4

   

9.5

9.6

Qualitati" uses

10

The neutron log

 

10. \

Generalities

106

10.2

Principl師 of measurement

107

10.3

Tools.

10.4

Iρg characteristics

110

10.5

Quantitative us自

110

10.6

Qualitati1e us臼

I 13

10.7

Neutron density combination: lithology id凹 tification

 

118

11

Lithology reconstruction from logs

 

11.1 Introduction

 

123

11.2 Lithology from drill data the mud log

 

123

11.3 Lithology from cores direct physical sampling

125

11.4 Lithology interprctation fro血 wireline logs manual method

128

11.5 Computer aids to lithology interp問恤 tion

131

11.6 Multi-log quantification oflithology

135

12

Facies and depositional environm凹的 from logs

 

12 1 Introduction

 

i

117

 

--

 

12.2 Faα已可

 

12.3 The sequential analysis of logs a tool for sedimentological interpretation

 

13

Stratigraphy and logs

 

13.1 Introduction

 

154

13.2 Lithostratigraphy

154

13.3 Some aspects of con-elation

154

13.4 Stratigraphic breaks and stratigraphic sequences

 

160

13 5 Conclusions

 

164

14

Concluding remarks

 

14.1 The geologist's problem

 

165

14.2 The lithology problem

165

14.3 The dipmeter problem

166

14.4 Not a conclusion

an approach

166

References

168

Index

 

172

I\

1 Introduction

1.1 Well logs-·a definition

The continuous r巳cording of a geophysical parameter along a borehole produces a geophysical well log The value of the me品 urement is plotted continuously against depth in the well (Fi且ure 1.1). For example, the

value

5 10 15 130 。 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230
5
10
15
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240

ohm m2im

.

Figure I.I A"ell log. Representation of the first 'log' made at Pee ,.J bronn,Al帥間, France, in 1927 by H Doll (From Allaud and Martin,

1976).

res1sl!vity log is a continuous plot of a formation's resistivity from the bottom of the well to the top and may repr田間 t over 4 krlometres (2! mrles)。f readings The most appropria臼 name for this continuous depth『related record is a wirelinc geophysical well log, conveniently shortened to well log or log. It has often been called an elecl!ical logbecause histoncally the first logs were elec廿 ical m 問 suremen臼 of electrical

properties. However, the measurements are no longer simply electrical, and modern methods of data trans- mission do not necessarily need a wire !me so the name above is recommended. This book therefore concerns wireline geophysical well logs. In France, where well loggmg was first invented by Schlumberger and Doll, the original name w品

已Carottage且lectriq間,(electricalcoring) as opposed to

mechanical coring. Today the name dza_qraphies dif- f<!rees (literally,‘deferred diagrams’) is applied to distmguish wireline geophysical well logs, which are made after drilling, from the drill logs (diagraphies irnrnediates, i e immediate diagrams ) made during the drillinιIn English no such distinction is made the

word ‘lo耳,的 universally used

1.2 Well logs

the necessity

Many dif』erent modern wireline geophysical well logs exi泣, They are records of sophisticated geophysical measurements along a borehole. These may be measurements of spontaneous phenomena, such as

natural radioactivity (the gamma ray log), which re- quires a tool consisting simply of a very sensitive radiation detector, or they may be induced, as with the formation velocity log (sonic log), m which a tool emits sound into the formation and measures the time taken

distance along

for the sound to.reach a I目 eiver at a set

the tool (Table 1.1). Wireline geophysical well logging is necessary be- cause geological sampling during drilling (‘cuttings

Table 1.1 Classification of wll"eline geophysical well measurements (in 'open hole').

 

Log type

Formation parameter measured

Mechanicnl

Cnliper

Hole diameler

measurements

Spontaneous

Temperature

Borehole temperatur℃

1neasure1nents

SP (self-potential)

G刷 nma ray

Spontaneous electncol currents Natural radioactivity

Induced

Resistivity

Resistance to electrical current

Induction

Conductivity of electrical current

Sonic

Velocity of sound propagation

Density

Reaction to gamma-ray bombardment

Neutron

Reaction to

neu訂 on bombardment

~-一一一一==一~~干

2 THE GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOGS

sampling') leaves a very imprecise record of the for- mations encountered. Entire formation sample' can be brought to the surface by mechanical coring, but this is both slow and expensive The results of corin臣, of course, are unequivocal Logging is precis巴, but equivocal, in that it needs in 屆 rpretation to bring a log to the level of geological or petrophysical experience. However, logs fill the gap between cuttingsand cores', and with experience, calibration and com- pute凹, they c正m almost replace cores, as they ce1tainly contatn enough infonnatron to put outcrop reality into the subsurface

1.3 Well logs

the making

Wireline geophysical well logs are recorded when the dnlling tools are no longer in the hole ‘Open』hole’ logs弋 the subject of this book, are recorded im mediately after drilling. Logs are made using highly specialized equipment entirely separate from that used for drilling. Onshore, a motorized logging truck is used which brings its array of surface recorders, computers and a logging drum and cable to the drill site (Fig.ure 1.2). Offshore, the same equipment is installed in a small cabin left permanently on the rig (Figure 1.2). Both truck and cabin use a variety of interchangeable logging tools, which are lowered into the well on the logging cable (Figure 1.2). Most modern logs a閃閃 corded digitally. The sampl- ingrate will normally be about once every 15 cm (6 in), although for some logs it will be as low as 3 cm (1.2 i的 An average well of say 2000 m will therefore be sampled

over 12 000 times for each individual log, and for a suite of 8 or so typical logs, it will be sampled over 100 000

huge amount of data 1s stored in the

times

computer of the surface umt. There is generally an mstantaneous display for quality control and a full prmt-out immediately the log rs finished, but the raw data are stored on magnetic tape for future processing and editing. To nm logs, the hole is cleaned and stab1hzed and the drilling equipment extracted. The first loggi月 tool is then attached to the logging cable (wireline) and lowered into the hole to its maximum drilled depth. Most logs are run while pulling the tool up from the bottom of the hole. The cable attached to the tool ac旭 both as a support for the tool and as a canal for data transmission. The outside consists of galvanized steel, while the electrical conductors are msulated in the interior (Figure 1.3). The cable is wound around a motorized drum on to which it is guided manually during logging. The drum will pull the cable at sr咒 eds of between 300 m/h (1000 ft月 1) and 1800 m/h (6000 ft/h),

This

卓Open-hole indicnl目 that the formation forms the wall of a we\' as opposeo to cased-hole ’, in which a tube of 111etalca,ing line' the well.

/

'

Figure 1.2 日chematic diagram of a modem logging set-up. The surface computer and electronic equipment are housed in a logging truck (on land) orc,bin (offshore). The logging tool is winche<l up the hole by the logging cable which also transmits the tool i巴endings. The transmittal is digital and recorded on magnetic tape. Th巳 surface computer allows instant d1Splay.

As the

cable is pulled in, so the depth of the working tool is

checked. Logging cables have magnetic markers set at regular intervals (e.ι100 or 50 m) along their length and depths are checked mechanically, but apparent depths mURt be corrected for cable tension and elasticity. Because rig tune is expensive and holes must be

logged immediately, modern logging

i.e. 0. 3 to 1. 8 km/h, depending on the tool used.

tools are multi >

function (Figure 1.4)ιThey may be up to 18111 (60ft) in

conducting cables

''"' ''"''°「t

matrix

'"'凶latI。n

Figure 1.3 Schematic diagram or a logging α1ble. (Modified from Moran and Attali, 197\.)

"

IN'I RODUCTION

3

EEEam 6]11 一 - dwoι ENOFF EωJ 』“。 ω 」怔的區。- 旬戶。也已 -。 的間的】
EEEam
6]11
dwoι
ENOFF
EωJ
』“。
ω
」怔的區。-
旬戶。也已
-。
的間的】
EωopnN
lG
HUHHH
~ g
VO
EFE
司”
utF
呂 •
5l
h
卜旬叮叮
R DIL-GR
ISF
GR
趴F
4
叩』
dw
E
畸臼-
OZO
c
。』伊
2
E
E
正IJ;
帥”
ω
NhNV
i u~
EE
!SF
S。 NIC GR
DIL Rx 。一 CNL GR
FDC-CNL-GA

F•gure 1.4 Some typical modern combinarion logging tools. Lengths are as marked; diameters are mainly 玲 in.(M吋 ified from Schlumberger,

1174.)

length, but still have an overall diameter of only 3 4 in. The Schlur巾 erger !SF sonic tool, for example, of 31\ in diameter, is 55.5 ft (16.9 m) long and gives a simul > taneous measurement of gamma ray 01 caliper, SP, deep resistivity (conductivity), shallow resistivity and sonrc velocity The complexity of such tools requires the use of the surface computer, not only to record but also to memorize and to depth-match the varrous readings. The gamma-ray sensor, for example, is not at the same depth as the resistrvity sensors (Frgure 1 4), so at any one instant, different formations are being sampled along the tool The surface computer the聞自 fore memorizes the readings, compensates for depth or !lme lag and giv目 a depth-matched output Despite the use of the combined tools, the recording of a full set of logs still reqmres several different tool descen臼 While a quick, shallow logging job may only take 3--4 hou凹, a deep也 ole, full set may take 2 3 days, each tool taking perhaps 4-5 hours to complete

1.4 Log runs

When a log is made it is said to be 'run'. A log run is typically made at the end of each drilling phase, i.e. at the end of the drilling and before casing is put in the

hole (Figure 1.5 )。 Each specific log run is numbered, bemg counted from the first time that tbe particular log is recorded. Run 2 of the ISF Sonic, for example, may cover the same depth interval as a Formation Density Log Run 1. In thrs case rt means that over the first interval of the !SF Sonic, (i e. Run 1), there was no Formation Density log recorded (Figure 1.5). Typrcally, through any well, more logs are run ove1 intervals containing reservoirs or with shows, than over apparently uninteresting zones The choice of!ogs depends on what it is hoped to find. Logging costing 5- 10% of total well costs is expensive, so that in cheap, onshore wells, m known terrain, a minrmum set is run. Offshore, where everything rs expensive, full sets of logs are generally run, even if hydrocarbons are not found, as each well represen臼 hard-gained information. CuUi/lg down on well logs is probably a false economy, but rt can be forgrven when prices a臼 considered

1.5 Log presentations

A standard AP! (American Petroleum Institute) log

format exists (Figure 1.6). The overall log width is 8.25

in (21 cm), with three tracks of 2.5 in (6.4cm), tracks 1

and 2 being separated by a column of 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in

,,

4 THE GEOLOGICAL INTERPRE'I A1 ION OF WELL LOGS

LOGGING RECORD

400m-750m

~且也旦1

750冊一’的個

ISF

HIJT

'°"''' rno 2

rno

1

1

, FOC-CNL

I

run

1650m-2100m

ISF FOC

'°"''' rno 3

CNI , rno

2

, DLL ru 叭,

I HCτrun ~

Om

DRILLING CURVE

《悶。l呵,,1)‘

I HCτrun ~ Om DRILLING CURVE 《悶。l呵,, 1 )‘ 1'J: ,~ .~ 『eservoir FINAL LOGS AUN

1'J: ,~

~ Om DRILLING CURVE 《悶。l呵,, 1 )‘ 1'J: ,~ .~ 『eservoir FINAL LOGS AUN 1650m A

.~

『eservoir

FINAL LOGS AUN

1650m

A

-,

.

210。”1

’刪m

2酬

x

m

10

20

30

40

50

DRILLING DAYS

Figure 15 Logging record, Log rum are indicated on a typical oflshore drilling curve Horizontal Jin°' indicate no drilling, when logs are run,

Casing follows logging。Note log run numbers, (Tool symbols

Schlumbe<ger),

1二三令

字= TRACK

5 10 。 。- EZ ←-丘〈白白」 5 10 。 口一止血〉工
5
10
。-
EZ
←-丘〈白白」
5
10
口一止血〉工
T R AMHFbPU K 2=件=三 TRACK 3二三令 ←。 Mω 。。 0,2 10 100 1000 2000
T
R AMHFbPU
K
2=件=三 TRACK 3二三令
←。
。。
0,2
10
100
1000
2000
。。
0,2
10
20,0
5
10
.
。。

Figure 1.6 Three typical AP! log formats, Tracks are 2,5 in wide with a central 0,75 in depth column, Overall width 的 8,25 in, Horizontal srnles are variable (see text),

which the depths ar、e pnnted There are various combinations of grid Track 1 is always linear, with ten standard divisions of 0.25 in (0.64cm). Tracks 2 and 3 may have a 4 cycle loganthm1c scale, a linear scale of 20 standard divisions, or a hybrid of logarithmic scale in track 2 and linear scale in track 3 (Figure 1.6). These are the classic presentat10ns which, in the past, usually prevailed. With the advent of digitized logs, non-standard formats are becoming more common, especially on computer playbacks On the old analog loggmg systems, the choice of vertical or depth scales was limited to two of 1: 1000,

1 :500, 1 :200, 1: 100, 1:40 and 1 :20. From these, the

most frcquent scale combinations

(1 cm = 5 m) for resume or correlation logs and

were

l: 500

1 ·2DO (1 cm 三 2 m) for detailed

reservoir pr田 entat10n.

The American area was an exception, where the available scales were 1 :1200, 1:600,1 :240 and 1 :48.

From these the commonly-chosen scales were 1 :600 (1 in= lOOfeet) for resum已 and correlation logs, (lnd '

These scales sttll dominate industrial documents, but as a result of modern compute1 storage other scales are becoming more common Especially useful to the geologist are the reduced scales of 1 :2000 (1 cm

1

:240 (5 in= lOOfeet) for detail.

Table I 2 Principal us臼 of open-hole wireline logs

t

5

lN1RODUιcT!ON

=20 m) and 1 :5000 (1 cm= 50 m). In fact any con- vcnient scale can now be produced easily by the computer, whereas in the past scale changes could only be made by unsatisfactory photographic methods.

。 ~ 且@。”占 ω 、、 tIf 4AEV 〉 K ’, JJr m 0 logg;og 'P••d
~
且@。”占
ω
、、
tIf
4AEV
K
’,
JJr
m
0
logg;og 'P••d = 10m!mm,
; e. 600m!h (1970'!的

AEEE

Figm·e 1.7 Dashed log margin represenhng minute intervals. The logging speed can be checked from these dashes.

;·~。自~、 百占回泊τE。昆=已且 2自自q言悔"" 苦 倡.p“:呵。莒 >自 ~
;·~。自~、
百占回泊τE。昆=已且
2自自q言悔""
倡.p“:呵。莒
>自
~
晶_'話rj。吋:
扭e口扭8自~
」Ut徊。j.司
1且;5j
、"'E:
~
I
世弋a。詞間~~
。。,內鬥~一a
<
§
8
ιH。O呵泣。: :
且因:
〉巴E。
叫拉~
w
!
昌<胡同。0
<
品g
口~:
~切。。"'
<門k口i
u話~
』的-"C電
"目刊
。問吋
3
Caliper
4
Temperature
+
5
SP
*
+
*
6
R由istivity
+
+
+
7
Gamma ray
+
+
+
7
Spectral GR
+
”+
-•
8
Sonic
*
*
+
+
+
9
Density
*
*
+
+
10
Neutron
+

(Essentially) qualitative use +Semi quantitati" uses •Strictly quantitative

1

0、

〉斗

FFFCEm

C

EE4

囡囡出口

EZ

皂白〉戶里」『自

。明建問

E

ml

@@F FF

F

G. L 二且正L 旦

4

El". K.B.~生一

DF~

Other Services

@

INDUCTION RESISTIVITY ISF SONIC

ml

F

SIMULTANEOUS

N

。6-20" E

P"m Dnum

@

- SONIC

34.43"

El"一一些

ml

, Abo"

。F

SCOTTISH OIL

1.

。。 26'

’。 24'

@

SCOTLAND.

@

OFFSH<] RE

@一@-@

ALPHA

COMPANY

COUNTRY

Le cation

WELL

FIELD

t

lil

i

,、包

HHH

司叫叫

〉2

EDU

--」叫司

吋叫

naEEEra

叫叫到制叫︱︱!」」山軍

J

---

-←〈

UO

izo

ZL

」〈

Hh

』。。」山-

U

〉但←

ZD

〈」』﹝

Z

OU

Zmz4

口〉→〉

mDC

mo2E

asa

@耳

aEOHEEl

--

-司司。。『

BCZEgE

Oz

EV

--叩

III

--

U

.→

mL

EireLEES

-『耳刮

-霉。-訶剖副司刮到計

。=一

-〈-『

ZBEe

r一卜→一←→-

1

f

2

4

WAHMV

ANP

4

4

Mwnam

hd

MMP

-回過叫

m

URJM

NOMMH

缸,也鈕,自由當

喝一

「←

Mm

zm

寓@

AH

hp4

aF

------

----一-

Z

「白自由-

血口〉→》

EI

2

E

E2

3

神@『-=咀「︱心陶門自。

「︱︱︱︱恤圍旭扭巴山戶

←←→一卡→一』

-草一

也區惜隍旭

L

--”一旦

1l

SXESaz

U 2

2

。一

ωE

UzE3a

且一-吉

H

」咀、

d

4

a

M

-一一閻“商

。@臼仲@且@《

一-一

。。

a

。。﹒

2mZ

aeawu

”。

ZTnmOHNH

怕崗恤岫恤

MM

Gmead

閉目自〉

h

阻隔

~

Jt

H

「鬥

一一-----“←--一哼一一÷一一←

ιL午 J

m

mE

∞計。但已

o

〉司司,一,--

z

E

ιL午 J 開 叫 囡 ” m mE ∞計。但已 『 o 〉司司,一,-- ∞ z - E

INTRODUCTION

7

One final aspect of the log grid to note is the 正lashed

outside border on field log, (Figure 1. 7). Each dash

represents one minute, regardless of log scale The presentation allows a drrect control of loggmg speed and, indirectly, log quality. Every log grid is preceded by a comprehensive log heading. It covers all aspects which allow the proper interpretation of the log and, in addition, identification

of the well, ri臣, logger and logging unit. The log heading illustrated (Figure 1. 的 is but one example, each cnm- pany having rts own format. On the log tail is found a repetition of some of the log head data,但mply for convenience Calibration data is also added to the log tail,' s are short, doubled up or repeat sections which act as samples for empirical quality control.

1.6 The logging companies

The well-loggrng world is dominated by one, extreme > ly successful, giant international company Schlumberger. In America a number of other compan- ics exist but in many par ts of the world Schlumberger has a quasi-monopoly The reasons for this dommation are partly historical it was Frercs Schlumbcrger who created the original SPE (Societ6 de Prospection Electnque) in 1926, the precursor or the modem Schlumberger. The brothers, along with H. G. Doll, were the creators of the well-loggmg technique. The mternatronal forum is becoming slightly more competitive, and in America smaller companies are active However, three names stand out rn the general logging field apart from Schlumberger: Gearhart, Dresser Atlas, and Welex.

1.7 Well間log interpre阻 tion and uses

The accepted user of the well log is the petrophysi目前 Hrs mterest is strictly quantitative From the logs, a petrophysicist will calculate porosity, water satu- ration, moveable hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon density and so on, all the factors related to quantifying the

amount of hydrocar hons in a reservoir for estimates of

1eserves.

The

Society

of

Professional

Well

Log

Analysts (SPWLA), the principal society of log in- terprele凹, is mamly composed of petrophysicists. Reservoir rocks, however, c01npr的c perhaps only

15% of a typical well, and of this 15% only a small

percentage actually contams hydrocarbons

physicist is therefore not interested in 85% or more of the well logs recorded. The exploration geologist, in contn 阻 t, should be interested in 100% of well logs ,制 the amount of geological information they contain is enormous The geophysical measurements made during logging are sensitive, accurate and characteristic of the for』 mation logged However, to those familiar with the aspect of rocks t阻 seen at outcrop, the geophysical signatures of thrs selfsame rock in the subsurface are impossible to imagine. To an experienced geological analyst of well logs, the revcrse is true. A forlI\ation that he can instantly identify on the logs, even to the nearest metre, l凹的 hard put to find, even tentatively, at outcrop. In the following pages it is intended to relate the outcrop more closely to the wireh帥, geophysical well log. Logs can and should be interpreted in terms meanmgful at outcrop. They contain as much infor自 mation as does an outcrop, but can be studied conveniently at the desk.

The petro-

1.8 Thrs book--;iims and content

Table 1.2 shows the logs considered in this book, and their。 principal applications, which have been divided into qualitative, semi-quantitative and strictly quanti tative, although there is an increasing tendency to treat modern logs as simply repr esentmg a set of analytical values. A sample set of over 100 000 values for a well of 2000 m represents an enormous quantr tivedatabase. Semi-statistical, quantitative or quasi-quantitative me thods applied to this database can bring precision to interpretatio且, as applied to geological problems.

2 The logging environment

2.1 Introduction

Treated simply as an instmment of measurement, a

to give a true,

repeatable readmιand to make the reading of a

representati惘, undisturbed sample of the subsurface

format10n For the following reasons, neither of these ideals can be realized The first is that the undisturbed formation environ- ment is irrevocably disturbed by drilling a well. The new drill > c1 eated conditions are those in which the loggmg tools work. A tool can only guessat the original states This chapter examines what is involved in this guess, in terms of drilling pressure, drilling temperature and mvasion The second reason 1s that the ideal conditions for a perfect geophysical measurement cannot be met in borehole logging methods. Ideal conditions would require a logging tool to be motionless for each individual measurement, and to have a sensor of zero dimensions measurmg a pomt sample Sensors have dimensions and tools move. Tool design acknowledges this, and a compromise is made between a practical and practicable measurement and one that is perfect. This chapter will also examine, in general terms, the effects of the logging method on the measurements made. The notions of depths of investigation, mini』 mum bed resolution and bed『boundary definition will be discussed.

logging tool is required to do two things

2.2 The pressure envirnnments of borehole logging and

1nvas1on

The pr的 sure environment durmg dnlling and, in > evitably, during loggi 峙, is made up of an interplay between two elemen缸, formation pressure and dnllmg-mud column pressure The format10n pre阻 ure is the pressure under which the subsurface formation fluids and gases are confined. The pressure of the drilling mud is hy- drostatic and depends only on the depth of a well, that is the height of the mud column, and the mud density. Maintaining the pressure exerted by the column of drilling mud at just a little above the pressure of the subsurface formations encountered is one of the nec咱 自 sities for equilibrium drilling it is a delicate balance The two pressure envnonments are examined below.

Hydrostatic pressure

Fluids transmit pressure peifectly so that the pressure

,,

自由 ted by the column of fluid is dependent simply on the height of the fluid column and the density of the fluid. The pressure in kg in a column of water can be calculated thus:

hei~ht of wa臼 r column (m density (g/cm3)

10

~ pressure (kg) per sq. cm

(1)

For a column of pure water of 2500 m (den 回 ty of pure water = 1.00 g/cm3)

女句“。× 1

10

'

(2)

In oilfield terms, the pressure of a column of fluid may be expressed by l臼 pressure gradient Thus pure water has a gradient of 1 00 g/cm3. That is, a column of pure wa阻r will show a pressure mcrcase of 1 kg/cm2 per 10 m of column (or 1 g/cm2 per cm of column) (Figure 2.1). The term column of water’的 used as applicable to wells: depthis equally applicable and more understandable when talking about water masses, such as the oceans As water becomes more saline, its density increases (Figure 2.2). Water which has a salinity of 140 000 ppm

a

(parts per million) of solids (mainly NaCl),

density of 1.09 g/cm3 (at 15.5。C). A column of water of this salinity will have a gradient of 1.09 g/cm3 and at

has

ZT

123

200

400

600

pressure, kg/cm 2

most oilfield brines

800

Figure 2.1 Fluid pres叫 ire gradient' relateo to depth, or height of fluid cclumu.

"

THE LOGGING ENVIRONMENT

9

。 1.15 ν / 。 K> "' / "'' 1.10 ν / E >/ 。
1.15
ν
。 K>
"'
/
"''
1.10
ν
E
>/
、 "',,
/
1.05
/
的 c
//
ω
可0
1
0
~
50
100
150
200
250
x 103

salinity (total solids, ppm NaCl)

Figure 2.2 Gra~h showing the incre<" in water density with inere叫 C in sahmty (NaCl). (From Pirson, 1963.)

2500m will exert a pressure of

2500 x 1.09

- = 272. 5 kg/cm'
10

(3)

Figure 2.1 shows the various gradients for fuids of different densities and the increases with depth. All gradients are shown as linear.

Fοrmatiοn pre咽 urι、

E

zva

hu

。 1 _, 2 3 typical well profile 4 h 0
1
_,
2
3
typical well profile
4
h
0

0

500

1000

pressure, kg/cm2

Figmc 2 3 Formation fluid presrnre increases with depth in a typical

oilfield

the lithostatic (rock) gradients.

well. The p自由 ure varies between the hydrostatic (fluid) and

In most geological basins the pressure at which pore fluids are found mcreases from the normal to mo derately overpressured. Normal pressure is defined as hydrostatic pressure: it is due only to the weight of the flmd column above the formation To calculate normal pressure it is sufficient to know only the depth of the formation and the density of the fluids in the formation. If a formation water has the same salinity as sea water, then the pressure at 1000 min a formation with normal pressure is the same as the pre回ure at the sea floor below 1000 rn of sea water. The graph (Figure 2.1) therefore shows normal pressure gradients for vanous

salinities

Overptessure

is simply

defined 阻 any pressure

above the hydrostatic (or normal) for a particular depth. Thus, if the formation fluids are salty with a

density of 1.09 g/cm3 and the measured formation

over-

pressure, calculated as follows. Normal pressure at 2500 m, fluid density 1.09 g/cm3, from (3)

pressure is 350 kg/cm2 at

2500 血, there is an

2500 × 1.09

10 = 272.5 kg/cm'

Measured pressure at 2500 m = 350 kg/cm2

Overpressure= 350

Overpressure exts臼 for a number of reasons, but in

all cases it means that the formation fluids are being squeezed by the surrounding rocks. It is similar to the

are at

pressu閃閃 g1me in car brakes When the brakes

272.5 = 77.5 kg/cm2

rest, the brake fluid is at normal pressure. Puttmg the

foot on the brake puts the fluid underoverpressure: 1t is being squeezed by the extra pressure of the foot Generally, most wells drilled show a typical subsur- face pressure developmentShallow formations show

or hydrostatic formation pressures there is

no rock squeezing, no overpressure. Deeper into the subsurface slight overpressures are encountered so there is slight squee叩 ng. As the depths increase, so the overpressme incre扭曲 and the formation fluids sup『 port more and more of the rock overburden pressure

(Figu自 2.3).

Ovet pressures can increase up to an empirical maximum called the lithostatic gradient. This gradient, also called the geostatic or overburden gradient, is taken as a convenient gradient representing the pro- bable maximum pressure like_ly to be encountered in a well at any depth. The average gradient f阻quentlyused comes from the Gulf Coast of North America, and in American oilfield units is a gradient of 1 psi/ft (i.e. in metric 2 3g/cm3) and cone沼ponds to an average rock den 月 ty of 2.3 g/cm3 (Figure 2.3) (cf. Levors 凹, 1967). The true lithostatic gradient will in fact vary from well to well, and will depend on the densities of the fqrmations encountered In the example given (Figure 2.4), which is from a well in Germany, the average formation density ts 2.4 g/cm3 (Meyer-Giirr,

'normal

1976).

The average well, therefore, encounters formation pressures somewhere between the normal hydrostatic

l

THE GEOL且 GICAL INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOGS

rock density, g/cm3

2.40

2 00

2.80

Q uT aetr nttr VJ 。 肘+恥 汀 y Cretaceous 1 Jurassic Triassic 2 Permian
Q
uT
aetr
nttr
VJ
肘+恥
y
Cretaceous
1
Jurassic
Triassic
2
Permian

0

500

1000

lithostatic pressure, kg/cm~

Aa

1illω a9vreardJEi -- “ o4sg t ac Hm G3 HZ e 咱刮 抽 / 叫
1illω
a9vreardJEi
--
o4sg
t
ac
Hm
G3
HZ
e
咱刮
/
2

EXRZHaohu

的鬧。」

OE

Flgu<e 2.4 True rock density profile and average lithostatic gradient from a North German well. ﹛R吋 rawn from Meyer GUrr, 1976.)

gradient and the lithostatic gradient (Figure 2.3). In absolute terms this will give usual logging pressures of between about 150 kg/cm2 and 1000 kg/cm2 (2000 psi- 15 000 psi). Most oil自己 ld logging tools are designed to withstand pressures up to a maximum of 1050 1750kg/cm2 (15000-20000psi), signr日cantly above the highest pressure usually encountered.

Inva,ion

drilling pressures

Under rdeal conditions, the pressure exerted by the column of dnlling mud wrll be such that when a porous fot mat10n 1s encountered, as the dnll enters the

一一
一一

depth ~in~si'.:'.'._一

rate of rnvasr。n

一-一

//立山叫:旦旦旦s=._一一一一

10

100

1000

10 000

time {min after penetration)

Figure 2.6 Graphic 阻 pre,entation(schematic)。!invasionand mud『

rake build-up as a porous formation is penetrat吋( modified from Dewan, 1983).

formation, mud will be forced into it (Figure 2.5). The porous rock will then begin to act as a filter, separating the mud into i臼 liquid and solid constituents. The mud filtrate (the water used to mix the mud) will flow into the format10n, while the sohds (the mud) will form a deposit around the borehole wall once the bit has passed. In the hole just drilled, the solid deposit around the borehole wall, the mud cake, will gradually build up to form a skm over the porous interval Imtially, as the bit enters the porous format10n there is complete disequilibrium and dynamic filtration takes place (Figure 2.6). That is, below and around the bit there is a continuous flow of filtrate into the formation, provided of course that the mud pressure is sufficient. Gradually, as the mud cake builds up, it creates a barrier and the movement of fluids dimin-

impermeable

and filtration practically ceases (Figure 2.6). A cross- section through the borehole at this stage would show

ish間, until finally the mud cake becomes

would show ish間, until finally the mud cake becomes p。r。 us and permeable f。rmallon cake med

p。r。 us and

permeable

f。rmallon

cake med

mc'd llltcoto '""''。n

Figure 2.5 Schematic repre,entalion of dy11amic fillration as a bit enters a porous formation. Note the progre'Sive mud -間 ke build-up.

"'''"''

formatlo內 fluids

INVADED ZONE

dcllllog med

filtrate

mud cake

med

fluids INVADED ZONE dcllllog med filtrate mud cake med dopth of '"'""°" 一 diameter of

dopth of '"'""°"

diameter of

Invasion

Figure 2.7 Invasion: snnple 間 pre,entation of the effe叫 of drilHng on fluids in a porous and permm1ble fonn,tion.

Table 2.J Depth of invasion (distanιe from borehole wall) v. P" rosity (approximate) from Mi,,ch and Albrigl哎, 1967).

Hole

size (in) J

Porosity

%

17!

12*

st

Depth of mvasion

Ratio m 閥割 on diameter

hole diametec

1

8

I 200.0cm · 140。Ocm

97 Ocm

I

10

 

I 90.0cm

620.c血的 Ocm I

5

20

JO

I

22 5cm

15.5cm

11.0cm I

2

 

(2

mud in the hole, mud cake on the borehole wall and then the porous formation now filled almost entirely by mud filtrate. The original formation fluids have been pushed away from the hole (Figure 2.7). This is usually the situation when the open-hole well logs are run. The phenomenon of the replacement of formation fluids by drilling mud filtrnte is called invasion. lnvas10n a叮eels porons and permeable formattons m the immediate vicinity of a borehole. It is described by ‘depth’。 r ‘diameter’ of invas10n, that ts the distance reached by the invading filtrate with r巳spect to the borehole (Figure 2.7). In general, mvaston is small m very porous and permeable formations, the mud cake building up rapidly to block dynamic filtration (Table 2.1). The contrary is the case in poorly perme- able zones, vuggy carbonates or fractured formations, where mud cake formation is slow and invasion may be very deep, up to several metres Since excessive invaston is the worst situation for logging and takes the real formation fluids too far away from the borehole to be detected, chemicals are added to the drilling mud to reduce water loss creating a protective mud cake as quickly as possible. Products such as lignosulphonates and starch are used.

。 2S 4 100 200 300
2S
4
100
200
300

400

tompocatoco, 'c

Figure 2 8 Graph of geothermal gmdients, The zcne of typical oilfield gradients is indicated.

"

THE I且 GG!NG ENVIRONMENr

11

2.3 Temperature environment of borehole logging

Formation temperature"

Normal sedimentary basins show a more or less regular mcrease in temperature with depth

(Figure 2. 8). The increase is not linear as frequently

depicted; it varies according to lithology dep巳nding principally on the latter's thermal conductivtty (see Figu阻 4.1). However, despite the irregularities there is an overall, persistent increase in temperature with depth (Figure 2. 8). This inc間 ase is often expressed as a gradient, the geothermal gradtcnt (the increa田 m temperature with depth). The metric values are usually "C per 100 m or 'C per km. Typical gradients for scdim凹 tary basins are be- tween 2 日 °C per km and 35。C per km (see Chapter 4 and Table 4.2).

Temperatures in borehnles

Just as the geopressure 間 gime is disturbed by drilling, so is the subsurface temperature. A well drilled into a subsmface formation introduces relatively cold mud and mud filtrate into a hot formation. While drilling continues and mud is ctrculatir袍, the formation is cooled slightly and the mud heated. Howev•凹, the mud remains undisturbed in the borehole when circulatton ceases and 1t gradually heats up to reach, or at least approach, the temperature of the surrounding for mation. The two, however, are rarely in equilibnum. Loggmg temperatures taken m the mud are usually measured after only 5 10 hours of mud immobility:

equilibrium is probably approached only after 5 10 days! (Temperature is considered at greater length in Chapter 4.) Typical borehole tools are generally designed to

withstand 但 mperatur目 up to around 200。c (400。F):

this gives a guide to maxima expected during drilling.

2.4 Logging tool capabilities

It was suggested 且 rlier that loggi月 tools should be

able to sense the undisturbed formalton and to make a true measurement of it As indicated, the undisturbed formation environment is forced away from the bore- hole by drillin臣, to be replaced by the invaded zone. Logging tools are therefore designed either to by-passthe invaded zone to reach the undisturbed formation, or to deliberately measure just the invaded zone i扭巳If. That is, they are designed with various capabilities of penetration, called the 'depth of investigation’( see below). Inevitably, such demands on tool design create secondary effec祖. Logging is comparable to photo- graphy with its close-up lenses and long-distance lenses. Close-up logging tools give gieat resolution but little depth of investigation long-distance logging

]2

!HE GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOGS

’,計

2

dist a 凡 ce

4

from

borehole

6

8

100%

50%

SHALLOW INVESTIGATION \叮 nu %\/ Joo • ”, 一 ωca 已。-“ - fsa ω -
SHALLOW INVESTIGATION
\叮
nu %\/
Joo
”,
ωca
已。-“
fsa
ω
-』
ω
UVCOO
徊。但。但

0

2

4

6

8

distance from borehole

。%

100%

50%

。%

Figure 2.9 Illustration of the notion of depth of investigation. Two tools are shown schematically, along with a gm phic representation of formation contribution to their overall signal. E, enutteo·, R, receiver

tools give great depth of investigation but blurred resolution Three inter』related phenomena of logging and log- ging tools are examined below, depth of imestigation, minimum bed resolution and bed boundary definition.

Depth of investigation

Most geophysical logs have an extremely shallow depth of investigation By depth of investigattonwe mean the distance away from the borehole to which the formation 1s having an effect on a tool reading. So- called deepinvestigation is only a mattet of 2-5 m

away from the borehole and

environment of logging tools is therefore from the borehole ttself (shallow investigation) to a distance of

5 m from the borehole wall (deep investn). In general, with tools that subiect the formation to a

into the formation、 The

Table 2 2 Deplh

g副 ion of !he neutrnn tool (mo

<lilied frnm Ser凹, Schlumberger).

inve.sti

of

1979, after

Porosity

(%)

Depth' of

Investigation

(cm)

0

10

20

JO

60.0

34.0

23.0

16.5

呵 C% of !he signal

bombarding signal (Table 1.1), the depth of investi月 gation of the tool depends on the separat10n distance

between the emitter and receiver. For example, with the resistivity tools (Chapter 6), when the emitting and receiving electrodes are very close, the depth of m vestigation is very small (Figure 2.9). The Micro- Inverse Resistivity Tool, with eletrodes 2.54cm (1 in) apart, has such a shallow depth of investigation that it

reads

present). Conversely, the Induction Conductivity Tool, with emitter and receiver 1m (40in) apart, has a depth of investigation which may reach about 5 m The Induction Tool is considered to be the most likely to give the resistivity (in fact, conductivity) of the un- touched formation (Ri). The emitter receiver separation is not the only factor affecting depth of investi耳目的n Necessarily 1t varies with the character bemg measured. Thus for the sonic tools which measure the speed of sound waves in the formation, the waves take the quickest path from emitter to receiver this is generally along the borehole wall (Chapter 8) For nuclear tools, the emitter receiver separation is fixed as a function of the average penetration of gamma rays, neutrons, e峙, the field bemg more or less spherical around the emitter These characteristics will be considered when each tool is described. Finally, depth of investigation also depends on the formation, whether it is suscep!ible to penetration or not. In the case of the neutron tools, for example, a non- porous bed is seento a far greater depth than a porous bed, due to variations in the absorbance of the signal (Table 2.2). In reality, depth of investigation is a very difficult term to fully understand. It is not precise ; a bed is not investigated to a particular point and no further. It is a progress1v.e character, like the radiant heat from a fir We feel the heat near to the fire, but not at some distance away. Can we say exactly at what distance the fire has no more effect? With loggi月 tools, the depth of investigation is more realistically defined as the zone from which x% of the tool reading is derived (Figure 2 9) For instance, the neutron tool figures given above (Table 2. are defined on 90% of the tool signal. This is called the

only the 阻sistivity of the

mud

cake (when

fHE LOGGING ENVIRONMEN1

13

@ SI
@
SI

一一一一→ true resistivity (theoretical)

。一一」 emitter-receiver distance

@
@

short spacing value

(i.e. microlaterol 。 g)

S,

sh 。 rt spacing

tool

t

…叩刊刊刊

( : fJM 刊 HIHHHIH 刊刊
(
:
fJM
HIHHHIH
刊刊

一一/

I -

一/

hFl

jpltr
4

J

long spacing value {i e. induction log)

L, long spacing t0ol

F;gure 210 The elTect o[ minimum bed rernlution on logging-tool 、alues in various scales of interbedding. (1) Fine interbe曲,(司 coars巳 interbedding; (3) single bed boundary (schematic).

Table 2 3 Minimum bed rernlution of some cnmmon tnols under best conditions (modified from Hartmann, 1975)

 

Emitter-to-rece;ver

Mm1mum

spacing

 

bed

 

resolution for

ιtrue' values*

Tool

AHV

n

)

{cm)

(cm)

Microlog

Microlaterolog

1-2

-

2.5

5.0

15.0

20050681115556000000

proximity

111211333224489222

333644888

SFL

Laterolog 3

Laterolog 8

Sonic

Density

SNP CNL

Laterolog 7

Laterolog S

Laterolog D

GR

Induction M

Induction D

40

IOO.O

120.0

*For true' log rnading

geometric factor, and the principle is true for all tools.

Minimum bed res叫ution

(40 in) can resolve beds to give true tool resistiv1t1個 only down to 1.2 m, and then only under ideal conditions Table 2.3 shows some common tools, thei1 emitter自 to-receiver spacings and mmimum bed resolut10n for true valu田 under the best conditions. A bed which is much thinner than a tools emitter-to

1eceiver distance

value indicated on the log for this bed will only be a

percentage of the real reading it should give. The tool

may still be identifiable. Howev凹, the

13666667779OOOOOOO5550OOOOOOOOOOO

takes a global measurement of the format10n between the emitter and the receiver, the thin bed forming only a

small percentage of this (Figure 2.10). The value on the log will depend on the percentage contribution that this thin bed makes to the global measurement An induction log opposite a thin, resistive, limestone bed

in a shale sequence will show a subdued ‘bli中, On a

microlog this becomes a fnlly developed peak (Figure 2.10). In reality, where lithologies vary rapidly

and individual beds are thin, it is only averaged values that appear on the log, especially the logs derived from long spacmg tools The averaged value will tend to approach that of the dominant lithology (Figure 2.10).When the mixture is 50 logs will even give a constant value, but it will be somewhere between the two realvalues (see Hartmann, 1975).

Minimum bed resolution and depth of investigation are intimately related. A tool is only capable of making a true measurement of a bed if the bed is thicker than the emitter receiver distance of the tool (Figure 2.10). Thus, a tool with an emitter recetver distance of 2.54cm (1 in) can resolve beds down to about lOcrn, providing some idea of theff true resistivity. An induct10n log with an emitter receiver dtstance of 1 m

Bed boundary definit的n

A bed, in geology, can be roughly defined as a planar

unit with a homogeneous composition, structure and texture, limited by significant differences of these characters. The limits tend to be abrupt. Well logs are incapable of showing these features because, firstly, a

14 THE GE >LOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOGS

0

GR

0

GR

Om

’。m

{A} MOVEMENT EFFECT

OMOW

」。啊。

(8) DETECTOR EFFECT

WN

-”

E

HO

Figure 2.11 Logging effects oo the gamma ray bed delioition. (A) Sensor or zero length but a long time-comtant. Distortion is due to movement through the time-car st制 1t. (B) Finite size sensor, long time-constant and normal logging speed. Distortion is due to detector size and mo>ement through the time constant. (Modified

from Ser間, 1979.)

pomt sample is not bemg analysed, and secondly, the logging tool is moving

The problem is well illustrated by the effect of logging speed and sensor size on the shape of the gamma ray curve opposite a sharply defined bed (Figure 2.11). The gamma ray log illustrates these effects well because the tool counts discrete events (Chapter 7). The first case illustrates essentially the effect of

zero

dimensions (Figure 2.1 lA). The distortion is due to the averagmg effect of tool movement. A gamma ray tool moving at 50cm/s (too fast) with a sampling count rate of once every 2 seconds will travel 1 m dunng one sampling period. The count will therefore be the average from 1 m of formation Over bed boundaries, half the count will be from bed A and half from bed B. The average value obtained has no real formation equivalent (Figure 2.llA). The averaging effects of a tool readmg are com自 pounded by the fact that sensots have cettain sensiti- v1t1es and are ofa certam size The sample is not a point and the sensor has its own volume. For example, the

gamma

movement on log

values,

the

sensor is

F

n

ray sens凹, which may have a window 3 cm

long in the direction of the tool axis, will receive radiations from a fotmation volume wtth a radius of about 30 cm around the sensor (see Chapter 7). At bed boundari白, radiations will be coming from both beds simultaneously (Figure 2 llB). The actual values re > corded will again have no t巴ealfotmation value equiva > lent. For the gamma ray tool, averaging effects are kept

reasonable 1f the tool moves no more than 30 cm during the sampling period (see Chapter 7) and the sensor 1s shtelded.

When in terpreti月 logs manual旬, and dividing them

into beds, the general tendency is to assume bed boundaiies to be at the point of maximum change of value or maximum slope This may not always repre-

。 23 E ‘五α 呂 4 5
23
E
‘五α
4
5

Frgure 2.12 The effect of blocking on log data. Nole Jhe reallocation of trans1tJOn' valu°'

sent reality, but tt Is a good guide and is consistent

In an effort to deal scientifi品 lly with the bed- boundary problem, logs may be squared ot blocked by computer That is, the computer is programmed to eliminate the averaging that occurs on the logs between beds of different values. Log curves are resolved into

by horizontal

boundaries': they become more bed-likein ap pearance (Figure 2.12). The usual method requir目 the squared log to be a true reflection of the raw log, but with transition zone' or ramps elimmated The exercise is one of reassignment of the transition zone values to pre』designated blocks of real, non-transition values (Griffiths, 1982) (Figure 2.12). The algorithm applied assumes that the original log values are adequate. The method can be applied to several logs simultaneously so that they all become perfectly comparable (Serra and Abott, 1980) and the problems of comparing logs of differing depths of investigation and bed-resolving capabilities are elimmated. A more complex method (Kerzner and Frost, 1984) does not assume that the raw log values are adequate, and tries to compensate for assumed tool deficiencies For instance, it is well known that the SP will only reach its full value and real deflection in 、 ery thick beds (Chapter 5). The more complex blocking method tries to approach this full value from the raw log values using the known tool limitations. The squaring of logs certainly gives a nearer ap- proach to real formation values and formation aspects

zones of constant value, separated

and can .be a great aid to geologi開 l interpretation. However, the methods by which the squaring is done have yet to become standard and accepted. This is in no way a criticism.

2.5 Concl岫 ion

It is suggested in this chapter that, for a proper interpretation, a logging tool is required to make a

THE LOG 口ING ENVIRONMENT

15

true, repeatable geophysical measurement of a for- mation. This was shown in fact to be impossible because of drill-created disturbances (invasion), and because of the logging method itself. However, with a knowledge of typical formation behaviour, typical tool capabilities and log characteristics, 1t is possible, using the right methodology, to reconstruct the specific formation characteristics being shown on the log A projection of this approach will be used in the

following chapters. Each type of individual open-hole log, will be considered and de.<cnbed in terms of the corresponding logging tools capabilities, log charac- terist1cs, their significance in terms of the real fo >- mation and interpretation in common geological terms- in short, the geological interpretation of the individual well logs. Finally, all the logs will be considered collectively and the1t colle也tive interpre tation described.

3 Caliper logs

Caliper tools measure hole size and shape The sim > ple mechanical caliper measures a verllcal profile of hole diameter (Figure 3.1). The more sophisticated Borehole Televiewer or Volumetric Scan gives a 360

two

hole walls

or three-dimensional representation of the bore

3.1 Mechanical calipers

the tools

The mechamcal caliper measur閏 variations in bore-

hole diameter with depth.

made by two articulated arms pushed against the borehole wall. The arms 盯c linked to the cursor of a variable r自istance (Figure 3.2). Lateral movement of the arms is translated into movements of the cursor along the resistance, and hence variat10ns m electrical output. The variations in output are translated into

diameter variations after a simple calibration.

The measuremen臼 are

I size

恃 bit『

I

SHALE

cave};

HARD LIMESTONE

BED

PERMEABLE

特SANDSTONE

IMPERMEABLE

•SANDSTONE

SHALE

Frequently logging tools are automatically equipped with a calip凹, such as the micrologs (Chapter 6) and the density neutron tools (Chapters 9, 10) where the caliper arm is used to apply the measurmg head of the tool to the borehole wall. Sophisticated, dual-caliper tools, such t旭 the Borehole Geometry Tool of Schlumberger, also exist specifically for measuring hole size and volume. This tool contains two mdependent calipers, that 阻, four arms all at right angles. When the two calipers are compared it is possible to form a good idea of hole shape (see below). A gyroscope and compass included in this tool allow hole azimuth and dev1at10n to be measured.

3.2 Log presentations

The caliper log is printed out simply as a continuous value of hole diameter with depth (Figure 3.3). The

DIAMETER

Soale loohe• -

5

H

LE

7

9

11

13

15

bit

,.,

size

,

I

caliper

caved hole'

e

)← 4。n叫

mud cake thickness = callper/2

bad hole' or 'tight spot

Figm·c 3.1 T'e caliper log showing hole diameter: some lypical re., pons目' Limestone, dolom巾, etc. equally applicable.

oallpe< to叫 varia~le reslsta~c 。

AB

oallpe< to叫 varia~le reslsta~c 。 AB 、\\刊 Figure 3.2 Schcmati叩開 liper tool showing the conversion of

、\\刊

Figure 3.2 Schcmati叩開 liper tool showing the conversion of a mechanical movement to an el凹的問 l signal using a variable

r的 istan自. (Adapted from Ser 間, 1979.)

curve is traditionally a dashed line and usually plotted in track L The horizontal scale may be mches of diameter or, in the differential caliper, expressed as increase or decrease in hole diameter about a zero defined by the bit size (Figure 3.3). The ordinary caliper log is accompanied by a reference line indicating bit size. The dual-caliper tools are presented m various formats, only one of which is shown (Figure 3.4). The two hole diameters measured by the two calipers indicated are with the directional elements of tool orientation (pad 1 azimuth), hole deviation and az卜

BS (in) 15 一 25 CALI (in} 一-----一-一-一- 15 25 。 、 / ’ /
BS (in)
15
25
CALI (in}
一-----一-一-一-
15
25
/
/ 、
10
,’
2om
afrn
t
s1
eI2
Z7
b
\ hole size
t
d ame
=

, dlameter=19個

(at arrowhead)

CALIPER LOGS

J7

muth of the deviation An mtegrated hole volume may be added as horizontal ticks on the depth column giving a continuous record of hole volume as an aid to C阻 ing cementing (not on the example).

3 3 Interpretation and us

The simple caliper log records the mechanical response

of formations to dnlling. Where the hole 1s 'on-gauge’,

that 間, has the same size

as the bit which drilled 址, the

formation is coherent and usually quite hard On gaugeholes are frequent in massive limestones and calcareous shales or older, dense formations (Figure 3.1). Holes with a much larger diameter than the bit size are 'cavedor washed out'. That 阻, during deepemng of

the hole, the borehole walls cave 凹, are broken by the 山 ming drill pipe, or are eroded away by the circulating borehole mud. This is typical of shales esp自 iallywhen

young and

calipers are present as in the dual-caltper tools, the shape of the hole can be interpreted If one caliper reads

much larger tha11 the other, caving is more extensive in one particular direction and the hole is oval (Figure 3.4). Oval holes are considered to be typical of iointed formations However, the oval shape from Jointing 1s not the same as that from ordinary caving and hole wear. Caving gives a general oval shape with no particular orientation The two calipers may show different diameters but a similar shape, or the diameter changes may be gradual: these are simply washoutsJointing or fracturing will give an oval shape with abrupt limits and a distinct orientation (Fi直ure 3.5):

nnconsolidated

(Fi伊 re 3.1 ).

When two

DIFFERENTIAL CALIPER N - - -”” ” ”” - 2 (In} 8 。 。 、‘
DIFFERENTIAL
CALIPER
N - - -””
””
-
2
(In}
8
、‘
、、
10
(f志m
20m
、、
、、
ATet
t
s ze
hu
diameter
O=reference
\hole size
diameter = +1 去
(at arrowhead)
"'

Figure 3.3 Presentation of the caliper log: (1), in ordinary Imm叫,(2), in differnntial format

f多

THE GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OP WELL LOGS

E o O E7GHTJ Ft TRF Y GELT B - H BS - - -
E
o
O E7GHTJ
Ft
TRF
Y
GELT
B
- H
BS
-
- -
R
O
M -
- -
』-
DEL
?叫
一一
E
10.00
。。
- _lj. A_Zlj_DS§)一一
-40
360

IL

-

o

-

G

1

these are called ‘b阻 akouts’(Cox, 1983).

It

is e'en

suggested that the orientation of the ‘br開 kout' m 句 be

relative to the cncntatmn of the m1mmum principal

stre閱(Cox, 1983).

Calipers may also show a hole size smalle1 than the bit 回ze. If the log has a smooth profile, a mud』cake build-up is indicated (Figure 3.6R). This is an ex tremely useful mdicator of permeability. Only permc- able beds allow mud-cake b叫 Id-up. The limits of the mud-cake show the limits of the potential 間serv01r Mud-cake thickne,g can be estimated from the caliper by dividing the decrease in hole size by two (the caliper g1vmg hole diameter), i

bit size Jdiam.)

caliper reading (diam.)

2

~mud-cake tluckne>S

It should be remembered that this thickness may vary

between tools. A caliper on the density tool is applied harder to the formallon than the caliper of a micro回log:

the former probably causes a groove in the cake and gives a thmner, log-denvcd mud-cake thickness. Holes smaller than the bit size, but rugose, are

probably sloughed (Figure 3.6A). The zones of small

hole will be the tight spots during drillin耳, trips or

logging. That i吭 it will be at these points that tools stick or the bit gets stuck while being pulled out of the hole. A frequent cause of tight spots is abundant smectite in the clay mmeral mixture. Smectite is a swelling clay which takes water from the drilling mud, expands, breaks from the formation and sloughs into the hole

2. WASHOUTS

Hole diam副研 Hole dlamete『 275 Ff: 275 mm 150 150 ︱』 ︱日 J’ 、,I I
Hole diam副研
Hole dlamete『
275 Ff:
275
mm
150
150
︱』
︱日
J’
、,I
I
、J豆’
'
./)
h ’
~,,、』,’Y、:'.
恥、-
‘、、、
 

360110 000

0

C1

(in }

24.0

4.0

5 azimuth hole 10 caliper PAD 1 {reference) azimuth E 15 f 主三 -0. ©
5
azimuth hole
10
caliper PAD 1
{reference) azimuth
E
15
f
主三
-0.
©
'O
20
'
25
30

Figure 3 4 Borehole explanation).

geometry

log

pr的 entall on (see text for

1. BREAKOUTS

geometry log pr的 en tall on (see text for 1. BREAKOUTS Hole diameter mm 275 1SOI

Hole diameter

mm

275

1SOI

tall on (see text for 1. BREAKOUTS Hole diameter mm 275 1SOI Figure 3.5 Hole size

Figure 3.5 Hole size enlargement seen on the four-arm dual caliper. (1 ),‘ Breakout• ’, orienterl 明 ell-defined diffe•ences in calipers, due to fraclure'; (2), washouts, c'hpcrs show diffiαent diameter but similar shape (left)。r gradual diameterchang閱( right) due to general h'le d前凹的 ration. Hole diameler inc.-ease• right Io left. (From Cox, 1983).

<

、ζ〉

ω

口〉戶】旬開肉

FC

(A) Tight spots a shale squence from sloughing hole due to swelling clays.

sandstones.

simple caliper.

the permeable

on and

porous

opposite seen

build-up d血inution

Hole-size

(B) Mud 3.6 cake

Figure

LITHOLOGY @ ZOHmRut 也 ω @ ω 。- OMW E 旬 』@ 2 a Z
LITHOLOGY
ZOHmRut
ω
ω
。-
OMW
E
』@
2
a
Z
旬切
。』。已
8 CALIPER inches 16 ,QQm 6 2 I l、‘ 自 bit- ,例 ~caliper size 」
8
CALIPER
inches
16
,QQm 6
2
I
l、‘
bit- ,例 ~caliper
size
8
1I ;2
1電 -~ι
/
/
.
mud -『一『’.
cake
"
\
I
\ '
(
2
525m
\
\
~
i
LITHOLOGY
LITHOLOGY
~ bit size DIFF. CALIPER inches 2 8 。 --•- 色乞~ ., caliper 『「~色 /
~
bit size
DIFF.
CALIPER
inches
2
8
--•-
色乞~ .,
caliper
『「~色
/
~ )/
900
I
可辱
I.” ,、 -= 卜\\
、、、 ︱\
『 一-- 悟,
-也『.’, -
「、:
.~ -、-』’. -- <
『」﹒
’,
卡/
-‘,-
l/
阿三
/
Vv
三';-
/
/
fl
/ v
~ L-----'
~
仁/
電'""'‘
~
~::.一‘‘':.:.萬句'- -
950
主F-
可J
有L
------ "'""-

~

令J 0

MW

J

甸回尚可司〉(

EH

MZH

口〉們

〈開鬥

4EZCMwd

自由口問。門口

FFbE

HOLE CREATED

HOLE CREATED

FORMATION

NOT REAL

VALUES

TROUGHS

Figure 3 7 Poar hnle conditions and caving er且 t聞耳目 nes of poor data quality where log readings do nat repment real formation values. The

auto 血缸 ic density correction derived from the calip叮 is 血 suff101阻 t to compensate far the large caves at around 700 m. The density and sonic logs

sugg 臼 t a formation change at 690 曲, but the interval is homog 血叩 us from top ta bottom, be田 g poorly consolidated cl叮/晶晶 es

0.1 2.2116021

1 35 g/cm3

DENSITY LOG

0 1

CORRECT !。 N

,屯 .f , d c--

, <_,

馬z、 ' - > . -~ , -''

mud dens前y -

f,一2 i

0

d一

'

:

:

--

Ill

>

33 ii7

戶,一…

P

--

CALIPER

串戶

me hes

EE

rT

jpphEh

IITili

十川,已

uhLLE

12

--

/

cave 一

。=一〉咽。

15

650m

700m

立科《值。旬

DENSITY L。G s。NIC LOG g/cm3 µ!ft 90 TROUGH
DENSITY L。G
s。NIC LOG
g/cm3
µ!ft
90
TROUGH

The Gulf Coastιgumbo ’, which often causes hole problems, is smectite-rich Finally, an extremely important use for the caliper is in the quality control of logs When caving is serious,

the quality of all the logs Is impaired In some tools, such as the formation-density or the neutron-poros1旬, the caliper reading is used for an automatic hole-size correction or compensat10n Caving will demand m『 ordinately large corrections and the log values will be

befo1 e

of httle use. It 1s essential to venfy the cahpe1 consulting the other logs (Figure 3.7).

3.4 Three-dimen叫 onal calipers

Two- and thr田-dimensional representations of the borehole wall are possible with very specialized tools. The original tool was called the Borehole Telev1ewer. Modifications of this tool now exist, but the basic principles of measurement remam the same The televiewer tool uses a rotating acoustic trans- ducer to produce an acoustic image of the borehole wall. The transducer is pulsed 480 times per revolution and is rotated 36 tim臼 per 30 cm (1 ft) of depth. Its speed of rotation is 3 revolutions per second, i.e a logging speed of 5 ft/min (Brodin 宜, 1982). For each pulse, both the amplitude of the returning signal and the travel time a間 detected and recorded The original telev1ewer tool used the amplitude variat10ns of the reflected signal to modulate the mtensity of a horizon- tal oscilloscope sweep A polaroid photograph was produced of the successive depth sweeps, each photograph covering 1.5 3 m of borehole. Under ideal conditions th臼 e photographs give a good image of the borehole wall (Taylor, 1983). However, a continuous image may be produced by digitizing the borehole signals (Hinz and Schepers, 1983; Pasternack and

'

CALIPER LOGS

2J

Goodwill, 1983). Digitizing also allows the image to be processed and improved. A new improvement of the televiewer is the Volumetric Scan Well log (Brodin 臣, 1982). Instead of just one data point, at each scanning point round the borehole, the new method now analyses a whole series. The number of data points is vastly increased~the Volumetric Scan tool takes 512 samples per scan point and 512 scans per 360°

revolution. It makes 36 rotations per 30 cm (1 ft). There are thus 9.4 × 106 data samples per foot's opposed to

the 1.7 x

(Broding, 1982). The Volumetric Scan tool is now able to present a continuous record of data using a fibre-optics cathode』 ray tube. A simultaneous record is made of both the amplitude and the transit time of the returned pulses,

and logs of each can be presented simultaneously The grey scale of the caliper (1 e. transit time) repr剖開 ts

distance: near is whi阻, far is

reflectance repeats signal magnitude white is high, low is black With modern recordmg and storing tech- niques, the images from the Volumetric Scanning tool can be enhanced and then displayed in a series of orientations from the horizontal slice (Plate 1) to tilted at vanous degrees to the vertical The results are impressive. The appheat10ns of the sp間 alized televiewer or 3 dimensional calipers are restricted and they should only be used over selected mtervals. They are ideal for casing inspeetion for reasons of data quality (Brodin 皂, 1984). However, under reasonable hole conditions it is

found that they are extremely useful tools fo1 mappmg and identifying fractures in open holes (see Keys, 1979; Taylor 1983). There is even the possibility of seeing dip and other maior structural features under the right conditions. For some reason the tool haR not been taken up by the larger logging companies, but it should be used more widely.

104 data samples in the televiewer tool

black. The grey scale of the

4 Temperature logging

A knowledge of borehole temperatures is becoming

increasingly important. It has always been a prere quisite for accurate log calculation but, with the development of more precise geochemistry, a know- ledge of temperature is becoming necessary for source rock and matunty studies.

4.1 Geotemperalure清

The temperature of the earth usually increases with

depth, and, as a result, we can conclude that thermal energy flows from the earths interior to the surface. A well drilled into the earth, therefore, shows a persistent rise in temperature with depth This persistent rise is usually expressed in terms of a temperature gradrnnt, that is in °C increase per kilometre of depth (°F/100 的

as

Figure 2.8).

has

heen

previously

discussed

(Chapter 2 and

Geothermal gradient, G =旦旦旦 ti旦二旦且豆 Depth

T~mm >山 on = format10n temperature

T~"""" = average,

mean,

temperature (i.e.

+5 。C cold zones ﹔ 15。C temperate zones,

25 。C tropical zon臼)

surface

(or

sea bottom)

5°C permafr。此,

Thus, for a well in a temperate zone (T, = 15°C) which gives a maximum bottom hole temperature (BHT) of 鉤。c at 3000 m, the geothermal gradient is

80

15

G =→了一= 216。C/km (or 216"C/100m)

This is an average gradient and assumes a linear increase in temperature with depth This is true 111 a homogeneous medmm However, in detail, the geo- thermal gradient depends on a formation's thermal conductivity (the efficiency with which that formation

transmits heat 凹, in the case of the earth, permits heat

keeps heat in

and has a low thermal conductivity. Salt, conversely is

very efficient, lets heat escape rapidly and therefore has

a high thermal conductivity. Table 4.1 gives some

ranges of thermal conductiv山的 fortypical lithologies.

When a rock with high thermal conductivity is

encountered, it will show a low thermal gradient. That

is, the rate of temperature increase (or rather decrease

upwards if we think in terms of cooling) will be low. In

loss). Shale, like a blanket, is inefficient ; it

shales, where the passage of heat is slow, the gradient will be higher. In other words a blanket of shale would

'

T•ble 4.1 Ranges or thermal ccnductivity ,.Jue' for some typical lithclogi" (frnm Serra, 1979, and G且 rhart, 1981).

Rock type

Thennal conductiv拙的

(CGS × 103)

Coal, lignite

0.33

I

Shale

2 4

Chalk

2 3

Porous limestcne

2.4

5

Compact

limestcne

5 8

Sand

Salt

3 12.2

3 15(14.3)

&

g

"'

Basall

Granilc

4 7

5 8.4

keep us warm at night while a blanket of salt would not! Thus, the real temperature gradient 111 a well is not a straight line but a series of gradients related to the thermal conductivities of the vanous strata, the gra dient varying mversely to the ther.mal conductivity (Figure 4.1). In oilfields, temperature gradients vary from the extremes of 0.05°C/km (0.3°F /100 to (4.7"F/100的 although typical figures are 20° 35。C/km (Table 4.2, Figure 4.2). Variations in thermal gradient are not just a result of different thermal conduct1v1t1es, they are also a result of differences in heat flow, or the amount of heat that enters the strata from the earths interior and flows out again Thermal gradient, because of variations in thermal conductivity, varies independently of ht flow. The actual temperature 111 a well, therefore, depends not only on lithology but also on the heat-flow value for the an Notions of temperature variations with depth and with position in a basin may be expressed in map form, using contours of equal geothermal gradients σ1gure 4.2). The temperature differenc臼 m a basin may also be expressed by isotherms (lines of constant temperature) plotted for a constant depth or, con- versely, ,lines of depth for a constant temperature Isotherms may also be used on geological sections (Figure 4.3),

C/km

4.2 Borehole temperature me滴surement

Every individual logging run should be accompamed by a reading of the maximum temperature in the

'

TEMPERATURE LOGGING

23

7/3 TE 鬥P ER 向 TURE I DEG. C l 10 " 60 80 IOO
7/3
TE 鬥P
ER 向 TURE
I DEG.
C
l
10
"
60
80
IOO
'"
t‘。
‘ ‘
500
1000
ISOO
’、、 \27
8 OEO.C IK”a
工← 白的山區」 nL F 凶EL 山口 】
工←
白的山區」
nL
F
凶EL