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INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN ADDING

DISSIMILAR FRACTIONS

A Thesis

To be presented to the College of Education

City College of San Fernando, Pampanga

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics

Culala, Ma. Estrella P.

Herrera, Justine D.

Juico, Daryl J.

Sudla, John Paul N.


CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The Problem and Its Background

According to the study, A Componential View of Children's

Difficulties in Learning Fractions by the University of Cambridge (2013),

“Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and

operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply

procedures they do not fully understand.”

This procedural difficulty in learning fractions has been a problem in

teaching mathematics since the dawn of civilization. This study aims to

shed more light into the factors that make learning fractions difficult. In

view of this, a development of ways to reinforce or even rethink current

teaching methods regarding fractions is necessary especially in the

Philippine context.

To ensure the accuracy of the study, the researchers have decided

to focus on a single lesson: Adding dissimilar fractions. In doing so,

hopefully the introduction of video instructional materials lead to pupils

appreciation of adding dissimilar fractions, and the results of the exercises

will be much improved.


Statement of the Problem

This study aims to assess and determine the common errors of

Grade Six (6) pupils in adding dissimilar fractions and to prepare

Instructional Materials to address the students’ common errors in the

subject. Specifically, the following questions will be answered in the study:

1. What are the common errors of the Grade 6 pupils in Adding

Dissimilar Fractions?

2. What instructional materials can be prepared to correct the

common errors of Grade 6 pupils in adding dissimilar fractions?

3. What are the feedbacks of the Grade 6 pupils on the instructional

material?

3.1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the material?

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework focuses on the concepts of the fractions

that should be emphasized in adding dissimilar fractions.

According to the study of Josie Carreno of Yale National Initiative,

Yale University (2018), “Fractions are hard, plain and simple! Many of my

students fear working with fractions. I hear the moans and groans and see
the look of fear when I write on our class agenda that we will be studying

fractions. Not only are they fearful, but they have zero memory of what

they have learned about fractions in previous years. I hear the "we never

learned that" or "I don't remember seeing that". Sound familiar? I KNOW

they have been taught about fractions because it is part of our state and

district objectives in the lower grade levels. Through reading the research

on fractions, I found that this was a common theme. Fractions (rational

numbers) are complex; however, they are important for students to

understand. Up until now I have focused too much on the procedural way

of teaching fractions. My students do not understand how fractions work.

They are lacking in the conceptual view of fractions. I have come to

realize that I need to focus first on the conceptual view of fractions and

then I can proceed to procedural skills”.

Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output

Pre-test on Administer Pre- Prepared


dissimilar test and Post- Instructional
fractions: test on: Materials in
addressing the
 Adding  Adding common errors
Proper Proper of the Grade 6 Dry - run
Fractions Fractions pupils in adding resultsn
 Adding  Adding dissimilar
Improper Improper fractions.
fractions Fractions
 Adding  Adding
Mixed Mixed
Numbers Numbers

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


Figure 1 shows how the study will be conducted. The study will

determine the common errors of the Grade 6 pupils in adding dissimilar

fractions involving Proper Fractions, Improper Fractions, and Mixed

Numbers. To achieve the purpose of the study, pre-test and post-test on

three types of fractions will be conducted. The result of the tests will be the

basis of the researchers in preparing Instructional Material on teaching

adding dissimilar fractions in order to address the pupils’ common errors.

Assumptions

The study assumed the following:

That the results of the Grade Six (6) Pupils pre-test and post-test in

adding dissimilar fraction Test are true measures to determine their

strengths and weaknesses, the response of Grade Six (6) pupils in the dry-

run reflect honest assessment of the instructional materials prepared.

Importance of the study


This study is significant to the following stakeholders:

To students

This study is significant to students especially those who have

difficulties in adding dissimilar fractions. The instructional material (Video

Presentation) prepared in this study may address the common errors of

the Grade 6 pupils.

To teachers

The teachers will benefit from this study because they may be

able to use the instructional material (Video Presentation) that were

prepared by the researchers in addressing common errors of Grade 6

pupils in adding dissimilar fractions and it will also give them a valid

reference in coming up different techniques and strategies in teaching

fractions.

To education

This study is significant to education especially to the

curriculum developers of K-12 program because it may help them to

discover the common errors of the pupils in adding dissimilar fractions and

find solution through the use of instructional material (Video Presentation).

To the future researchers


This study provides information about the common errors of

Grade 6 pupils in adding dissimilar fractions. Other researchers can

conduct similar research in addressing the common errors of Grade 6

pupils in adding dissimilar fractions using the prepared instructional

material (Video Presentation).

This research may serve as the basis for the possible studies

regarding the development of instructional materials to address the

difficulties of Grade Six (6) pupils in solving involving fractions.

Scope and Limitations of the study

This study focused on the Grade Six (6) pupils’ skills in adding Proper

Fractions, Improper Fractions, and Mixed Numbers. This study is limited to

determining the common errors of the Grade Six (6) pupils in adding

dissimilar fractions and preparing instructional materials that may address

the problem.

Definition of Terms

For a better understanding of the study, the following terms were

defined as follows:
Dissimilar Fraction – operationally, it refers to the three skills of pupils in

adding proper fractions, improper fractions, and mixed numbers

measured by a 30-item pre-test and post-test.

Proper Fraction – operationally, It refers to the 10-item questions in the pre-

test and post-test.

Improper Fraction – operationally, it refers to the 10-item questions in the

pre-test and post-test.

Mixed Numbers – operationally, It refers to the 10-item questions in the pre-

test and post-test.

Instructional Materials – operationally, instructional materials refer to the 4

materials prepared by the researchers which are based on the results of

the pre-test.