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Gas welding Manual metal arc welding

2 Brief description Brief description
The heat source is a flame which is produced with the acetylene (C2H2) fuel The heat source is an arc which burns between a covered stick electrode
4 gas and oxygen (O2). The gases flow through the welding torch in a volume (welding filler) and the workpiece. The arc melts the base material
ratio of 1:1. After ignition, chemical reactions of these gases with each other completely (at temperatures above 5,000°C). At the same time, the core
produce a flame which exhibits a reducing flame zone closely behind the 3 rod (frequently mild steel) and covering of the stick electrode melt off in
1 5
10 flame cone. The maximum temperature is 3,200°C. Acetylene constituents the form of droplets. The covering consists of mineral substances and/
are burned completely in the flame envelope with 1.5 parts of atmospheric or cellulose. It has the tasks of improving the conductivity of the arc gap,
oxygen in addition. The welding flame is guided along the groove and of protecting the weld pool from the ingress of air by forming gases and
completely melts the areas to be joined. At the same time, a welding rod slag and of incorporating the required alloying elements into the weld pool.
3 (welding filler) is introduced into the molten zone by hand and fills the 2 The type of covering substances also has an influence on the welding
welding groove when it melts off. The flame zone exerting a reducing effect 9 behaviour with regard to the welding current type, the droplet size, the
5 envelops the weld pool until it solidifies and protects it from the influence of air. 6 weld pool viscosity, the welding position and the slag removability. The
4 stick electrode covering is selected according to the welding task.

7 Areas of application
Areas of application
Universal joint welding in all positions on thin-walled sheets and pipes
8 made of alloyed and mild steels with thicknesses up to 6 mm; preferably in
Mild and alloyed steels, sheets, sections and pipes; workpiece thickness
pipeline construction, bodymaking and in the installation field as well as for 7 as from 3 mm in all positions, even in building site conditions; in metal,
repair welding work; due to the separately controllable complete melting of pipeline and tank construction, mechanical engineering as well as metal-
the base material and the melting-off of the welding rod, it can be used for working plants.
the manufacture of defect-free welds even in the event of imprecise weld 8
9 preparation.
5 Typical welding data
Typical welding data Stick electrodes: Ø 2.0 - 2.5 - 3.2 - 4.0 - 5.0 mm,
length: 250 – 450 mm
Gas consumption: approx. 100 l/h of acetylene and oxygen per
mm of workpiece thickness (the consumption Welding current: amperage according to the data
of gases is dependent on the flame size) from the manufacturer

Deposition rate: up to 0.5 kg/h Deposition rate: up to 3.5 kg/h


1 Oxygen cylinder with pressure regulator 4 Acetylene hose 7 Welding nozzle 10 Flashback arrestor 1 Mains connection 4 Welding power return lead 7 Workpiece clamp
2 Acetylene cylinder with pressure regulator 5 Welding torch 8 Welding flame 2 Welding power source 5 Stick electrode holder 8 Workpiece
3 Oxygen hose 6 Welding rod 9 Workpiece 3 Welding power supply lead 6 Covered stick electrode 9 Arc

Gas-shielded metal arc welding Tungsten inert gas welding

5 Brief description 2 Brief description
4 2 1
The welding installation consists of the welding power source, the shielding The heat source is an arc. It burns between a non-consumable tungsten
gas supply, the wire feed device, the control unit and the hose package 3
electrode (which is clamped in the welding torch) and the workpiece. In
with the welding torch. The shielding gas, the welding current and, as the the case of manual welding, the filler material is guided into the arc by
3 welding filler, a wire electrode are supplied to the welding torch through the hand and is melted off there. The inert shielding gas (consisting of noble
hose package. The welding current is conducted into the wire electrode gases such as argon or helium) flowing out of the welding torch protects
via a sliding contact in the contact tube of the welding torch. This results in 5 the glowing tungsten electrode, the weld pool and the adjacent material
an arc visibly burning between the electrode and the workpiece. The wire regions from the effect of air. The thermal load-bearing capacity of the
electrode melts off in the form of droplets. The supply of the welding current tungsten electrode is limited. For this reason, it is not possible to achieve
immediately in front of the arc makes it possible to apply a high amperage any high deposition rates with this welding process.
to the wire electrode (e.g. a wire electrode with a diameter of 1.0 mm and a
9 current-carrying capacity of 40 220 A). Both thin and thick cross-sections
can thus be joined in a defect-free and economically viable way. When 10 Areas of application
non-ferrous metals are welded, the weld pool is protected from the ingress
4 Mild and alloyed steels, aluminium, copper, titanium and nickel materials
of air by inert shielding gases (noble gases such as argon or helium). The
process is then called metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Active shielding gases as well as other non-ferrous metals; can be used in all positions; on
6 (carbon dioxide or mixtures consisting of argon and carbon dioxide and/or components with thicknesses between 0.5 mm and 5 mm (in the case of
oxygen) are used when mild and alloyed steels are welded. The process is thicker workpieces, only the root layers are executed with this process);
then called metal active gas (MAG) welding. utilisation in aerospace technology, precision mechanics, apparatus and
7 9 6 boiler construction as well as installations for the food sector. The shielding
10 8
gas coverage is disturbed by side wind. Therefore, welding cannot be
Areas of application 11 12 carried out in building site conditions.

Mild and alloyed steels (MAG) as well as aluminium and other non-ferrous
metals (MIG); can be used in all positions, on components with thicknesses Typical welding data
between 0.6 mm and 100 mm; side air may disturb the shielding gas
coverage (welding in building site conditions is problematical); wide area of Welding current: direct current in the case of steel, copper,
application, e.g. for the manufacture and repair of motor vehicles as well as titanium and nickel, alternating current in the
in structural steel engineering, metal construction, mechanical engineering case of aluminium, amperage: up to 250 A
and apparatus construction. with an electrode diameter of 4 mm

1 Mains connection Shielding gas volume: 10 – 15 l/min

2 Welding power source Typical welding data 8
3 Wire electrode spool Deposition rate: up to 0.5 kg/h
Wire electrode: common Ø 0.8 – 1.0 – 1.2 – 1.6 mm
4 Shielding gas cylinder with pressure regulator
wire feed speed: up to 15 m/min
5 Shielding gas hose
6 Hose package Welding amperage: up to 460 A with a wire electrode diameter of
7 Welding power return lead 1.6 mm, direct current or alternating current 1 Mains connection 5 Welding power lead/shielding gas supply 9 Workpiece clamp
8 Workpiece clamp 2 Shielding gas cylinder with pressure regulator 6 Welding power return lead 10 Workpiece
Deposition rate: up to 7 kg/h
9 Welding torch 3 Shielding gas hose 7 Welding torch 11 Arc
10 Arc 4 Welding power source 8 Tungsten electrode 12 Welding rod

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