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CITIZENSHIP AND IMMIGRATION

Lyceum of the Philippines University - College of Law


Summer 2019
Atty. Ruben S. Ayson Jr.

Course objectives

1. Give the students a firm grasp of the principles of Citizenship and Immigration Law
2. Foster critical thinking on issues and current events related to the topics under the subject

Course methodology

1. There will be graded recitations, assignments, and examinations


2. Recitation, assignments, and examinations will cover provisions of the Constitution, relevant
laws, and jurisprudence

Class policies

1. Questions from students relating to the lesson are encouraged


2. The assigned cases must be read for recitation and examination purposes
3. Exams will be in essay form
4. Keep absences and tardiness to a minimum
5. No textbook is required (Students are free to choose the reference they will use)
6. Cellphones and other gadgets must be turned off or put into silent mode during class

Grading system:
25% - Recitation, quizzes, assignments
70% - Final Exam
5% - Attendance
Passing grade- 60%

CITIZENSHIP
A. Who are entitled to constitutional protection
Citizenship and alienage
Cases: Qua Chee Gan vs. Deportation Board, 9 SCRA 27 (1963)
Harvey vs. Defensor-Santiago, 162 SCRA 840 (1988)
Yu vs. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364 (1989)
Board of commissioner (CID) vs. Dela Rosa et al., 197 SCRA 853 (1991)

B. Who are Filipino citizens

Philippine Citizenship under 1935 Constitution


Philippine Citizenship under 1973 Constitution
Philippine Citizenship under 1987 Constitution

i. Definition of citizenship
Cases: Moy Yu Lim Yao vs. Commissioner of Immigration 41 SCRA 292 (1971)
Aznar vs. COMELEC, 185 SCRA 703 (1990)
Angat vs. Republic, 314 SCRA 438 (1999)
Bengson III vs. Cruz, 357 SCRA 545 (2001)
Tan Co vs. Civil Registrar of Manila, 423SCRA 426 (2004)
ii. Elements of citizenship
Case: Tan Chong vs. Secretary of Labor G.R. No. 47616, September 16, 1947
iii. Importance of citizenship
Cases: Elizabeth Lee vs. Director of Lands G.R. No 128195, October 3, 2001
Cabiling vs. Commissioner Fernandez, G.R. No. 183133, July 26, 2010
Go vs. Republic, G.R. No. 202809, July 2, 2014
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iv. Natural born citizens
Cases: Limkaichong vs. COMELEC G.R. Nos. 178831-32, April 1, 2009
Kilosbayan vs. Ermita G.R. No. 177721, July 3, 2007
v. Naturalized citizens
Cases: Sobejana-Candon vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 198742, August 10, 2012
Maquiling vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 195649, April 16, 2013
vi. Stateless persons and Foundlings
Case: Poe-Llamanzares vs. COMELEC G.R. No. 221697, March 8, 2016
David vs. Senate Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 221538, September 20, 2016

vii. Dual citizenship and dual allegiance


Cases: Mercado vs. Manzano 307 SCRA 630
Lopez vs. COMELEC, G.R. no. 182701, July 23, 200
Petition for leave to resume practice of Law Benjamin M. Dacanay, B. M.
No. 1678, December 17, 2007
Jacot vs. Dal, G.R. no.179848, November 27, 2008
Japzon vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 180088, January 19, 2009
Cordora vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 176947, February 19, 2009
viii. Natural-born citizens and public office
Cases: Sobejana-Candon vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 198742, August 10, 2012
Maquiling vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 195649, April 16, 2013
Arnado vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 210164, August 18, 2015
Chua vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 216607, April 5, 2016
C. Modes of acquiring citizenship
Case: Tecson vs COMELEC 424 SCRA 277 (2004)

i. Jus soli and jus sanguine


Case: Valles vs COMELEC, G.R. No. 137000, August 9, 2000
ii. Election of Citizenship
Case: Cabiling vs. Commissioner Fernandez, 625 SCRA 566 (2010)
iii. Judicial Declaration of Philippine Citizenship
Case: Republic vs. Sagun, G.R. No. 187567, February 15, 2012
iv. Philippine Citizenship by Naturalization
Qualifications and Disqualifications for naturalization
Cases: Republic vs. Ong, G.R. No. 175430, June 8, 2012
Republic vs. Karbasi, G.R. No. 210412, July 28, 2015
v. Effect of naturalization on alien spouse and children
Case: Republic vs. Batugas, G.R. No. 183110, October 7, 2013
vi. Naturalization by presidential decree
Case: Co vs. Civil Registrar, G.R. No. 138496, February 23, 2004
vii. Judicial naturalization
Cases: So vs. Republic, G.R. No. 170603, January 29, 2007
Go vs. Republic, G.R. No. 202809, July 2, 2014
Republic vs. Hung, G.R. No. 212785, April 4, 2018
viii. Administrative Philippine citizenship
Case: Republic vs. Batugas, G.R. No. 183110, October 7, 2013
In the matter of the petition for admission to citizenship of Manish C. Mahtani,
Manish C. Mahtani V. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 211118, March 21, 2018

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ix. OSG Special Committee on Naturalization
Case: So vs. Republic, G.R. No. 170603, January 29, 2007
x. Citizenship proceedings sui generis
Case: Go vs. Ramos, G.R. No. 167569, September 4, 2009

xi. Citizenship and Res judicata


Cases: Burca v. Republic, 51 SCRA 248 (1973)
Board of Commissioners (CID) v. Dela Rosa, 197 SCRA 854 (1991)
Go vs. Bureau of Immigration, G.R. No. 191810, June 22, 2015

D. Loss of Philippine citizenship and denaturalization


Cases: Coquilla vs. COMELEC, G.R. No.151914, July 31, 2002
Bengson III vs. Cruz, 357 SCRA 545 (2001)
Labo vs. COMELEC 176 SCRA 1 (1989)
Labo vs. COMELEC 211 SCRA 297 (1992)
Frivaldo vs. COMELEC, 174 SCRA 245 (1989)
Republic vs Dela Rosa, 232 SCRA 785 (1994)
Frivaldo vs. COMELEC, 257 SCRA 727 (1996)

E. Reacquisition of citizenship
Cases: Tecson vs. COMELEC, G.R. No 161434, March 3, 2004
Bengzon vs. HRET, 257 SCRA 545
In Re Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, 1999
Co vs. HRET, 199 SCRA 692 (1989)

i. Procedure for reacquisition via repatriation/ R. A. No. 8171


Cases: Bengson III vs. Cruz, 357 SCRA 545 (2001)
Tabasa vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125793, August 29, 2006
Altajeros vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 163256, November 10, 2004

ii. R.A. No. 9225 Citizenship Reacquisition Act


Cases: Nicolas-Lewis vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 162759, August 4, 2006
AASJS vs. Datumanong, G.R. No. 160869, May 11, 2007
Jacot vs. Dal, G.R. No. 179848, November 27, 2008
David vs. Agbay, G.R. No. 199113, March 18, 2015
Caballero vs. COMELEC No. 209835, September 22, 2015
Chua vs. Comelec G.R. No. 216607, April 5, 2016
Tan vs. Crisologo G.R. No. 193993, November 8, 2017
Cardino vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 216637, March 7, 2017

IMMIGRATION
Philippine Immigration Laws and other Related Laws
CA 613 - Philippine Immigration Law of 1940
RA 562 - Alien Registration Act of 1950
RA 9225 - Citizenship Retention and Reacquisition Act of 2003
RA 9139 - Administrative Naturalization Law of 2000
RA 7919 - Social Integration Program in the Philippines Under Certain Conditions
RA 8247 - Alien Social Integration Act of 1995 Under Executive Order 324
i. Bureau of Immigration
Cases: Ang Beng v. Commissioner G.R. No. L-9621, January 30, 1957
Board of Commissioners (CID) v. De la Rosa, 197 SCRA 853 (1991)
Lao Gi v. Court of Appeals, 180 SCRA 756 (1989)
Miranda v. Deportation Board, 94 Phil 531(1954)
Dwikarna v. Domingo 433 SCRA 748 (2004)
Office of the Solicitor General v. De Castro, 529 SCRA 157 (2007)
Wong vs. Wong, G.R. No. 180364, December 3, 2014
Go vs. Bureau of Immigration, G.R. No. 191810, June 22, 2015

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ii. Immigrants and non-immigrants
Cases: Lao Tan Bun v. Fabre, 81 Phil. 682 (1948).
Secretary of Justice, et al. v. Koruga G.R. No. 166199 prom. April 24, 2009
iii. Board of Special Inquiry
Case: Go vs. Bureau of Immigration, G.R. No. 191810, June 22, 2015
iv. Deportation of Aliens
Cases: Tan Sin vs. The Deportation Board, G.R. No. L-11511, November 28, 1958.
Lao Gi v. Court of Appeals, 180 SCRA 756 (1989).
Schonemann v. Defensor Santiago, et al G.R. No. 81461, May 30, 1989
Commissioner Domingo vs. Scheer, G.R. No. 154745, January 29, 2004
Board of Commissioners vs. Park G.R. No. 159835, January 21, 2010
Go vs. BID, G.R. No. 191810, June 22, 2015
Republic vs. Harp, G.R. No. 188829, June 13, 2016
v. Extradition
Cases: Wright vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113213 August 15, 1994
Cuevas vs. Munoz, G.R. No. 140520, December 18, 2000
Government of Hong Kong SAR vs. Hon. Olalia G.R. No. 153675, April 19, 2007
Government of Hong Kong SAR vs. Munoz, G.R. No. 207342, August 16, 2016

Secretary of Justice vs. Hon. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, January 18, 2000
Secretary of Justice vs. Hon. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, October 17, 2000
Government of the United States of America vs. Hon. Purganan, G.R. No. 148571,
September 24, 2002
Rodriguez vs. RTC, G.R. No. 157977, February 27, 2006

vi. Remedies
a. Habeas Corpus
(Art. III, Sec. 15, Art, VII, Sec. 18)
A.M. No. 03-04-04-SC RE: Proposed rule on custody of minors and writ of habeas
corpus in relation to custody of minors

Cases: Caballes vs, CA, 452 SCRA 312 (2005).


Kiani v. Bureau of Immigration and Deportation (BID) 518 Phil. 501 (2006)
Rodriguez vs. Bonifacio, 398 Phil. 441 (2000)
Jackson vs. Macalino, G.R. No. 139255, November 24, 2003
Office of the Solicitor General v. De Castro, 529 SCRA 157 (2007).
b. Writ of Amparo A.M. No. 07-9-12-SC
Cases: Reyes vs. Gonzalez, G.R. No. 182161, December 3, 2009
Mison vs. Gallegos G.R. No. 210759, June 23, 2015
Callo vs. Commissioner Morente G.R. No. 230324, September 19, 2017
c. Bail
Cases: Mejoff v. Director of Prisons, 90 Phil. 70 (1951)
Chirskoff v. Commission of Immigration, 90 Phil. 256 (1951).
d. DOJ Appeal
Case: Kiani v. Bureau of Immigration and Deportation (BID) 518 Phil. 501 (2006)
e. Administrative
Case: Fuji vs. Dela Cruz, A.C. No. 11043, March 8, 2017

vii. Liberty of abode and travel (Art. III, Sec. 6)


Cases: Arroyo vs. De Lima, G.R. No. 199034, November 15, 2011
League Division vs. Heusdens, AM No. P-11-2927, 13 December 2011
Office of Administrative Services vs. Judge Macaring, AM No.MTJ-10-1770 July 18, 2012
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viii. Judicial review
Cases: Chua Hiong v. Deportation Board 96 Phil. 665 (1955).
Vivo v. Montesa, 24 SCRA 155 (1968)
Po Yo Bi v. Republic, 205 SCRA 400 (1992)
Republic vs. Harp, G.R. No. 188829, June 13, 2016

Immigration Procedures
Deportation proceedings
• Memorandum Circular No. SBM-2015-010 Bureau of Immigration Omnibus Rules of
Procedure 2015

Philippine Visa Guidelines / Requirements

a. What is a Philippine Visa?

• Temporary Visitor's Visa


• Definition of a foreign tourist (temporary visitor)
• Standard procedure/minimum requirements for applying a temporary visitor's
visa
• Travel Requirements for those with temporary visitor’s visa
• Pre-Arranged Employee Visa
• Student Visa
• Immigrant Visa by Marriage
• Permanent Resident Visa
• Temporary Resident Visa
• Returning Former Natural-Born Filipino
• Balikbayan Privilege
• Visa upon arrival

b. Other visa/entry requirements for foreign nationals

• Minor children below 15 yrs. old Traveling to the Philippines Unaccompanied by or not
Joining a Parent in the Philippines
• Foreign Nationals on Board Privately-Owned Yachts or Sailboats
• Foreign Newsmen, Journalists and Cinema/Television Groups
• Foreign Nationals who wish to take up a short-term non-degree course

c. Extension of authorized period of stay in the Philippines


d. Requirements for Aliens/ immigrants
• ACR I-Card
• Annual Report
e. Derogatory lists
• Black List Order
• Hold Departure Order
• Watchlist order
Case: Genuino vs De Lima, G.R. No. 197930, April 17, 2018
Sy vs Sandiganbayan G.R. No. 237703, October 03, 2018

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f. Exclusion/Offloading
R. A. No. 9208 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003
R. A. No. 10364 Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012
R. A. No. 8042 Migrant Workers Act of 1995
R. A. No. 10022 An Act Amending Republic Act No. 8042
• Waiver for Exclusion Ground
• IACAT Revised Guidelines on Departure Formalities for International Bound
passengers (DOJ Memorandum Circular No. 36, June 15, 2015)

g. Emigration Clearance Certificate (ECC)