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Chapter 1 [ULK]

1. Differentiate between absolute path and relative path with example.

2. What is hard link? Specify the limitations of hard link.
3. What is inode. List the attributes of inode .
4. Explain the different types of users and access rights of a file used in Unix
operating system.
5. Define re-entrant kernel. How is reentrancy provided in Unix kernel?
6. What is kernel control path? Specify the different situations where the CPU
interleaves different kernel control paths.
7. What are the default actions taken by the kernel to handle signal in Unix
operating system?
8. What are the advantages of virtual memory?
9. What is a kernel memory allocator? Specify the features of a good kernel
memory allocator.
10. What is device driver? Specify the advantages of using device driver.

Chapter 3 [ULK]

11. Differentiate between program, process and thread.

12. What is process descriptor? How does the Linux kernel handle the process
13. Explain the different states of a process referred in Linux operating system.
14. Explain the fields used in the process descriptor for specifying the parenthood
relationship between processes.
15. Explain the importance of runqueue and waitqueue used in Linux operating
16. Differentiate between exclusive and nonexclusive processes with example.
17. What is hardware context? Why does Linux operating system not support
saving of hardware context on task state segment? Where does it save the
hardware context?
18. Why the approach used for process creation in traditional Unix systems is
slower and inefficient? What mechanisms are used by modern Unix kernels to
handle these issues?
19. How is process 0 different than any other regular process?
20. Explain the parameters of the clone ( ) function.
21. How are the fork( ) and vfork( ) system call implemented in Linux using
clone( ) system call?
22. Differentiate between fork( ), clone(), vfork() and do_fork().
23. What is kernel thread? Give example of two kernel threads.
24. Differentiate between the two system calls used in Linux to terminate a User
mode application.
25. Give a comparative mapping of generic operating system Process States with
that of Linux process states. Discuss about the exceptional states and their
handling mechanisms in Linux system.
26. What is Process Switch? What are the roles of Hardware Context, Task State
Segment(TSS) and switch_to macro in the context of Process Switch? Why
TSS is considered to be an obsolate mechanism in current versions of Linux?
27. Discuss in brief the method of Process Creation and Process Termination in
Linux systems. Whether Process Termination and Process Removal are the
same or different? Justify your answer.
Chapter 5 [ULK]
1. Differentiate between planned process switch and forced process switch.
2. Specify the conditions when kernel preemption is disabled in a Linux system.
3. What is a deferrable function? Specify the operations performed on deferrable
4. Differentiate between softirq and tasklet.
5. Explain the features of the Per-CPU variables.
6. Explain the need of optimization and memory barrier.
7. Explain the data structure with its different fields used in Linux system to
implement spin lock.
8. How is spinlock used in Linux system to achieve kernel synchronization?
9. Explain the data structure with its different fields used in Linux system to
implement read/write spin lock.
10.Differentiate between seqlock and read/write spin lock synchronization
primitive used in Linux system.
11. How is seqlock used in Linux system to achieve kernel synchronization?
12. Specify the advantages of Read-copy Update (RCU) approach over seqlock
and spinlock.
13. How is Read-copy Update (RCU) primitive used in Linux system to achieve
kernel synchronization?
14. Explain the data structure with its different fields used in Linux system to
implement semaphore.
15. Differentiate between semaphore and spinlock.
16. Explain the functions used for getting and releasing the semaphore to achieve
the kernel synchronization.
17. Explain the data structure with its different fields used in Linux system to
implement read/write semaphore.
18. Specify the functions used to initialize, acquire and release the read/write
19. Write the difference between completion and semaphore.
20. Specify the data structure and functions used in Linux system to implement
completion synchronization primitive.

Chapter 7 [ULK]

1. Differentiate between interactive and batch process with example.

2. Explain the three types of scheduling classes used by Linux processes.
3. How the base time quantum is related to the static priority. Find the base time
quantum for a process having (highest or lowest or default) static priority.
4. Discuss the factors that influence the dynamic priority of a process. Calculate
the dynamic priority of a process having static priority 110 and average sleep
time 250ms.
5. What will be the minimum average sleep time for a process, so that it will be
considered as an interactive process? Assume the static priority of process is
6. How is the average sleep time useful in scheduling of conventional processes
in Linux system?
7. How does a scheduler in the Linux system consider a process as interactive or
8. A process with static priority 136 can never be considered as an interactive
process by the scheduler in Linux system. Justify your answer.
9. What mechanism is implemented by the scheduler in the Linux system to avoid
10.Specify the different cases when a real time process is replaced by another
11.How the real time processes are scheduled in a Linux system?