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Neo Liberalism

Neo-liberalism" is a set of economic policies that have become widespread during the
last 25 years or so. It redefines citizens as consumers, whose democratic choices are best
exercised by buying and selling, a process that rewards merit and punishes inefficiency. Tax and
regulation should be minimised, public services should be privatised. The organisation of labour
and collective bargaining by trade unions are portrayed as market distortions that impede the
formation of a natural hierarchy of winners and losers. Efforts to create a more equal society
are both counterproductive and morally corrosive.
Efforts to create a more equal society are both counterproductive and morally corrosive.
Freedom from trade unions and collective bargaining means the freedom to suppress wages.
Freedom from regulation means the freedom to poison rivers, endanger workers, charge
iniquitous rates of interest and design exotic financial instruments. Freedom from tax means
freedom from the distribution of wealth that lifts people out of poverty.
Around the world, neo-liberalism has been imposed by powerful financial institutions
like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Inter-American
Development Bank
Main points of neo-liberalism include:
1. THE RULE OF THE MARKET
2. DEREGULATION. Reduce government regulation of everything that could diminish
profits
3. CUTTING PUBLIC EXPENDITURE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES like education and health
4. PRIVATIZATION. Sell state-owned enterprises
5. ELIMINATING THE CONCEPT OF "THE PUBLIC GOOD" or "COMMUNITY"

Liberalism
Liberalism is a school of thought within international relations theory which can be thought to revolve
around three interrelated principles:

 Rejection of power politics as the only possible outcome of international relations; it questions
security/warfare principles of realism
 It accentuates mutual benefits and international cooperation
 It implements international organizations and nongovernmental actors for shaping state preferences and
policy choices[1]
This school of thought emphasizes three factors that encourage more cooperation and less conflict among
states:
 International institutions, such as the United Nations, who provide a forum to resolve disputes in a non-
violent way
 International trade because when countries' economies are interconnected through trade they are less
likely to go to war with each other
 Spread of democracy as well-established democracies do not go to war with one another, so if there are
more democracies, interstate war will be less frequent

NEO Realism (Structural realism)


The structure of international system that explain in large part how states
behave. States live in anarchic system, no higher or proper authority, means
if you are small state there no one out there to protect you from the
aggression of big states because there is no formal central authority;. So a
state should be as powerful as possible.
China will become a hegemon in Asia because of its past experience wherein
it was not powerful and suffered at the hands of Europe.
power is the most important factor in international relations.
departure from Hans Morgenthau's writing on classical realism. Classical realism
originally explained the machinations of international politics as being based
on human nature, and therefore subject to the ego and emotion of world leaders.