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Skeletal

System
- Ridho Islamie -

Anatomi & Fisiologi Manusia


Fakultas Farmasi
Universitas Surabaya
2017
Fungsi Utama Sistem Skeletal

Klasifikasi Tulang Berdasarkan Bentuk

Struktur Tulang à Long Bone

Tipe dan fungsi sel-sel dalam jaringan tulang

Proses Pembentukan Tulang

Outline Bone Remodeling

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi Bone Growth dan Bone


Remodeling
Komposisi tulang

Peran hormon pada pertumbuhan tulang

Gangguan tulang serta beberapa jenis terapinya


Fungsi Utama Sistem Skeletal

Storage of
Minerals and Bone Cell
Support
Lipids à Production
Homeostasis

Leverage à
Triglyceride
Protection assistance in
storage
movement
Klasifikasi Tulang Berdasarkan Bentuk
Struktur Tulang

u Diaphysis
u Epiphysis
u Metaphysis
u Compact Bone
u Spongy Bone
u Medullary Cavity
1 2 3 4 5 6
Supports soft Protects Assists in Stores and Contains red Contains yellow
tissue and internal movement, releases bone marrow, bone marrow,
provides along with minerals which which stores
attachment for organs. skeletal triglycerides
skeletal muscles. muscles.
produces blood (fats)
cells.

Functions of Bone Tissue


Cells Type in Bone Tissue
u Four types of cells are
present in bone
tissue:
u Osteoprogenitor
cells,
u osteoblasts,
u osteocytes, and
u osteoclasts
Cells Type in Bone Tissue
No Type of Cell Function

1 Osteoprogenitor cells • the only bone cells to undergo cell division;


• the resulting cells develop into osteoblasts
• Osteoprogenitor cells: the inner portion of the periosteum, in the
endosteum, and in the canals within bone that contain blood vessels
2 Osteoblasts • bone-building cells
• synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components
needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate
calcification
• As osteoblasts surround themselves with extracellular matrix, they become
trapped in their secretions and become osteocytes
3 Osteocytes • mature bone cells
• the main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily metabolism, such as
the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the blood
4 Osteoclasts • concentrated in the endosteum
• breakdown of bone extracellular matrix, termed resorption
• target cells for drug therapy used to treat osteoporosis
Bone Formation à Ossification or Osteogenesis
u Bone formation occurs in four principal situations:
u the initial formation of bones in an embryo and fetus à
Calcification: the deposition of calcium salts—occurs
during ossification
u the growth of bones during infancy, childhood, and
adolescence until their adult sizes are reached à
Growth in length and thickness
u the remodeling of bone (replacement of old bone by
new bone tissue throughout life),
u And the repair of fractures (breaks in bones)
throughout life.
A Chemical Analysis of Bone
Hormones Involved in Bone Growth
and Maintenance

PTH VS CALCITONIN
coordinate the storage, absorption, and
excretion of CALCIUM ions
Factors That
Increase Blood
Calcium Levels
Factors That
Decrease Blood
Calcium Levels
Bone Remodeling Bone
Remodeling
u Bone remodeling is the ongoing
replacement of old bone tissue by
new bone tissue.
Bone Bone
u At any given time, about 5% of Resorption Deposition
the total bone mass in the body is
being remodeled.
u Remodeling also takes place at •the removal of minerals
different rates in different regions and collagen fibers from
of the body Bone bone by osteoclasts
•bone resorption results in
u Remodeling also removes injured
bone, replacing it with new bone
Resorption the destruction of bone
extracellular matrix
tissue.
u Remodeling may be triggered by
factors such as exercise,
sedentary lifestyle, and changes in •the addition of minerals
diet. and collagen fibers to
Bone bone by osteoblasts
•bone deposition results in
Deposition the formation of bone
extracellular matrix
u Minerals: Ca, PO4
u Vitamins:
• A: stimulates activity of osteoblasts
• C: synthesis of collagen, the main bone protein


D: increasing the absorption of calcium
K and B12 are also needed for synthesis of bone proteins.
Factors
u Hormones (Next Slide) Affecting Bone
q

q
Childhood à IGFs à Growth Hormone
T3 & T4
Growth and
q Sex Hormones à at puberty & adulthood Bone
Ø Exercise à Weight-bearing activities stimulate osteoblasts and,
consequently, help build thicker, stronger bones and retard loss Remodeling
of bone mass that occurs as people age.
Ø Aging à in women after menopause, bone resorption by
osteoclasts outpaces bone deposition by osteoblasts, which
leads to a decrease in bone mass and an increased risk of
osteoporosis.
Pharmacy Application: The Treatment of
Osteoporosis
u Osteoporosis is a bone disorder characterized by low bone density, impaired bone
architecture, and compromised bone strength predisposing to fracture
u Bone loss occurs when resorption exceeds formation, usually from high bone turnover
when number and/or depth of bone resorption sites greatly exceed ability of
osteoblasts to form new bone
u Bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced and bone structural integrity is impaired due to
increased immature bone that is not yet adequately mineralized.
u Estrogen deficiency during menopause increases osteoclast activity àincreasing
bone resorption more than formation
u Age-related osteoporosis results from hormone, calcium, and vitamin D deficiencies
leading to accelerated bone turnover and reduced osteoblast formation.
u Drug-induced osteoporosis may result from systemic corticosteroids, thyroid hormone
replacement, antiepileptic drugs (eg, phenytoin and phenobarbital), depot
medroxyprogesterone acetate, and other agents
u Osteoporosis can also develop as a secondary effect of many cancers. Cancers of the
bone marrow, breast, or other tissues release a chemical known as osteoclast-
activating factor.
Medications Used to Prevent and Treat
Osteoporosis

u Calcium Supplementation: Ca Carbonate, Ca Citrate, Tricalcium Phosphate


u Vitamin D Supplementation: Cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2),
Calcitriol
u Biphosphonates: Alendronate, Ibandronate etc à inhibit bone resorption
u Estrogen Agonist
u Calcitonin
u PTH Recombinant
u RANK ligand inhibitor
References
u Martini FH, 2012,
Fundamental of Anatomy
& Physiology, 9th edition,
The Benyamin Cummings
Publishing Company, Inc,
United States of America
u Tortora GJ, 2014,
Principles of Anatomy &
Physiology, 14th edition,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc,
United Stated of America