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Republic of the Philippines

Schools Division of Laguna
Siniloan Integrated National High School
Senior High School
Siniloan, Laguna

Implication of Parental Educational Attainment

To their Children's Academic


Researchers: De los Santos, Auselio Adriel Realeza

Jimenez, Daniel Melchizedek Adre

Santos, Kim Bien Esmade


I. Introduction and Rationale

One of the important predictors of children’s education and their behavioral outcomes is

the parental educational level (Davis-Kean, 2005; Dearing, McCartney, & Taylor, 2002;

Duncan, Brooks-Gunn, & Klebanov, 1994; Haveman & Wolfe, 1995; Nagin & Tremblay,

2001; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, & Klebanov, 1997).The majority of analysis on the ways that

during which parental education shapes child’s outcomes has been conducted through

cross-sectional co-relational analysis short longitudinal styles in which oldsters and

youngsters are half-track through the child’s adolescent years.Our main goals within the

current study were to look at long effects on children’s academic success of their

parents’ educational level whereas dominant for different indices of family

socioeconomic standing and therefore the children’s own intelligence, and to look at

attainable mediators of the results of parents’ education on children’s academic and

activity outcomes. Following theory and analysis on family method models,(Conger et

al., 2002; McLoyd, 1989)we expected that indices of family socioeconomic status,

including parent education, would predict the quality of family interactions and child

behavior. Next, based on social-cognitive-ecological models(Guerra & Huesmann,

2004; Huesmann, 1998; Huesmann, Eron, & Yarmel, 1987)we expected parental

education, the quality of family interactions, and child behavior would shape, by late

adolescence, educational achievement and aspirations for future educational and

occupational success. Finally, following Eccles’ expectancy-value model(Eccles, 1993;

Frome & Eccles, 1998), we predicted that late adolescent aspirations for future success

would affect actual educational and occupational success in adulthood. We use data

from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, a 40-year developmental study initiated

in 1960 with data collected most recently in 2015, (Eron, Walder, & Lefkowitz,

1971; Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder, & Huesmann, 1977; Huesmann, Dubow, Eron, Boxer,

Slegers, & Miller, 2015; Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowitz, & Walder, 1984)

Academic success is simply giving your best effort every time. It is not the ideal

schedule with a perfect GPA to match. It is not the best scholarship or the most degrees

or the major that gets you the highest-paying job. Rather, academic success is finding

the best person you can be, and becoming more like that person every day.

II. Background of the Study

In a survey conducted byFunctional literacy, education and mass media survey last

2013, the Philippines literacy rate was 96.5%. It is higher from the previous survey

by 0.9% or 95.6%. To better understand the child’s reasons and aspiration, how

they attain academic excellence and what are the reasons behind these success.

How the parents level of education affects the mind or goal of the child. In a statistics

of the Philippines, Department of Education in the year 2012 to 2018 there are 4.8

Million drop outs recorded in the Philippines Elementary and Secondary Schools.

Currently we have seen different effects of the parent’s educational attainment to the

children’s academic success. Some effects were good and some effects maybe

negative. As a student we have seen some students who usually got a low grades

even if their parents finished college and has an economically stable family income

we also see some students that excel in his academic performance even if their

parents did not complete college or worse did not enter any formal education at all

and vice versa.

III. Review of Related Literature



The parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic

achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors Data from a national, cross-
sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-

olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This

sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American (Davis-

Kean, Pamela E. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 19(2), Jun 2015, 294-304) and

another study examined the level and impact of five types of parent involvement on

elementary school children’s academic achievement by race/ethnicity, poverty, and

parent educational attainment. The sample comprised 415 third through fifth graders

who completed the Elementary School Success Profile.(Jung-Sook Lee, Natasha K.

Bowen).This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental

involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent

school achievement in an ethnically and socio‐economically heterogeneous sample of

approximately 6,400 American 14–18‐year‐olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their

parents' general child‐rearing practices and on their parents' achievement‐specific

socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several

aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative

parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to

better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive

impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by

the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition,

no authoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement (Laurence

Steinberg). Another article analyzes data from the parent and student components of

the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 to investigate family educational

involvement in secondary education. Parental involvement indicators are not associated

with achievement growth between the 8th and 12th grades. However, a number of

parental involvement indicators are associated with seniors’ enrollment in an academic

high school program and with their coursework in core academic subject’slevels of

educational expectations, consistent encouragement, and actions that enhance the

learning opportunities of children are the family practices that are positively associated

with the above educational experiences of high school seniors. The relationships

between parental involvement and educational outcomes exist regardless of students’

socioeconomic or race/ethnic background and regardless of whether parental practices

are measured in the middle grades or in high school (SOPHIA CATSAMBIS).

Developing collaborations between families and schools to promote academic success

has a long-standing basis in research and is the focus of numerous programs and

policies. We outline some of the mechanisms through which parental school

involvement affects achievement and identify how patterns and amounts of involvement

vary across cultural, economic, and community contexts and across developmental

levels. We propose next steps for research, focusing on the importance of considering

students' developmental stages, the context in which involvement takes place, and the

multiple perspectives through which involvement may be assessed. Finally, we discuss

enhancing involvement in diverse situations (Nancy E. Hill ET. Al., Parental School

Involvement and Children's Academic Achievement: Pragmatics and Issues). Parental

academic involvement-whether through school participation and communication, or

supervision and assistance at home-often has been cited as a way to enhance

academic achievement. Yet, little is known about how the financial and life pressures

faced by families can compromise parents' ability to become involved in their

adolescents' education. In the current study, these dynamics were examined among

Mexican-origin families, who often may face challenging financial and familial

circumstances, and whose students may have more difficulty in secondary school.

Parents of Mexican-origin ninth and tenth grade students from two high schools in Los

Angeles (N = 428; 50 % female) completed quantitative interviews. The results revealed

that financial strain predicted less involvement at school, and major family life events

predicted less involvement at home, even after controlling for potentially confounding

factors. Moreover, both of the associations between parental stress and parental

academic involvement were mediated by lower levels of relationship quality between

parents and adolescents, but not by conflict within the parent-adolescent dyad or

parental depressive and somatic symptoms. The findings suggest that stress may limit

parents' ability to become involved their adolescents' education, and highlight the

importance of understanding family dynamics when examining parental academic

involvement among Mexican-origin families(Daisy E Camacho-Thompson ET. Al.,

Financial Strain, Major Family Life Events, and Parental Academic Involvement during

Adolescence, March 2016.)


Based on our local Researchers, hive long noted that parental involvement,

can substantially influence children's academic performance. There is a paucity of

research which has focused on this relationship in developing nations. Using the data

from two surveys of parents, one sample from the Philippine, and another from the

United States, this study examines the nature of parental involvement, and how it

affects the school success of elementary students. Among American parents, direct
involvement yields positive benefits for., children's. Grade performance, Among Filipino

parents, indirect forms involvement are associated with higher grade performance.

Overall. Filipino parent are. Shown to be more active in their children's school activities.

The influence. Of parental involvement upon children’s, performance in school is shown

to vary substantially between the two, Countries, "depending upon the type of parental

involvement and household characteristics. Household income, in particular, different

effects upon Filipino and U.S, children's, grade performance. The results are discussed

within a social capital paradigm. (Sampson Lee Blair, Parental Involvement and

Children's Educational Performance: A Comparison of Filipino and U.S. Parents).

Parental involvement refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to

the schooling of his/her children. Some schools foster healthy parental involvement, but

sometimes parents has hesitations if they will involve themselves with their children's

education. It has been advocated in Western countries. (Mellissa Bartolome,


December 2017) However, there is a body of literature that examines the significance of

social and cultural influences and the effects of parents' involvement in and

expectations of their children's development and learning. It is important for schools to

recognize the existence of cultural variations in parent involvement because there are

differences among parents with diverse background on when, why, and how they are

involved in their children's education. Parenting is important in the Philippine society

because family is viewed as a center to one's social world. But, social contexts in which

Filipino families are embedded have changed rapidly over the past ten years (Ochoa &

Torre, n.d.). Children's learning is increasingly moving toward a broader vision of the 21
st century learning. As children's educations increasingly occur across a range of

settings, parents are uniquely positioned to help ensure that these settings best support

their children's specific learning needs. Thus, parental involvement researches remain

misrepresentative of parents and the involvement that they have with their children's

education (Jackson, 2010). Parental involvement in children’s education is an integral

component of young children’s academic achievement. In the Philippines, a developing

country with high rates of poverty and input deficit in basic education, school dropout

rates are high especially among the poor. Given that many children from disadvantaged

backgrounds do not get enough support (PIDS, 2012) and many parents are not

equipped with skills to support their children’s education, it is essential to investigate

how Filipino parents can help and contribute to their children’s academic success. In

response to the lack of parental involvement literature situated in the Philippine context,

the present study employed a phenomenological approach to explore and examine the

experiences of low-income parents regarding their involvement in their children’s

education. (Aileen S. Garcia, Parental Involvement among Low-Income Filipinos: A

Phenomenological Inquiry May 2018) With the proper guidance from students, children

tend to become more attentive in class, more participant during class discussions, and

more energetic in completing school-related activities in and outside the school. Their

positive outlook about going to school and attending their classes are proven by

researches to have a positive effect on their behavior. (Anonymous, Parent involvement

essential in holistic learning, Manila Bulletin May 10, 2017)

IV. Theoretical Framework

According to Blair C. Granger, Better-educated parents tend provide more positive

home environments, and based on her theory, “Family income and economic well-being

are important predictors of children’s well-being”. Family financial gain and economic

circumstances have a strong impact on children’s development. Like different risk

factors, low family financial gain affects kids chiefly by touching their home

environments and therefore the parenting they receive in ways in which hinder optimum

development. Income-related variations in parenting seem early.For instance, lower-

income mothers are, on average, less affectionate, less responsive to their infants’

distress signals, and more likely to have harsh parenting styles. In poor and low-income

families, the home environment is more likely to be chaotic, and parents are more likely

to be stressed and unresponsive. They show less sensitivity and provide less cognitive

stimulation. Research shows that lower-income mothers talk less and spend less time in

shared activities with their children than do middle-income mothers, and are less

engaged when their children talk to them. Poor children have fewer stimulating

experiences and learning materials than higher-income children. The effects are

apparent in the first years and often last into adulthood. Low-income children, even in

the first three years of life, are more likely to have lower cognitive scores and increased

behavioral problems. Like family income, parental education is a strong influence on

children’s home environments. In some research on child outcomes, maternal education

is a better predictor than family income. In a brain imaging study of young children,

there were measurable effects of maternal education on brain regions involved in

attention skills. In another study, parental educational level was related to children’s
educational and occupational success at age among mothers of infants and toddlers,

increases in education have been shown to promote improvements in young children’s

home environments and language development. Parents’ education appears to be

especially beneficial for children from poor, young, or single-mothers.

V. Statement of the problem

We want to know how does the educational attainment of parents affect their

children's performance on academic whether it do have a positive nor negative

results. For us as the first researcher conducting this research here in the

Philippines, Base on what we have observed, we find it very intriguing, because

all of us know that education is the easiest stepping stone from being a

successful person, but some of today's youth doesn’t even bother to care on

education, even if their parents did have a good or bad educational background.

If we successfullyaddressed the issue, we can establish a research where it

could bring out the reason on why or how does it affect the children.

By conducting this research we expect to encounter a different behavior of a

particular subject, making this research more purposeful. Second we can unravel

why the subject acting with that manner does.

Our target subject would be divided in different social status, two families in each

classification, Poor, Middle Class, and Rich, because we believe we can get

more accurate answers in this type of data gathering. We are going to gather our

information in the towns of 4th District of the Province of Laguna. The area is a
perfect field to conduct this research. It does not have a high poverty incidence


VI. Research Question

The main question that we want to answer here in the research was if there was an

Implication of Parental Educational Attainment To their Children's Academic Success.

Implication based to the Merriam dictionary: a possible future effect or result. Like what

is mention in introduction, many accounts says that the parent’s educational attainment

is a big factor in achieving children’s educational success:One of the important

predictors of children’s education and their behavioral outcomes is the parental

educational level (Davis-Kean, 2005; Dearing, McCartney, & Taylor, 2002; Duncan,

Brooks-Gunn, & Klebanov, 1994; Haveman & Wolfe, 1995; Nagin & Tremblay, 2001;

Smith, Brooks-Gunn, & Klebanov, 1997). But still we cannot deny that the children still

will dictate his future.

VII. Significance of the Study

We all know that the learnings and education is very important not just in the

person itself but in building a strong society. In fact our government itself gives

importance to the education. The great manifestation of this was on the 1987

constitution of the Philippines in the article XIV, section 5 (5): “The state shall assign
highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that the teaching will attract and

retain its rightful share of the best available talents thorough adequate remuneration

and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment”. Article XIV, section 1: “The state

shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and

shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all”. This study will

help our educational institutions on how they effectively teach and give the knowledge

to the children. This will also help our government in creating programs and projects in

promoting quality education.

VIII. Scope and Limitations

In this research, we will gathering data that has a connection to the academic

performance and learning of the children. We will focusing on the experiences with the

parents and children in terms of education. This research will basing our conclusions on

the data given by our respondents, previous research, and not to a large scale of


IX. Definition of terms

 Education- the action or process of teaching someone especially in a school,

college, or university

 Attainment- the state or condition of having gotten or done, or achieved

thorough effort.

 Offspring- a person’s child

 Constitution- the system of beliefs and laws by which a country, state or

organization is governed.

 Middle Income- having an income that is not low and not high

 Developing nations- a country with little industrial and economic activity and

where people generally have low incomes

 Adolescent-a young person who is developing into an adult.

 Literacy- The ability to read and write.

 Financial Strain- when a person’s financial outgoings start to exceed their

income to a degree that psychologically threatens their sense of selfand identity,

their intimate relationships, their self-esteem etc.

 Adequate- enough for some need or requirement.

 Single Mothers-a mother who has a dependent child or dependent children and

who is widowed, divorced, or unmarried.

 Affectionate- feeling or showing love and affection

I. References
 https://www.theodysseyonline.com/defining-academic-success
 https://oprs.usc.edu/files/2017/04/Informed-Consent-Booklet-
 Davis-Kean, 2005; Dearing, McCartney, & Taylor, 2002; Duncan, Brooks-Gunn,
& Klebanov,
 Definition of terms meanings: Merriam Webster Dictionary
 https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2005-06518-016
 1994; Haveman & Wolfe, 1995; Nagin & Tremblay, 2001; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, &
Klebanov, 1997.
 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb01694.x
 https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1428&context=rtd
 https://www.educationnext.org/how-family-background-influences-student-
 http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/secondary/PDF/4_Aqsa%20&%20Maryam_v2_is
 http://calabarzon.dilg.gov.ph/132-old-lgus/old-laguna-lgus/573-siniloan
 Municipal Planning and Development Office (Siniloan MPDO)
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541017/



I. Research Design

In this research, qualitative research will be consider Patton (2015), define this method
as a design that breaks down information from direct hands on work parceptions, in-
depth This type of design breaks down information from direct hands on work
perceptions, in‐depth, open‐ended meetings, and composed reports. Subjective
specialists take part in naturalistic request, examining real‐world settings inductively to
create rich account depictions and develop contextual investigations. Inductive
examination crosswise over cases yields examples and topics, the product of subjective
research. (Michael Quinn Patton 2005). To be exact we are using Case Study Model.
Made well known by the Harvard Business School, even principally quantitative analysts
can identify with the estimation of the contextual analysis in clarifying an association,
substance, organization, or occasion. A contextual analysis includes a profound
comprehension through various sorts of information sources. Contextual analyses can
be illustrative, exploratory, or depicting an occasion. (Jeff Sauro, PhD 2015)

Qualitative research is the most suitable method cause this research will involve a huge
observation and we can only get proper and right information through the use of
interviewing which is we cannot do in a Quantitative research. We choose the Case
Study Model given that our research will study the different cases of our respondents
about the Ramifications of Parental Educational Attainment To their Children's
Academic Victory.

II. Subject of the Study

The data gathering of our research will be focused to our research participants which is
the 6 families composing the three different social hierarchy. 2 (two) for Lower class, 2
(two) for middle class and another 2 (two) for Upper class. The requirement to be
included to the lower class was there family must have a monthly income of 15,000
pesos and below, middle class must have a monthly income of 15,001 pesos to 78,900
pesos. Lastly, Upper class must have a monthly income of 78,901 pesos or more (2012
Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES)), Philippine Statistics Authority. Every
two participants in each social hierarchy will have two different parent’s educational
background, one family has a college graduate parents and the other one with an
uncompleted formal education. They must be a resident of Siniloan for at least 5 years.
We will also restricting the number of children in a family to three.If the families met our
requirement then we will randomly select them. Their identity will be kept, their personal
information will be classified.

III. Research Setting

Research will be conducted in a town in southern Luzon named Siniloan, Province

of Laguna. This town is suitable in conducting this research considering that this town
has a vast number of potential respondents since this town has 40,243 population as of
2015 census (Siniloan M.P.D.O.). Also Siniloan is the hometown of some of the
successful professionals. All qualified participants will be selected randomly in the whole
town and we will considering the time of their residency to the town to maintain the
similarity of their culture.

IV. Research Instrument

We will evaluate and apply the focus group discussion and interview in our
research participants. We will analyze their experiences and the information
given by our participants in order to create a conclusion. We may also consider
using written questionnaire to get more structured data if needed. We will also
conducting an observation to the family’s everyday life to secure the accuracy of
the data that we can get to the participants.

V. Research Procedure

This research will follow a step by step process. We first study further about the
research problem and try to consolidate all information to easily get important
information needed in conducting this research. We also study the research
setting and familiarize to their culture and traditions in order to easily
communicate to the people living on that community. We also selected
participants that are willing to give their experiences specially their time. We may
also prefer families without any direct connection to us so we can prevent pre
judgment. We also prepared a series of interviews, observations and discussion.
We prefer a series of those things in order to get a right answers because we
may experience some hard times in getting information in a one full blast of
interview or discussion. After we get all data that we needed we will studying all
cases one by one and try to connect their similarities and differences and also to
come up with the conclusion and recommendations.

VI. Ethical Considerations

1. We are ensuring the quality of our research by having fundamental values of honesty,
where in the participants would give their answer truthfully. Trust, in this case we will be
securing their confidential data. Fairness, Respect, by not judging or giving a one sided
opinion, and also responsibility along with the courage to act on these values in all
academic circumstances.
2. Seeking their consent is part of our research ethics. By having an Assurance that
Participation is Voluntary. We would also tell them the purpose of the research,
Description of the Procedures, Risks, and Potential Benefits.

3. We would also include their Confidentiality, where in their Privacy would be ensure,
securing the Confidential details given, that no one except for our research team would
have an access to their data, by having a security that only our team could possibly do.

4.By any means, our priority is to do no harm in our participants, making them feel safe
and have trust in us, so they can answer and give the details we need as much as

5. Their complete home address will not be exposed but we can declassify their location
by specifying their town area, example: Upland area. All motion to revile their identity
needs permission to the participants. The participants have the right to approve or
disapprove any move to revile their identity.