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based learning



Discursive -
Ego: Dealing with






heuristic device


id, ego, and


Id:Meeting Basic







Sui generis
Superego: Adding

m: binary

m: how they read

m: meaning of
m signifier and

m: subjectivity

















Petit Bourgeoisie


















magical realism










New Materialism

Agency is the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices. The structure ve
understood as an issue of socialization against autonomy in determining whether an individual acts as a free a
by social structure.
the state of being other or different; otherness.
a theoretical approach that regards something as interpretable through analysis into distinct, separable, and i
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that
unorthodox, with respect to art, culture, and society
a person within a country who acts as an agent for foreign organizations engaged in investment, trade, or econ

refers to systems of instruction, assessment, grading, and academic reporting that are based on students demo
learned the knowledge and skills they are expected to learn as they progress through their education. In publi
systems use state learning standards to determine academic expectations and define “competency” or “profici
subject area, or grade level (although other sets of standards may also be used, including standards developed
by subject-area organizations). The general goal of competency-based learning is to ensure that students are a
skills that are deemed to be essential to success in school, higher education, careers, and adult life. If students
learning standards, they typically receive additional instruction, practice time, and academic support to help t
meet the expected standards.

combine (two or more texts, ideas, etc.) into one.

"the urban crisis conflates a number of different economic and social issues" synonyms: mix, blend, fuse, unite

1. intended for instruction; instructive: eg: didactic poetry.

2. inclined to teach or lecture others too much: eg: a boring, didactic speaker.
3. teaching or intending to teach a moral lesson.
A model of curriculum in which content is divided into separate and distinct subjects or disciplines, such as lan
mathematics, and social studies. The term ‘discipline-based’ or ‘subject-based’ covers the full range of distinct
both the more traditional such as mathematics or physics and the newer areas of study, such as media educati
frequent and recurring opportunities to practice their disciplinary skills throughout their fields of study in a w
to build on the work of earlier ones. The instructional emphasis of discipline-based curriculum tends to be on
information and skills as it emerges from the discipline experts. A discipline-based curriculum approach chara
within one subject and encourages teachers for specialization, depth of content knowledge, and integrity to th
discipline. (Adapted from: Kridel 2010).

1. passing from one topic to another, usually in an unmethodical way; digressing from subject to subject
2. (philosophy) of or relating to knowledge obtained by reason and argument rather than intuition

Briefly defined, discursive practices in education are the uses of language in an educational context (e.g., the ty
question, student answer, teacher feedback) or the use of language in context relating to education (e.g., state
making new educational laws). Language includes spoken, signed, and written forms of communication. Conte
the situation in which such communication takes place that affect the meaning of the communication either in
reception. Part of the context of language use is the relevant language that comes before and after the particul
question. Thus, discursive practices generally encompass language chunks larger than one sentence.

Discursive practices in education are increasingly of interest to a number of academic disciplines. Some of the
have been examined include Rosemary Henze's work on the metaphors used by school leaders use when discu
Briscoe's studies of the discourse of professional educational associations; patterns of conversational turn tak
frequency and relative positioning of men and women in history textbooks; the distancing, exclusion, or inclus
others; and even who should produce discourse about the different groups.
The ego deals with reality, trying to meet the desires of the id in a way that is socially acceptable in the world.
gratification, and helping to get rid of the tension the id feels if a desire is not met right away. The ego recogniz
needs and wants too, and that being selfish is not always good for us in the long run.
• Sally was thirsty. However, she knew that her server would be back soon to refill her water glass, so she wait
even though she really just wanted to drink from Mr. Smith’s glass.
• Even though Michael needed money, he decided not to steal the money from the cash register because he did
• In line at the salad bar, Amy really wanted to shove a handful of croutons into her mouth. However, since her
to wait another minute or two until she sat down to eat.
• Mary really wanted to borrow her mom’s necklace, but knew her mom would be angry if she took it without
mom if she could wear it.
• Hillary was so sweaty after her workout that she wanted to change her clothes right there by the car. Howeve
around her would not approve, so she waited until she was in the restroom to change.
• Katie’s mom had given her $25 to purchase groceries for dinner that night. At the mall, Katie saw shoes that
tempted to use the money from her mom to make the purchase. However, if she spent the money on shoes, she
buy the groceries, so she decided she better not buy the shoes.
• Tim really wanted to slug Mark for what he had just said. However, Tim knew if he hit Mark, he would be kick
since he loved baseball, he unclenched his fists and walked away.

cause or give rise to (a feeling, situation, or condition) / generate, arouse

a feeling of listlessness and dissatisfaction arising from a lack of occupation or excitement. synonyms: b
lethargy, lassitude, languor, weariness, enervation;

Anyone who judges people or traditions based on his own cultural standards is guilty of ethnocentrism. It mea
you're used to doing things is the only right way to do them, and that people or cultures that do things differen
Ethnocentrism comes from the Greek ethno, or "people" and centric, "center;" so when you put your own peop
of the world, you're letting your ethnocentrism show.

is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection
is a form of experiential learning but does not necessarily involve students reflecting on their product.

is a term widely used to describe (1) the system of mass production that was pioneered in the early 20th centu
Company or (2) the typical postwar mode of economic growth and its associated political and social order in a
Fordism is the dominant system of economic production, consumption and associated socio-economic phenom
countries since the late 20th century. In Post-Fordist economies:[15]
• New information technologies are important.
• Products are marketed to niche markets rather than in mass consumption patterns based on social class.
• Service industries predominate over manufacturing.
• The workforce is feminized.
• Financial markets are globalized
enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves. A heuristic technique often called simply a h
problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method

Any procedure which involves the use of an artificial construct to assist in the exploration of social phenomena
assumptions derived from extant empirical research. For example, ideal types have been used as a way of setti
characteristics of a social phenomenon, so that its salient features might be stated as clearly and explicitly as p
then, a form of preliminary analysis. Such devices have proved especially useful in studies of social change, by
around which variation and differences can then be situated. In this context, a heuristic device is usually empl
although it can also have explanatory value as a model.

an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural mat
the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational
* a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in anci
thought. noun: Humanism
* (among some contemporary writers) a system of thought criticized as being centered on the notion of the ra
ignoring the unintegrated and conditioned nature of the individual.

are names for the three parts of the human personality which are part of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic pers
Freud, these three parts combine to create the complex behavior of human beings

The id is the most basic part of the personality, and wants instant gratification for our wants and needs. If thes
met, a person becomes tense or anxious.
• Sally was thirsty. Rather than waiting for the server to refill her glass of water, she reached across the table a
water glass, much to his surprise.
• A hungry baby cried until he was fed.
• A toddler who wanted another helping of dessert whined incessantly until she was given another serving.
• Michael saw a $5 bill fall out of Nick’s backpack as he pulled his books out of his locker. As Nick walked away
the money, and slipped it into his pocket, glancing around to make sure no one was looking.
• On Black Friday, customers were so obsessed with getting a good deal that they shoved others out of their w
thinking twice about hurting people if it meant they could get want they wanted.
• In line at the salad bar, Amy was so hungry that she shoved a handful of croutons in her mouth as she waited
• Bart was stuck in traffic. He just wanted his vehicle to move! Enraged at the situation, Bart pulled his car onto
forward, not caring that he was clipping people’s side mirrors as he tried to get ahead of the cars in front of him

lack of piety or reverence, especially for a god.

the state of being unwilling or unable to believe something.
is a term used in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology to represent the psychological relation b
used in contrast to solipsistic individual experience, emphasizing our inherently social being.
a figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is
part, as “scepter” for “sovereignty,” or “the bottle” for “strong drink,” or “count heads (or noses)” for “count pe

a limited or narrow outlook, especially focused on a local area; narrow-mindedness

relating to or advocating a system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., co
thought that recognizes more than one ultimate principle.

1. of or relating to the human soul or mind; mental (opposed to physical).

2. Psychology. pertaining to or noting mental phenomena.
3. outside of natural or scientific knowledge; spiritual.

making something real, bringing something into being, or making something concrete
make (something abstract) more concrete or real.
the state of being old or the process of becoming old
in a class or group of its own : not like anything else / of its (his, her, or their) own kind; in a class by itself; uni
The superego develops last, and is based on morals and judgments about right and wrong. Even though the su
reach the same decision about something, the superego’s reason for that decision is more based on moral valu
is based more on what others will think or what the consequences of an action could be.
• Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would know about it. However, she knew
she decided not to take anything even though she would probably never get caught.
• Maggie couldn’t remember the answer to test question #12, even though she had studied. Nate was the smar
from where Maggie sat, she could see his answers if she turned her head slightly. When Mrs. Archer turned he
cheated, but her conscience stopped her because she knew it was wrong. Instead, Maggie took a guess at the a
her paper.
• While away on business, Tom had many opportunities to be unfaithful to his wife. However, he knew the dam
have on his family, so made the decision to avoid the women who had expressed interest in him.
• When Michael saw the $5 bill lying on the floor with no one around it, he turned it into the school office in ca
it. He wouldn’t want to lose $5, and hoped that whoever had lost it would ask about it in the office.
• The cashier only charged the couple for one meal even though they had eaten two. They could have gotten aw
but they pointed out the cashier’s mistake and offered to pay for both meals. They wanted to be honest and th
owner and employees needed to make a living.
• On the playground, two kids were making fun of Joseph because he wore glasses. John was tempted to join in
himself look good, but when he thought about how bad Joseph must already feel, he knew that he couldn’t.
• Will had worked hard all season to break the school record in cross-country. During his last race he had the o
and therefore lower his time, because no officials were watching that part of the course. As much as he wante
Will knew he wouldn’t feel good about himself if he cheated, so he stuck to the course and ran as fast as he cou
The id, ego and superego work together in creating a behavior. The id creates the demands, the ego adds the n
superego adds morality to the action which is taken.

binary oppositions that structure western thought (man/woman, good/evil) are unsustainable because there
Deconstructionist critics claim that the two terms of these oppositions can't sustain the antithesis on which th
meaning of each term depends on the trace of the other that inhabits its definition. At a certain point, the oppo
deconstructs, itself. Deconstruction's project is not to reverse the hierarchy implicit in each opposition, so that
man, or culture over nature, but instead to demonstrate that the valued term (man or nature) isn't exempt fro
attributed to the devalued one (woman or culture).

texts cannot be restricted to a unified reading, but rather have multiple meanings because of plurality of langu

meaning is differential, not referential. To say that meaning is differential, not referential is to say that meanin
reference to things in the world, or even to our ideas of things in the world. Instead, language determines how
the world.
the sign and signifier are arbitrarily related. Accordingly, words/signifiers are meaningful only in relation to ea
the world.

Consciousness is not the origin of meaning or signification. Rather it is an effect of signification. In other word
language (and the ideology it carries) Poststructuralism posits that our subjectivity is produced by the langua
inhabit. We can't think outside of that system even when we critique it.

Intersectionality is a concept often used in critical theories to describe the ways in which oppressive institutio
homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined se
The concept first came from legal scholar Kimberleé Crenshaw in 1989 and is largely used in critical theories, e
when discussing systematic oppression. When possible, credit Kimberleé Crenshaw for coining the term "inters
the concept to wider attention.

an intervening space, especially a very small one. / 1

a : a space that intervenes between things; especially : one between closely spaced things interstices of a wall
b : a gap or break in something generally continuous the interstices of society
passages of genuine literary merit in the interstices of the ludicrous … plots — Joyce Carol Oates
: a short space of time between events

the presence rather than absence of a certain substance, condition, or feature.

existing or occurring in the same period of time.

having or showing great knowledge or learning. learned, scholarly, educated, knowledgeable, well read, well i

dependent on chance; uncertain.

the ability to produce an abundance of offspring or new growth; fertility.
money in the form of coins rather than notes.
(of an inhabitant of a place) indigenous rather than descended from migrants or colonists. / GEOLOGY
(of a deposit or formation) formed in its present position.
understood as a universal science of measurement and order.
extreme greed for wealth or material gain.
A doxology (Ancient Greek: δοξολογίία doxologia, from δοί ξα, doxa, "glory" and -λογίία, -logia, "saying") is a shor
various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns.

unable to be explained or accounted for. / unaccountable, unexplainable, incomprehensible, unfathomable, im

a thing that causes disgust or hatred. / a feeling of hatred. / atrocity, disgrace, horror, obscenity, outrage, evil, c
anathema, bane
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and t
service, ceremony, rite, observance, celebration, sacrament

The subaltern is a technical term for a certain kind of dispossessed person. It is a person who fits within the m
Oppressor/Oppressed as the being so marginalized as to not even have the ‘voice’ of the oppressed. So, symbo
colonizer is Self, the colonized is Other, and all of those who are invisible to both Self and Other are the subalte
most theoretical look at the subaltern, and her work is still the root text for a discussion of the subaltern, in he
Speak?” The answer to the title of her essay is no. The subaltern does not have a voice. Indeed, technically, onc
they are no longer the subaltern. They become Other, merely altern

the quality of being clear, logical, and convincing; lucidity.

effective, effectual, successful, productive, constructive, potent;

1. Philosophy. the theory that only the self exists, or can be proved to exist.
2. extreme preoccupation with and indulgence of one's feelings, desires, etc.; egoistic self-absorption.


utilitarian knowledge / task-oriented knowledge

transformative and critical knowledge

relating to or using analysis or logical reasoning. / systematic, logical, scientific, methodical, left-brained, (wel
orderly, meticulous, rigorous; diagnostic

The imperialist expansion of Europe into the rest of the world during the last four hundred years in which a do
carried on a relationship of control and influence over its margins or colonies. This relationship tended to exte
economic, political, and broadly culturally exchanges often with a hierarchical European settler class and local
elite class forming layers between the European "mother" nation and the various indigenous peoples who wer
carried within it inherent notions of racial inferiority and exotic otherness.

Broadly a study of the effects of colonialism on cultures and societies. It is concerned with both how European
controlled "Third World" cultures and how these groups have since responded to and resisted those encroach
both a body of theory and a study of political and cultural change, has gone and continues to go through three

an initial awareness of the social, psychological, and cultural inferiority enforced by being in a colonized state
the struggle for ethnic, cultural, and political autonomy
a growing awareness of cultural overlap and hybridity

the ambiguous way in which colonizer and colonized regard one another. The colonizer often regards the colo
exotically other, while the colonized regards the colonizer as both enviable yet corrupt. In a context of hybridi
mixed sense of blessing and curse.

"the state of being other or different"; the political, cultural, linguistic, or religious other. The study of the ways
themselves different from others.
the process by which a colonizing power assimilates either a subaltern native elite or a larger population to its
the world.
the voluntary or enforced migration of peoples from their native homelands. Diaspora literature is often conc
maintaining or altering identity, language, and culture while in another culture or country.

the essence or "whatness" of something. In the context of race, ethnicity, or culture, essentialism suggests the
deciding what is and isn't a particular identity. As a practice, essentialism tends to overlook differences within
the status quo or obtain power. Essentialist claims can be used by a colonizing power but also by the colonize
is claimed about them.

a fusion of traits that belong to a group–shared values, beliefs, norms, tastes, behaviors, experiences, memorie
related to a person’s identity.

the process by which a cultural practice is made stimulating and exciting in its difference from the colonializer
Ironically, as European groups educated local, indigenous cultures, schoolchildren often began to see their nat
animals as exotic and the European counterparts as "normal" or "typical."
the power of the ruling class to convince other classes that their interests are the interests of all, often not only
and political control but more subtly through the control of education and media.

new transcultural forms that arise from cross-cultural exchange. Hybridity can be social, political, linguistic, re
necessarily a peaceful mixture, for it can be contentious and disruptive in its experience. Note the two related

catalysis: the (specifically New World) experience of several ethnic groups interacting and mixing with each ot
environment that gives way to new forms of identity and experience.

creolization: societies that arise from a mixture of ethnic and racial mixing to form a new material, psychologi

the way in which an individual and/or group defines itself. Identity is important to self-concept, social mores,
It often involves both essentialism and othering.
"a system of values, beliefs, or ideas shared by some social group and often taken for granted as natural or inh
Thompson 494)

In the context of colonialism and post-colonialism, language has often become a site for both colonization and
return to the original indigenous language is often advocated since the language was suppressed by colonizing
languages is a much debated issue among postcolonial authors.

abrogation: a refusal to use the language of the colonizer in a correct or standard way.

appropriation: "the process by which the language is made to 'bear the burden' of one's own cultural experien

the adaptation of Western realist methods of literature in describing the imaginary life of indigenous cultures
mythical, magical, and supernatural in a decidedly different fashion from Western ones. A weaving together el
with European realism and elements we associate with the fabulous, where these two worlds undergo a "close

the mapping of global space in the context of colonialism was as much prescriptive as it was descriptive. Maps
process of aggression, and they were also used to establish claims. Maps claims the boundaries of a nation, fo

("grand narratives," "master narratives.") a large cultural story that seeks to explain within its borders all the
metanarrative claims to be a big truth concerning the world and the way it works. Some charge that all metan
oppressive because they decide whether other narratives are allowed or not.

the means by which the colonized adapt the culture (language, education, clothing, etc.) of the colonizer but al
changing it in important ways. Such an approach always contains it in the ambivalence of hybridity.
an aggregation of people organized under a single government. National interest is associated both with a stru
and cultural identity, and ironically an opposite belief in universal rights, often multicultural, with a basis in ge
the move for national independence is just as often associated with region as it is with ethnicity or culture, and
when new nations are formed.

the process (from the late eighteenth century to the present) by which "the Orient" was constructed as an exo
and culture. Orientalism is not so much a true study of other cultures as it is broad Western generalization abo
Asian cultures that tends to erode and ignore their substantial differences.

the social and/or psychological ways in which one group excludes or marginalizes another group. By declaring
tend to stress what makes them dissimilar from or opposite of another, and this carries over into the way they
through stereotypical images.

the division and classification of human beings by physical and biological characteristics. Race often is used b
maintain power or to stress solidarity. In the 18th and19th centuries, it was often used as a pretext by Europe
slavery and/or the "white man's burden."

a system of signs which one knows what something is. Cultural semiotics often provide the means by which a g
which a colonializing power attempts to control and assimilate another group.

space represents a geographic locale, one empty in not being designated. Place, on the other hand, is what hap
or owned. Place involves landscape, language, environment, culture, etc.

the lower or colonized classes who have little access to their own means of expression and are thus dependen
methods of the ruling class to express themselves.

the process by which a person, family, culture, or people is brought into the dominant Eurocentric/Western gl
New Materialism is a category of theories that were generated as a response to the linguistic turn. Infused wit
knowledge-becoming practices and a history linked to feminisms, new materialism attempts to offer a differen
signification, materiality, and methodologies of crafting knowledge.

Knowledge-becoming practices refers to the way that new materialists think about things in the world and wh
Historically, with theories attached to Enlightenment, ontology (what is in the world) and epistemology (what
the world) were considered to be separate and not affecting one another. What new materialists point out is th
what we know about things in the world cannot be considered as different things. What is in the world and wh
the world are constantly shaping one another. While poststructuralists explain that words are fluid (focusing o
materialists point out that materiality too is not stable.

When describing the term new materialisms in their forthcoming book, New Materialism, Iris van der Tuin an

“New materialism is then “new”in the sense that it is an attempt to ‘leap into the future without adequate prep
through becoming, a movement of becoming-more and becoming-other, which involves the orientation to the
unknown future, what is no longer recognizable in terms of the present.' In art this analysis could be the study
Similar to poststructuralism new materialism considers the future as open to countless possibilities that prom

Methodology : Affirmation over criticism

Key Terms, Concepts, Ideas : Transversality / Diffraction / Ontogenesis, generative ontology / Affirmative / Se
epistemology monismimmanencematerial-semioticnatureculture




treat or represent (something abstract) as a concrete reality

Legitimation of knowledge by performativity terrorises the production of ideas. What, then, is the alternative?
better form of legitimation would be legitimation by paralogy. The etymology of this word resides in the Greek
beyond - and logos in its sense as "reason." Thus paralogy is the movement beyond or against reason. Lyotard
universal and immutable human faculty or principle but as a specific and variable human production; "paralog
movement against an established way of reasoning. In relation to research, this means the production of new i
outside of established norms, of making new moves in language games, changing the rules of language games
Location of word

Structuration and Praxeology / Prasad

page 185

1292 107

Laloux, p. xii
Laloux, p. xiii


OT p. 56

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Page 6, Delantry & Strydom book