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# Republic of the Philippines

Department ofEducation
Region XVIII Negros Island Region
Division OfKabankalan City
Inapoy National High School

## Lesson Plan in Statistics and Probability

Time Frame 60min

I. Objectives. At the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

##  develop skills in collecting data

 illustrate how to summarize data (i.e., sort, classify, and organize data in tabular form
and present the summary into a pictographs, bar charts, etc., and/or generate some
summary measures).
 provide meaningful interpretation of data collected

a. Subject Matter
i. Concept Ideas
1. Data Collection
2. Data Exploration

b. Processed Skills
1. Illustrating and presenting data into a pictographs, bar graphs, charts, etc.
2. Interpretation and analysis of data
3. Organizing in collection of data
c. Value Focused

d. Reference
Much of the material here adapted from:
“Candy Judging” Lesson Plan by Susan Haller, St. Cloud State University in STatistics
Education Web (STEW) Online Journal of K-12 Statistics Lesson Plans.
http://www.amstat.org/education/stew/pdfs/CandyJudging.pdf

e. Materials
1. Manila Paper
2. Markers
3. Pictures

## III. Developmental Activity

a. Pre – Activity
i. Prayer
ii. Checking Attendance
iii. Motivation
The teacher will begin the session with a recall of learnings from the first
lesson:

##  data are facts (counts, measurements, or opinions) collected to answer statistical

questions
 data varies across subjects, and they may show up more than once
 Statistics is a science that studies data,
iv. Presentation
Our lesson will be all about collecting and analyzing data. The teacher will enumerate the
ways on how to summarize the information being collected: histograms. Bar charts, tables,
dot plot, pictograms and numerical data (mean, mode, median).
b. Activity Proper

The teacher will divide the students into groups of five, and ask the groups to submit Activity
Sheets Number 1-02. The objective of the activity is to help determine which fruit is the class
favorite among the four fruits banana, watermelon, mango and pineapple. In the Activity Sheet, ask
each student in each group to rank the four fruits banana, mango, pineapple and watermelon
according to order of preference: 1 is the most preferred fruit, and 4 is the least preferred.
Data Exploration: Summarizing the Data of Activity Sheet 1-02 and Interpreting the Results
The teacher will show a copy of the Class Recording Sheet 1-02 to students using Manila paper.
which fruit is the favorite. If the response is positive, ask which fruit is the favorite and which is
least favorite. Be sure to ask what they based their responses on.
One possible method is to take the sum of the responses (lowest sum = favorite, highest sum
= least favorite).
Another method of describing the (“categorical”) data is by using a picture graph. A picture
graph refers to a graph where an object is used to represent one person on a graph. The picture
graph is a variation on the dotplot and bar graph. Students can also make a picture graph of the least
favorite fruit.
Still another method is to use a bar graph. Students should construct a bar graph for each fruit
and use it to compare the distributions.
The teacher will facilitate a discussion about which fruit is most/least favorite, using the recorded
data to help answer the questions. Are there natural groupings among the four fruits? Ask students
to describe any potentially meaningful patterns. There should be a discussion about how to best
interpret the data.
Some students might think that the best way to determine the favorite fruit is to see which one
had the most scores of 1. The teacher should use the word “mode” to describe the fruit that has the
most scores of 1. Students should recognize that this fruit has the highest bar on a bar graph.
You might ask for some disadvantages of using the mode to determine the class favorite. For
example, this doesn’t take into account that the first choice of most students may also be the least
favorite of many classmates.
Another approach to determine the class favorite is to use the median. Although the data in this
set is categorical, it can be placed in order numerically from most to least favorite. The median
score for each candy is determined by the middle number in the data set if there is an odd number of
data points, and by the average of the two middle numbers if there is an even number of data points.
Other students might think that the sum of scores should determine the class favorite. An
advantage of this approach is that all scores would be used to determine the favorite.
Ask students to show their first choices (favorite) and last choices (least favored) in a pie chart.

KEY POINTS

##  There are various ways to summarize and examine data :

o Graphs (pictographs, bar graphs)
o Summary numbers (median, mode)
 There is no unique way to determine the “class favorite” fruit
o Analysis depends on methodology

d. Abstraction. What are the ways on how to summarized or analyze the collected data?
e. Application. Site real – life situations where data needs to be analyze and interpret in
order to have best choices in decision – making.

IV. Evaluation

1. Lina’s class rated the fruits banana, mango, pineapple watermelon from 1 to 4 (with 1 being the
most favored fruit, and 4 being the least favored) Her class’ data is recorded in the chart below.

Lina 4 3 1 2

Kristina 1 4 2 3

Romeo 4 1 3 2

Julia 1 3 4 2

Monina 3 4 1 2

Noel 4 2 1 3

Regi 1 3 4 2

Jose 1 4 2 3

Anna 4 2 1 3

Ramon 4 1 3 2

Dennis 1 3 4 2

Corinne 4 1 2 3

Erik 1 3 4 2

Robert 1 2 4 3

Teresita 4 1 3 2

## Use the approaches below to determine the class favorite.

(a) Find the fruit that was selected as favorite (ranked with a 1) the most often.
Represent this data in a picture graph (or dotplot). Which fruit would represent the class
favorite if this method were used to determine the favorite?

(b) Find the fruit that was selected as least favorite (ranked with a 4) the most often.
Represent this data in a picture graph (or dotplot). Which fruit would represent the least
favorite of the class if this method were used to determine the least favorite?

(c) Find the sum of the scores of the rankings. Which fruit would represent the favorite
if the sum of the class scores was used to determine the favorite? Which fruit would be
the least favorite using this method?

(d) Find the median score of each type of fruit. Which fruit would represent the favorite
if the median was used to determine the favorite? Which fruit would represent the least
favorite if the median was used to determine the favorite?

V. Assignment

(Draw a bar graph of the score distribution for each fruit. Which fruit do you think
would represent the favorite if you use the bar graphs to compare them? Describe the shape of
each distribution in the bar graphs in the previous exercise.
(a) Banana was selected as the favorite the most often.

X
X
X
X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
Banana mango Pineapple watermelon

Fruit

(b) Banana was (also) selected as the least favorite fruit most often.

X
X
X X
X X
X X X
X X X
X X X
Banana mango Pineapple watermelon
Fruit
(c) The sum of the ranked scores is shown. Based on this, the class favorite would be pineapple, and the least
favorite would be watermelon.

## Banana mango Pineapple watermelon

38 37 39 36

(d) The median score of each fruit is shown below. Based on this, watermelon would be the class favorite, and
the least favorite would be a three-way tie: banana, mango and pineapple.
Banana Mango Pineapple watermelon

3 3 3 2
Assignment. Bar graphs for each fruit are shown. Answers will vary as to which fruit should be selected as
most/least favorite.
frequency of responses
banana frequency of responses mango
10
8

8
6

6
4

4
2

2
0
0

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
rank rank

## frequency of responses frequency of responses

pineapple watermelon
5
5

4
4

3
3

2
2

1
1

0
0

1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 rank
rank
ACTIVITY SHEET NUMBER 1-02

1. In the following sheet, list all student numbers of all students who are part of the group. Tell
everyone in the group to rank the four fruits : banana, watermelon, mango, pineapple according
to their order of preference (1) most preferred, (4) least preferred. Submit the information
gathered to the teacher.

## Student Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

Number

2. Provide a copy of the above data to the teacher immediately so that the teacher can enter
information on the class recording sheet.

## Rating Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

1
2
3
4

4. Construct a dotplot of the fruits that received a rating of 1. Which fruit would be rated the
class favorite based on this graph?

## Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

5. Construct a dotplot of the fruits that received a rating of 4. Which fruit would be rated the
least favorite based on this graph?

## Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

6. Find the sum of the scores of the rankings.

## Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

Which fruit would represent the class favorite based on the sum of the scores?

Which fruit would represent the least favorite based on the sum of the scores?

## Banana Mango Pineapple Watermelon

Which fruit would represent the favorite if the median was used to make this decision?

Which fruit would represent the least favorite if the median was used to make this decision?

8. Draw a bar graph of the score distribution for each candy. Which chocolate do you think
would represent the favorite if you use the bar graphs to compare them?

Banana Mango

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Score Score

Pineapple Watermelon

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Score Score
CLASS RECORDING SHEET 1-02 (for the Teacher to fill out and show to the class)

## Fruit  Banana Watermelon Mango Pineapple

Student Number
HOMEWORK

1. Inform students that in the next lesson, groups will be recording heights and weights of
students in each group. Thus, each group must assign someone to bring at least one tape
measure, and preferably, a weighing scale. If weighing scales can not be brought, each group
must go to the clinic before class begins, and take two records of their weights. If tape measures
can also not be brought to class, each group must also get two measurements of their heights
(with the rulers metric, attachment to Lesson 1-03), or with measuring devices in the clinic.
2. On page 2 of Big Picture: Number Crunching, an infographic of data taken from the gov.uk

Website was displayed. The figures related to the number of drivers killed or seriously
injured in Great Britain in 2011 and in the period 2005-2009.

## Age of driver Number killed or seriously

Injured
2005–09 2011
Average
Under 17 33 9
17 231 115
18 410 227
19 389 209
20 to 24 1412 1001
25 to 29 961 670
30 to 39 1493 919
40 to 59 2162 1735
60 to 69 602 539
70 to 79 455 422
80 and over 281 316

Tell students that if they were overseeing the collection of future data, what might be
changed (advice them to think about the age intervals used to record the data gathered)?

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