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Healthy is a future investment that must be truly guarded. If necessary, as

early as possible, even mature adults. Health is second to none for those who love

him, like a classic saying that in coperasano or in a healthy body there is a healthy

soul too. In this modern era, many activities and work activities that we do by sitting

or standing, plus the attraction of gravity has caused toxins from the remnants of

metabolic products buried in the soles of the feet. In addition, lack of exercise and

unattended food causes many people to feel tired, lethargic, lackluster and the onset of

various diseases.

Based on studies conducted by the International Journal of Alternative and

Complementary Medicine, people who suffer from stress and depression feel there is

improvement after undergoing massage therapy for 30 minutes at least every week.

The word massage comes from Arabic mass which means pressing, with age

additions from French. It might also be a massage word from the Maschesch Jewish

language which means to feel. Which uses the word massage is lepage, a Frenchman

in 1813. In Indonesia massage known as massage or massage, massage consists of

gentle massage with the fingers. The method of massage does not yet have a

theoretical basis. So it is necessary to have a means to give instructions on techniques

in massage. More specifically on sports massage.

1.2.Problem formulation

1. What is the definition of massage?

2. What are the benefits of massage?

3. How effectiveness of massage?

4. What are the massage movements?

5. What are the indications and contraindications to massage?

1.3.Purpose of the paper

1. To Knowing what is the definition of massage.

2. To Knowing what are the benefits of massage.

3. To Knowing how effectiveness of massage.

4. To Knowing what are the massage movements.

5. To Knowing what are the indications and contraindications to massage.



Massage is one of the complementary therapies that combines various
techniques in nursing such as touch, relaxation techniques and distraction techniques
(Coyle, et al. 2007). Massage is stimulation of the skin and tissues beneath by using
various levels of hand pressure to reduce pain, relax or improve circulation. Massage
is a part of traditional traditional healing methods. It is believed that this method has
been carried out since ancient human civilization until it continues until the modern
era. Modern massage methods are developed in China and Japan as an alternative
healing for non-medical and psychological therapies.
Massage is generally done in:
- extremity
- neck
- back (back massage)
Back massage is usually given along with bathing clients. can also be done on
other occasions if it seems that the client has a risk of experiencing skin irritation due
to bedrest. when doing back massage, the nurse can assess the condition of the client's
skin and provide the opportunity for the nurse to show caring behavior. the extent of
back massage and the type of pressure used, including the amount of pressure will
determine the effect on the client.

2.2.Benefits of massage
Massage benefits include creating a relaxation response, improving metabolic
processes, improving the function of lympatic tissue, accelerating muscle healing and
relaxation, reducing muscle tension, and stress levels (Tappan & Benjamin, 1998 in
Turner & Merriman, 2005). As for massage therapy is useful to improve blood
circulation, and lymph, by increasing the delivery of oxygen and food substances into
the body's cells, while also increasing metabolic waste from the body (Mulyati, 2009).
Sorting and squeezing stimulates local circulation and soft tissue mobilization.
Psychological benefits are related to reciprocal touch and relaxation processes related

to massage. Massage is useful for improving individual well-being as a separate or
complementary therapy in orthodox medicine. Clinical massage can be used to reduce
stress and improve tissue repair and muscle damage. This therapy can be included in
routine activities such as bathing in the bed and managing the pressure area. Massage
can be used as a separate technique or it can be combined with essence oil which
provides a therapeutic scope.

2.3.Effectiveness of massage
A recent study shows that patients at all ages reduce their anxiety symptoms
by half within 3 months after undergoing a massage therapy for 10 hours. This study
is the first study to examine the effectiveness of massage therapy as a therapy for
patients who experience anxiety. The researchers randomly assigned 68 patients who
had anxiety problems to undergo 1 of 3 therapies namely 10 hours of massage therapy
while listening to music, lying & breathing slowly while listening to music and in the
third group of patients wrapped in arms & legs with heating pads & warm towels
while listening to music. The three groups did not show different results after 3
months. This discovery was published recently in the journal Depression and Anxiety.
This massage therapy has a high enough effectiveness, in addition to mechanistic
launch has the ability to train the nerves and muscles of the body so that the body is
more fit, and can ward off various diseases. Many diseases can be cured starting from
minor illnesses such as fatigue - tiredness, dizziness, flatulence to severe diabetes,
heart disease, cancer, hernia, weak sahwat, nervous nerves, etc.

2.4.Massage movements
a. Wiping (Efflurage / strocking)
Is a rubbing motion using your palms or finger pads. This movement is carried
out in accordance with the circulation of blood to the heart and lymph nodes. The
benefit of this movement is to relax the muscles and nerve endings.
b. Squeeze (Petrisage/Kneading)
Is the movement of massage or squeezing using the palms or fingers. This
technique is used in areas of body fat and thick muscle tissue.
c. Friction

Is a small circular motion with a deeper emphasis on the fingers or thumb.
This movement is only used in certain areas of the body that aim to cure muscle
tension due to excess lactic acid.
d. Vibration
Is a vibrating movement caused by the base of the arm using the palm of the
hand or fingers.
e. Hit (tapotement / tapping)
Is a pat or beat movement and is stimulating muscle tissue, done with both
hands alternately. To get a light hand, it does not hurt the client but stimulates
according to its purpose, it requires wrist flexibility. Tapotement should not be
worn on areas with prominent bones or on tight muscles and areas that feel pain or
Tapotement movement variations, namely:
- Beating
- Hacking
- Clapping

2.5.Indications And Contraindications Massage

1. Indication of Massage
a. The use of massage is generally recommended after working hard because it is
very beneficial in helping to restore the body to a recovered state. Massage
helps relieve fatigue with all the symptoms that accompany it, such as aches,
stiffness, pain, or feeling weak. Such massage is usually done to the whole
body for a long time, approximately one hour.
b. Work is light but continuous, such as sitting or standing too long or in work
that causes fatigue and boredom. In this case fatigue may be mental or
physical. Usually the massage at the end of the task returns the body and
feeling comfortable again.
c. In the world of adult sports, massage has become part of the effort to maintain
conditions for sportsmen during training, before the match, during the match,
and after the game. In sending the sports team today always includes at least
one masseur.
d. To treat and restore the function of the body after injury, helps to speed up the
healing process. Often massage is needed to continue the doctor's work, for
example after recovering from surgery or treatment of a fracture. His job is to
restore muscle and joint functions that usually experience stiffness.
2. Contraindications to massage
In certain circumstances massage is not permitted and is a contra indication. This
usually involves the following conditions:
a. In conditions of infection with infectious diseases such as smallpox, measles,
fever, liver, and others.
b. Body temperature rises high due to infection.
c. In a state of severe illness that requires proper rest.
d. Suffering from diseases related to blood vessels such as automatic, automatic
and others.
e. In any type of severe neurological diseases such as chorea and omatic patients.
f. Suffering from haemophilia, because bleeding tends to occur, even though the
cause is unclear.
g. Suffering from certain diseases that when dimassage can cause widespread
infections such as boils, ulcers, etc.
h. Swelling due to new injuries that indicate internal bleeding. Capillaries that
were broken and closed can break again when dimassage. Judges on wounds
that have not healed or just recovered.
i. Broken bones that have just healed. Massage can interfere with the location of
the connection.
j. Suffering from tumor or cancer.
k. While being omati month or in young pregnancy. Also in inflammation of
appendicitis (appendicitis), gastroenteritis, coliis, etc. Likewise if there is a
stone in the gallbladder.
l. Suffering from high blood pressure, cerebral hemorrhage, heart and lung
m. client with vetebral fracture
n. rib / rib fracture
o. Burns
p. open wounds
q. heart attack




Massage is stimulation of the skin and tissues beneath by using various levels

of hand pressure to reduce pain, relax or improve circulation. Massage is a part of

traditional traditional healing methods. It is believed that this method has been carried

out since ancient human civilization until it continues until the modern era. Modern

massage methods are developed in China and Japan as an alternative healing for non-

medical and psychological therapies.


After understanding about massage as a complementary therapy, students,

especially readers and nurses, can take the essence of this paper so that they can apply

it in the world of education or in the world of work because massage as a

complementary therapy is very beneficial for patients.