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水泥烧成系统耐火材料砌筑使用维护说明书

Use and Maintenance Manual for the Refractory Material Masonry of Cement Burning
System

(含窑尾预热器、回转窑、篦冷机、三次风管、窑头罩)
(Including the preheater at kiln inlet, rotary kiln, grate cooler, tertiary air duct, kiln outlet
cover)

编制: 马 治 杰

Compiled by : Ma Zhijie

审核: 王 文 煜

Checked by : Wang Wenyu

批准: 吕 海 利

Approved by : Lv Haili

洛阳矿山机械工程设计研究院有限责任公司
Luoyang Mining Machinery Engineering Design Institute Co., Ltd

2016.8
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目录 Catalogue

1、衬砌施工总体明 General instruction for the lining masonry construction………………3


2、回转窑窑衬砌筑施工说明 Construction instructions for the rotary kiln lining masonry…7
3、窑尾预热器系统衬砌施工说明 The lining construction instructions of the preheater
system on the kiln inlet…………………………………………………………………15
4、三次风管衬砌施工说明 Lining construction instructions of tertiary air duct …………19
5、篦冷机、窑头罩衬砌施工说明 Lining construction description of grate cooler and kiln head
hood ……………………………………………………………………………………20
6、浇注料施工一般说明 General descriptions of castable construction……………………22
7、冬天、雨天及暑天施工一般说明 General requirements of construction during winter,
rainy day and summer……………………………………………………………………26
8、衬砌施工的检查验收 Inspection and acceptance for lining construction ………………27
9、点火与烘窑 Firing and kiln drying ………………………………………………………31
10、维护检查 Maintenance&inspection………………………………………………………33

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1、衬砌施工总体明 General instruction for the lining masonry construction

1.1 、新型干法水泥厂烧成系统包括窑尾预热器(含旋风筒、连接风管、分解炉等)、回
转窑、篦冷机、窑头罩、三次风管等设备,最大特点是物料、空气介质温度较高,壳体
必须砌筑耐火材料、隔热材料,用于保护设备、减少热损失、提高生产效率,同时也避
免人体受到热伤害。
1.1 The burning system of new type dry cement plant includes the kiln inlet
preheater(containing cyclone, connecting air duct, calciner and so on), the rotary kiln, the grate
cooler, the kiln outlet cover, the tertiary air duct and so on. With the feature of high
temperature of materials and air media, the shell must have the refractory materials and
insulation materials laid to protect the equipment, reduce heat loss, improve production rate
and at the same time to avoid human body being hurt by heat.
这种有耐火材料、隔热材料及锚固材料等砌筑起来的设备内部衬体,统称为衬砌。
The masonry inside the equipment laid by refractory materials, insulation materials and
anchor materials is called lining.

1.2
1.2、衬砌是设备的一部分,其施工质量的好坏直接影响到设备的正常运转,因此,用户
(或承包单位)应选择有经验的专业技术人员负责衬砌所用材料的采购、检查及验收;
选择有施工资质的专业施工队伍进行施工,实际操作人员应具有专业砌筑施工经验。
1.2 The lining is one part of the equipment and its construction quality directly affects the
normal operation of the equipment. Therefore, the user(or contractor) shall choose experienced
professionals to be responsible for the purchasing, checking and acceptance of the lining
materials, and select the qualified professional construction team to perform the construction.
The operators shall have the experience of professional masonry construction.

1.3
1.3、衬砌材料的品种、牌号、尺寸规格必须符合图纸要求,其理化性能指标及耐火砖尺
寸公差,如果在图样中标出了供货商的,按其企业标准生产;如果未明确材料供货商的 ,

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则必须符合设计要求及相关国家(或行业)标准。到场的耐火砖、浇注料必须附有合格
证,并经用户(或承包单位)专业人员及第三方(监理)检验、验收。
1.3 The varieties, grades and specifications of the lining materials must meet the requirements
of drawings. If the materials suppliers have been indicated in the drawings, the chemical and
physical performance index and refractory bricks size tolerance of the lining materials shall
satisfy the production standards of their suppliers. If there is no indication about the supplier,
the design requirements and relevant national(or industrial) standards shall be met. The
refractory bricks and castable arriving at site must be attached with certificates and be checked
and accepted by the professionals of user(or contractor) and the third party(supervisor).

1.4
1.4、耐火泥浆必须与耐火砖性能匹配,不同类型的耐火砖、耐火泥浆不得混用。
1.4 The refractory slurry must match the performance of the refractory bricks. The refractory
bricks and refractory slurry of mismatched types shall not be mixed.

1.5
1.5、衬砌材料的运输、验收、堆放及保管应符合《GB10325》的有关规定,尤其注意在
运输及存放过程中切记严防受潮,不得露天存放,如发现失效或质量变坏,严禁使用;
耐火砖必须妥善保管,搬运过程中要轻拿轻放,避免损坏和掉角,并按砖号分别堆放。
1.5 The transportation, acceptance, stacking and storage of the lining masonry materials shall
comply with the relevant provisions of GB10325. It needs special attention that during the
process of transportation and storage, the materials shall be prevented from moisture. Open-air
storage is not allowed. Do not use the materials if they are found to be invalid or become
worse in quality. The refractory bricks arriving at the site must be kept properly and handled
gently during transportation to avoid damage and arris defect. The stacking shall be based on
the brick number.

1.6、锚固件是耐火浇注料的构筑物,是衬砌中的重要部分,必须按图纸要求选材、制作 、
1.6
焊接及施工检查。
1.6 As the structure of refractory castable, the anchors are the key part of the lining. The
material selection, manufacture, construction, welding and inspection of the anchors must meet
the requirements of drawings.
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1.6.1
1.6.1、应严格按图纸设计的材料牌号、尺寸规格进行采购,对进场材料的主要成分及性
能进行随机取样送检。
1.6.1 The purchasing must be in strict accordance with the material designation and
specification designed in the drawings. Radom sampling test for the main ingredients and
properties of the materials entering into the site shall be carried out.

1.6.2
1.6.2、锚固件制作应按图纸要求进行。对低合金钢、不锈钢、耐热钢本身以及施工时与
普通钢之间焊接所选用的焊条也应符合图纸要求,应保证锚固件本身以及施工时锚固件
与壳体间焊缝的形式和焊脚高度,用户(或承包单位)及监理部门应随时对焊缝质量进
行抽检。
1.6.2 The manufacture of anchors shall meet the requirements of drawings.The low alloy steel,
the stainless steel, the heat-resistant steel and the welding rods used for the weld between
ordinary steel during construction shall also satisfy the requirements of drawings. The anchors
themselves and the welds types and the weld joint height between anchors and shell must be
ensured. The user(or contractor) and the supervision department shall perform casual
inspection for the welds quality at any time.

1.7
1.7、衬砌施工前应做好下列工作:
1.7 The following work shall be prepared well before lining construction:
a)、应仔细阅读本说明书并熟悉有关衬砌图纸,掌握设计意图;
A) This manual shall be read carefully and the relevant lining drawings shall be familiar with
so as to understand the design intention.
b)、阅读衬砌材料厂家所提供的产品使用说明书,掌握其技术参数和施工要求;
B) Read the product use instructions provided by the manufactures of lining materials to grasp
their technical parameters and construction requirements.
c)、准备好耐火砖、耐火泥、隔热料、浇注料等耐火材料,并按图纸核对尺寸,做好标
记,以防施工中混用;
C) Prepare the refractory materials including refractory bricks, refractory clay, insulation
materials and castable. Check the dimensions based on the drawings and make marks to avoid
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mixed use during construction.
d)、施工人员应熟悉拟施工的设备情况,做到心中有数,对不合格的焊缝、变形的壳体
等缺陷进行修正处理,如有衬砌施工与设备安装交叉进行时,应做好交叉施工方案;
D) The constructors shall be familiar with the equipment for construction and correct the
defects such as unqualified welds and deformed shell. If there is crossing construction for
lining construction and equipment installation, the cross construction plan shall be prepared
well.
e)、水源、电源、照明、运输和提升设备、安全设施应安装到位,并检验合格。
E) The water supply, power supply, lighting, conveying and lifting equipment and safety
facilities shall be installed in place and qualified.
f)、保证有合理的施工区域及运输系统,避免与其它工程施工相互干扰,施工结束现场
应清理干净;
F) It shall be ensured that there are reasonable construction area and transportation system as as
to avoid interference with other project construction. The construction site shall be cleaned up
when the construction is finished.
g)、准备好切砖机、磨砖机、砂浆搅拌机等砌筑加工设备;准备好木槌、瓦刀、皮桶等
砌筑工具和必要的模板、锁缝钢板、纸板、脚手架等材料;
G) Prepare the masonry processing equipment such as the brick cutter, brick grinder, mortar
mixer and so on. The masonry tools such as the mallet, cleaver, leather bucket and so on as
well as necessary formworks, locking seam steel plates, paper boards and scaffolds shall also
be prepared.
h)、建立施工组织,明确相关人员职责范围,操作人员必须进行安全教育及必要的技术
教育;
H) Establish the construction organization to clear the responsibility range of relevant
personnel. The operators must accept the safety education and necessary technical education
when entering into the site.

1.8
1.8、衬砌施工过程中应注意人身安全,按照《职业健康安全管理体系规范》[GB/T28001-
2001]要求,制定安全生产规程,做到文明施工。
1.8 Great attention shall be paid to human safety during lining construction. The safety
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production regulations shall be made according to the requirements of Occupational Health
and Safety Management System Regulation [GB/T28001-2001], to achieve civilized
construction.

1.9
1.9、衬砌施工前,拟施工的设备应已经验收、交接,并已经将杂物清理干净。
1.9 The equipment for construction shall have been accepted and handed over before lining
construction and the debris shall have been cleared.

1.10、需要在吊装前砌筑或浇筑耐火材料的部位,应预先施工,砌筑施工应至少养护 10h
1.10
后方可吊装作业。
1.10 The parts requiring refractory laying or casting before lifting shall be constructed in
advance. The lifting work shall not be performed until the masonry construction has been
maintained for at least 10h.

1.11
1.11、本说明书只是提出了衬砌施工过程中应该遵守的一般技术要求及施工指导意见,
为取得更好的砌筑效果,不排除施工单位根据自己的施工经验所采取的其它施工方法,
施工单位应根据具体工程制定衬砌施工技术方案及安全操作规程。同时,未提及的情况
可参照耐火材料供货商提供的详细施工说明书,并与设计单位联系以求妥善处理。
1.11 This manual only proposes the general technical requirements and construction guides
which shall be complied with during the lining construction. In order to achieve better
masonry effect, other construction methods can also be adopted by the construction unit
according to its own experience. The construction unit shall develop the technical proposal and
safety operation regulations for the lining construction based on the specific project.
Meanwhile, the conditions not mentioned in this manual can refer to the detailed construction
instruction provided by the refractory material supplier, and shall be handled properly through
communication with the design unit.

2、回转窑窑衬砌筑施工说明 Construction instructions for the rotary kiln lining masonr


masonryy

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2.1
2.1、回转窑是烧成系统最重要的回转设备,施工周期长,对砌筑质量的要求最高,因此
施工单位必须特别重视。
2.1 The rotary kiln is the most important equipment in the burning system. With a long
construction period and a highest requirements for the masonry quality, its construction must
be paid special attention to by the construction unit.

2.2
2.2、窑衬砌筑前应做好如下准备工作:
2.2 The following work shall be prepared well before lining masonry:
a)、首先检查筒体内部焊接情况。检查焊缝是否突出筒体表面,焊缝允许突出筒体表面
的高度为:烧成带区域不大于 0.5mm,其它区域不大于 1.5mm,否则必须进行打磨处理 。
检查或调整挡砖圈,使之垂直于筒体中心线。
A) Firstly, check the welding condition inside the shell. Check if the welds are higher than the
surface. The allowed height is: not more than 0.5mm in the burning zone area and not more
than 1.5mm in other area. Otherwise, the welds must be treated by grinding. Check or adjust
the brick retaining ring to make it vertical to the center line of shell.
b)、施工前,应保证筒体内部的所有机械施工已经完成,筒体内部必须清扫干净并保持
干燥,排 尽焊渣、 喷砂等松 散颗粒, 锈蚀的筒体表面应打磨干净并烘干。 Before
construction, ensure all the mechanical construction of the internal shell has been completed;
the inside of the shell must be cleaned and kept dry, loose particles such as welding slags and
sand blasting shall be cleaned away and the surface of the shell with corrosion shall be
polished clean and dried.
c)、做好放线工作,沿圆周每 1.5m 左右放筒体纵向基准线一条,每一条基准线都要与筒
体中心线平行;每 10m 放环向基准线一条,每隔 1m 放环向施工控制线一条,环向线均
应相互平行并与筒体中心线垂直;纵向按回转窑的衬砌图纸放出不同的砖号的环向控制
线,并进行标记。 Well conduct the alignment work. set a shell longitudinal reference line
about every 1.5m along the circumference, each reference line shall be parallel to the center
line of the shell; set a circular
reference line every 10m, and set a circular construction control line every 1m ; the circular
lines shall be parallel to each other and vertical to shell center line; for the longitudinal line, set
the circular control line for different types of bricks according to the lining drawing of the kiln
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and mark.

2.3
2.3、回转窑的进料端和出料端(含窑口护板)一般使用不同浇注料,其它部位为不同材
质的耐火砖;施工时先砌筑耐火砖,耐火砖的砌筑遵循由低端(出料端)向高端(进料
端)依次砌筑,最后完成进、出料端浇注料砌筑。The kiln inlet and outlet (including kiln
mouth guard plate) generally use different castable; while other parts use refractory bricks of
different material; When construction, first lay the refractory bricks, following the principle
from the low-end (the outlet) to the high-end (the inlet), finally complete the laying of castable
at the inlet and outlet ends.

2.4、耐火砖的砌筑对于直径大于 4m 的回转窑最好采用拱架法,这种方法采用专门的砌
2.4
砖机进行砌筑,速度快、质量好,砌筑时不须转窑且砌筑长度不限。施工条件不允许时
可采用螺旋支撑法,所用螺旋支撑已随回转窑设备安装工具发到现场。也可采用其它施
工方法砌筑。
For the diameter of the rotary kiln greater than 4 m, it is advisable to use the central method to
lay the refractory brick. with this method, a special piler is used featuring high speed and good
quality and there is no need to rotate the kiln and no limit to the masonry length. If it is not
available for the construction condition, Spiral support method can be used. All the spiral
support used has already sent to the site with the equipment installation tools of the rotary kiln.
Other masonry methods can also be used.

2.5、回转窑筒体衬砖施工采用环砌法。碱性材料宜用干砌(小型回转窑也可湿砌),但
2.5
筒体轮带处上下各 2m 范围内一般采用湿砌;高铝质耐火砖采用湿砌或干砌。 The
construction of the kiln shell lining bricks uses circular masonry method. Dry masonry is
appropriate for alkaline material(small rotary kiln may use wet masonry ) but wet masonry is
usually adopt within 2m from the top of the kiln tyre and within 2m from the bottom of the
kiln tyre. High aluminum refractory brick adopts wet masonry or dry masonry.

2.6、回转窑耐火砖螺旋支撑法的湿砌 Wet masonry of kiln refractory with spiral- support


2.6
method
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a)、螺旋支撑法砌筑时,应把窑的长度进行分段(每段砌筑长度 4~5m),环向砌筑采用
转动窑体进行平行流水作业。若采用湿砌则先在筒体上铺约 2mm 厚底泥(不得采用对
金属有腐蚀性的耐火泥),然后开始砌筑,若筒体表面不平,应用耐火泥找平。For the
spiral-support method for the masonry, section the kiln length (the masonry length of each
section is 4 ~ 5 m ). The circular masonry uses parallel flow process by rotating the kiln body.
For wet masonry, first lay about 2 mm thick bottom sediment (fireclay corrosive to metals
must not be used ) on the kiln, then start the masonry work; in case of uneven shell surface,
level it with fireclay.
b)、窑体每段的第一环砖从窑体下半部的底端开始,准确地按画在筒体上的纵向基准线
并以筒体为导向面进行砌筑(筒体轴向两圈之间错缝半块砖,圈间砖缝均为 2mm,一圈
中各砖缝约 1.0mm 左右),以第一列砖为基准,沿圆周方向同时均衡地向两边砌筑。砖
的侧面延伸线必须对准回转窑筒体中心,本回转窑采用不同楔角的两种楔形砖沿筒体进
行围砌,同时每环均备有两种不同尺寸的插缝砖各两块,以备调整砖缝。楔形砖、插缝
砖均不得加工使用。The bricks of the first ring of each section of the kiln shall be started from
the bottom of the lower half of the kiln body, accurately build according to the vertical
reference line and the shell used as guide surface,(staggered half brick between two shell axial
circles, brick joint between circles is all 2 mm and each brick joint of a circle is about 1.0 mm);
with the brick of the first line used as a reference, build simultaneously along the
circumferential direction towards both sides. The side extension line of the brick must be
aligned with the shell center of the rotary kiln. The kiln use two different types of wedge
brick with different wedge angles to build along the shell and at the same time each ring are
equipped with two pieces of inserting bricks of two different sizes to adjust the brick
joint.Wedge bricks and inserting bricks shall not be processed during use.
c)、每砌数列砖后,用 2m 长靠尺和弧形样板检查,防止砖列倾斜并保证窑衬内表面平
整。砖缝应横平竖直,环砌时的环缝偏差不大于 2mm/m,全环长度不大于 8mm。After the
building of several lines of the bricks, check with 2 m running rule and arc template to prevent
the inclination of the brick lines and ensure the flatness of the inner surface of the kiln lining.
The brick joint shall be straight and even. The deviation of the ring gap during circular
masonry is not greater than 2mm/m and full length shall not be greater than 8mm.

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d)、窑体砌体超过半周 1~2 列后,即暂停砌砖,开始进行转窑的准备工作。When the
masonry of the kiln body exceeds 1 ~ 2 lines of half circle, temporarily suspend the building of
the bricks, and start the preparations for rotating the kiln.
e)、待砌体的泥浆基本凝固后,沿内衬的最后几列砖设置木板或方木,木板应压住最外
列砖砖厚的 3/4。在木板之间每隔 1.2m~1.4m 用顶杆支撑,丝杠一定要拧紧防止脱落。
After the slurry of the masonry is basically solidified, wooden plate or block shall be set along
the inner lining at the last few lines of bricks. The plate shall press 3/4 thickness of the
outermost line of bricks. Use push rod to support every 1.2m~1.4m between the plates and the
screw rod must be tightened to prevent it off.
f)、全部支撑完毕后,要反复检查支撑是否牢固,并在木板和砖的缝隙内用木楔楔紧。After
the completion of all supports, repeatedly check whether the supports are steady and use
wooden wedge at the gap of plate and brick to tighten.
g)、转窑的速度必须缓慢,以便控制旋转位置,当转到预定位置时,立即在轮带和托轮
间垫塞木楔,防止因窑的偏重而自行回转。
The rotating speed of the kiln must be slow in order to control the rotational position; when
reaching the expected position, insert the wooden wedge between the tyre and supporting roller
to prevent the self-rotation caused by the uneven weight of the kiln.
h)、每段砌体转窑分两次进行,第一次转窑系将窑体旋转 1/4,随即检查砌体是否有因转
窑而引起的松动、裂缝及脱离窑壳等情况发生,发现后应予以补救和纠正,然后开始从
窑体下半部沿圆周方向继续将内衬砌至窑的水平直径上下 1~2 列砖处,并进行支撑加
固和第二次转窑,使窑体未砌部分转到下部,继续砌砖并进行锁口。The rotation of each
masonry shall be divided into two steps; for the first rotation of the kiln, rotate1/4 kiln body
and check whether there are loose, cracks and separation from the shell arising from the
rotation of the kiln; if any, remedy and correct immediately. From the lower part of the kiln
body along the circumferential direction, continue to build the lining to about 1-2 lines of brick
from the horizontal diameter, then support and fix and rotate the kiln secondly to make the
unbuilt part turn to the lower, then continue the brickwork and lock .
当一圈剩 6~7 列砖时,即对锁口进行组合排列,窑衬在最后 2~3 列处锁口,锁口处的
2~3 列砖要同时砌筑,插缝砖从侧面打入,每段最后一块砖不能从侧面加入时,可将该

11
砖从上面打入,但其底部和侧面均用耐火泥浆严密填实,最后可在周围的几块砖缝内打
入铁板使其牢固,但铁板不得重叠。When 6 ~ 7 lines of bricks are left for one circle, arrange
and combine the locking. For the kiln lining, lock it at the last 2 ~ 3 lines of bricks. The 2 ~ 3
lines of bricks at the locking area shall be built at the same time and the inserting bricks shall
be inserted in the brick joint form the side. If the last brick of each section shall be not built
from the side, it can be inserted from the top, but its bottom and side shall be filled completely
with refractory mortar; finally knock the iron plate into the surrounding few brick joints to
make it stable. The iron plate must not overlap.
i)、每砌完一段,等泥浆凝固后即可使窑体旋转几周,无松动、掉砖现象即可开始砌筑
下一段筒体。After the masonry of a section, rotate the kiln for several cycles after the mortar
gets solidified; if there is no such phenomena as looseness and the falling of bricks, start the
masonry of the next section.
j)每一块砖砌筑后均用木槌敲打几下。最后锁口处打入砖时应用木板垫在砖上,不能直
接打在砖面上。knock every brick with a wooden mallet several times after the masonry. At
the final locking, when knocking in the bricks, place the wooden plate on the brick and don’t
knock directly on the surface of the bricks.
k)、回转窑窑头、窑尾及其它适当部位,一般设有单层或双层挡砖圈。挡砖圈有两种,
双层挡砖圈间应填满火泥或优质硅酸铝纤维棉,一般挡砖圈布置形式如下:the kiln outlet,
inlet and other appropriate places are all equipped with single or double brick retaining rings.
There are two kinds of double brick retaining rings. Fire clay or high quality aluminum silicate
fiber cotton shall be used to fill the places between the double brick-retaining rings. Generally
The arrangement of the brick-retaining ring is as follows:

物料流动方向 material flowing direction 物料流动方向 material flowing direction


→ →

12
l)、轴向错位砌筑时,其纵向砖缝应根据纵向基准线砌筑,并同窑轴线在同一平面内,
扭曲不得大于 3mm/m,同时在同一砌筑段全长不得大于 20mm。For axial misalignment
masonry, the longitudinal brick joint shall be built according to the vertical reference line
within the same plane with the kiln axis; the distortion shall not be greater than 3 mm/m, at the
same time the full length within the same masonry section must not be greater than 20 mm.

2.7
2.7、窑体内衬砖施工的基本要求为:砖衬紧贴壳体、砖与砖靠严、砖缝直、交圈准、锁
砖牢、不错位、不下垂脱空。总之,要确保砖衬与窑体运行中可靠的同轴,砖衬内的应
力要均匀地分布在整个衬里和每块衬砖上。The basic requirements for lining bricks of the
kiln body: brick lining tightly close to the shell, tightly contacted bricks, straight brick joints,
stable locking bricks, no misalignment and no sagging and separation. In a word, to ensure the
reliable co-axiality of the brick lining and the kiln, the stress of the brick lining shall be evenly
distributed inside the whole lining and each lining brick.
湿法砌筑时砖的非工作面都要涂抹火泥,每砌一块砖均要用木槌敲打,挤出多余的
火泥,并保证满浆。For wet masonry, non-working surfaces of the bricks shall be coated with
fire clay; knock every brick after the building with a wooden mallet to squeeze out excess fire
clay and ensure enough fireclay.

2.8、当窑的内衬采用干砌时,接缝钢板厚度一般为 1~1.2mm,要求钢板平整、不卷边、
2.8
不扭曲、无毛刺。每块板宽小于砖宽 10mm。砌筑时钢板不得超出砖边,不得出现钢板
探空和搭桥现象,每条缝中最多只允许使用一块钢板。调整用的窄钢板应尽量少用。纸
板砖缝按设计要求设置。For dry masonry of kiln inner lining, the thickness of the steel plate
for joint is usually 1-1.2 mm and the plate shall be flat with no edge, no distortion and no burr.
The width of each plate is less than the brick width 10mm. During masonry, the plate shall not
exceed the edge of the brick and the stretching and bridging of the plate are no allowed. Only
one steel plate is allowed in each joint. Use as few narrow plates for adjustment as possible.
Cardboard brick joints shall be set according to the requirements of design.

2.9、回转窑浇注料的施工 Construction of kiln castable


2.9

13
浇注料在施工中应注意以下几点:The following shall be paid attention to during the
construction of the castable:
a)、将窑口筒体内表面清扫干净;clean the inner surface of the shell of kiln outlet
b)、焊锚固件。锚固件按图纸要求的间距交错布置,无要求时 V 型锚固件按间距 150mm~
200mm,Y 型锚固件间距按 200mm~250mm。
Welding anchoring pieces. The anchoring pieces shall be staggered arranged according to the
requirements of drawings; in case of no requirements, the spacing of v-type anchoring pieces
shall be 150mm~200mm and that of Y-type anchoring pieces shall be 200 mm ~ 250 mm.
c)、浇筑前,应擦拭掉锚固件上的铁锈,并涂上一层 2mm 厚沥青漆或裹上一层 2mm 厚
黑胶布作为膨胀空间。Before casting, wipe out the rust on the anchoring pieces and coat
with a layer of 2 mm thick bituminous paint or wrap a layer of black tape of 2 mm thick as
expansion space.
d)、在窑体圆周方向按 600~1200mm 长划分,分段施工。
Section the kiln body along circumference direction as per the length of 600 ~ 1200 mm and
construct.
e)、金属模板要使用不小于 3.2mm 厚钢板,木模应使用不小于 20mm 厚板材,施工时要
充分加固,不得鼓出,模板表面应涂油。
Metal templates uses the steel plates of not less than 3.2 mm thick, wooden template uses the
plates of not less than 20 mm thick. Fully reinforce during the construction without no
projecting. The template surface should be greased.

f)、浇注料与耐火砖之间须垫 2mm 厚纸板或耐火纤维毯,与浇注料接触的耐火砖表面须


用塑料薄膜隔离,以防止耐火砖吸水受潮。2 mm thick cardboard or refractory fiber blanket
shall be used between the castable and refractory bricks. The surface of the refractory brick
contacting with the castable shall be separated with plastic film to prevent the moisture.
g)、采用图纸要求的浇注料品种及牌号,按照供应商提供的配比及施工方法操作。Use the
castable of required kinds and names and follow the proportioning and construction methods
provided by the supplier.
h)、窑头、窑尾浇注料各要求有一道环向缝,缝宽 10mm,且按 d)项浇筑时膨胀缝应错

14
开 20mm。A circular joint with the width of 10mm is required on both kiln outlet and inlet and
according to article d), the expansion joints should stagger 20 mm during pouring.
i)、浇筑时边浇筑边用振动棒捣打,力求密实。During pouring, pouring while tamping with a
vibrator to make it impacted.
j)、浇筑好的部位,至少要养护 8h 以上方可拆模,脱模后须洒水养护 2 天 。The poured places
shall be cured for at least 8 hours before the removal of the template; water-cured time shall be
2 days after the removal of the template.

3 、窑尾预热器系统衬砌施工说明 The lining construction instructions of the preheater


system on the kiln inlet

3.1
3.1、该系统部件较多且内壁复杂,有直墙、曲面、锥面及顶板等;既有垫硅酸钙板的耐
火砖、浇注料砌筑;也有顶部挂砖、顶部整体浇筑等各种衬砌方式。施工的空间环境条
件较差,因此应精心组织、精心施工,并确保人身安全。The system has many components
and complex linings such as straight wall and curved surface, cone surface and roof, etc.; there
are also many lining masonry methods such as the refractory bricks backed with calcium
silicate board, the masonry of castable, top bricking and one-piece casting of the top. Because
of the poor environment conditions of the construction, it needs good organization and
construction to ensure personal safety.

3.2
3.2、施工前应仔细检查并清除设备安装过程中所遗留的各种杂物。
Before construction, carefully check and remove all sorts of sundries left during the installation
process of the equipment.

3.3
3.3、施工时一般应由系统下部向上部砌筑,也可分部件上、下交叉进行,但需做好安全
防护工作,避免物件坠落。During construction, the masonry shall generally be conducted
from the lower of the system to the upper; it can also be conducted in parts in crossed and it is
necessary to well conduct the safety protection to avoid the falling of the objects.

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3.4
3.4、该系统用耐火砖的部分一般均有优质硅酸钙板作隔热层,在清除金属壳体表面及钙
板表面杂质后,硅酸钙板用粘结剂须按供货商提供的高温粘结粉并按说明书要求配以水
玻璃而成,平均按 3.0~3.5kg/m²的用量均匀涂抹于钙板结合面并用力压贴在壳体上。为
防止钙板水化,与耐火砖接触表面须涂抹一层沥青漆。较大平面可使用整块钙板,曲面
部分则须切成条状使用。钙板的厚度在未注明时均为单层厚度,若为两层钙板,则两层
钙板间须涂粘结剂。The places of the system where the refractory bricks are used generally
use high quality calcium silicate board for thermal insulation. After the removal of the
impurities on the metal shell surface and calcium board surface, the adhesive for the calcium
silicate board shall be made by using the high temperature adhesive powder by the supplier
mixed with water glass according to the instructions. Apply on the joint surface with the
calcium board evenly with the average consumption of 3.0 ~ 3.5 kg/m and press hard to tightly
stick onto the shell. In order to prevent the hydration of the calcium board, the surface
contacting with the refractory brick shall be applied with a layer of asphalt paint. For the large
plane, whole piece of calcium board can be used; for the curved surface, it must be divided
into strips for use. If not specified, calcium plate thickness always refers to the thickness of
single layer; in case of two layers of calcium boards, the adhesive must be used between two
calcium boards.

3.5
3.5、按图纸要求砌筑耐火砖,同层各规格耐火砖应交替使用,并注意砖的大小头方向。
有时插缝砖需要加工,但其厚度不得小于原砖的 70%,严禁采取手工方式加工砖。各砖
缝泥浆必须饱满,工作面力求平整,在耐火泥完全硬化前应刮去多余的火泥并用火泥勾
缝。砌砖处的托砖板或浇注料表面必须平整,否则应进行处理。
It shall carry out masonry firebrick according to the drawing requirements, use interchangeably
refractory bricks of various specifications in the same layer and pay attention to the direction of
big and small head to bricks. Sometimes seam inserting brick need to be processed, but its
thickness shall not be less than 70% of the original brick. It is forbidden to adopt the manual
mode to process brick. Each brick joint mud must be full and smooth and the working surface
strives to be flat. Moreover, it shall scrape off the excess fire clay and conduct jointing by the
clay before complete hardening of the refractory mortar. The refractory support at brick laying
or the castable surface must be smooth and flat, otherwise it shall be handled.
16
3.6
3.6、托砖板下一般设有筋板,此处应按图纸要求用耐火砖或浇注料,用耐火砖时为保证
膨胀缝大小或开缺口错开筋板需要加工时,必须用机械方式加工,加工砖不小于原砖的
70%。
Normally, the stiffened plate is equipped under the refractory support. The refractory brick or
the castable shall be used here in accordance with the requirements of drawing. In addition, the
mechanical processing shall be adopted in order to ensure expansion joint size or staggered rib
plate of gap opening when processing refractory brick. The processed brick is not less than
70% of the original brick.

3.7
3.7、图纸要求用浇注料砌筑部分一般均须垫优质硅酸钙板,这时首先须按图纸要求焊好
除锈后的锚固件,锚固件应交错排列,除图纸有专门要求外,V 型锚固件间距不大于
200mm,Y 型锚固件间距不大于 250mm。锚固件须涂 1~2mm 沥青漆或缠黑胶布。
Generally, the high quality calcium silicate board shall be cushioned in the castable masonry
section according to the drawing requirements. First of all, it shall weld de-rusted anchoring
parts well in accordance with the draw requirements. The anchoring parts shall be arranged in a
staggered formation. Besides the drawing have special requirements, it is not more than 200
mm for the spacing of V-shaped anchor and not more than 250 mm for the spacing of Y-shaped
anchor. Finally, the anchoring parts shall be applied with asphalt paint or wrapped black tape.

3.8、对硅酸钙板的铺设要求同 3.4 条,但一般均须切成条状。同时与浇注料接触面必须


3.8
涂以专门防水剂,防水剂用量为 0.3kg/m²。也可涂以 2~3mm 厚沥青漆或其它防水材料 。
The laying requirements of calcium silicate board shall be same with article 3.4, but in general
it is to be cut into strips. At the same time, the contact surface between the board and the
castable has to be coated with a special waterproofing agent with dosage of 0.3kg/m² and also
can be applied with asphalt paint with 2 to 3 mm thick or other waterproof materials.

3.9、旋风筒顶部如果是浇注料,则应事先开好浇筑、震捣孔,孔径尺寸按Φ120~150mm、
3.9
间距 600~800mm 开设。浇注料施工完毕,并且最好在烘炉结束后,在震捣孔处铺好硅

17
酸钙板或耐火纤维棉,补焊钢板。
If it has castable construction on the top of cyclone, it shall open pouring and vibrating hole in
advance with size of Φ 120 to150 mm and spacing of 600 to 800mm. When the castable
construction is completed, it is best to set up calcium silicate board, refractory fiber cotton or
repair welding steel plate on the vibrating hole after completion of furnace drying.

3.10
3.10、旋风筒、风管、分解炉、窑尾烟室等部件均有大量工艺孔洞,浇注料施工前应逐
个清查,焊好锚固件并精心施工,不得遗漏。
There are a large number of technological holes in the parts such as cyclone, air duct, calciner
and feed-end chamber. They need to be checked one by one before the castable construction.
Moreover, the anchoring parts shall be welded well and constructed carefully, and shall not be
missed.

3.11
3.11、各翻板阀、检修门、撒料箱、膨胀节、安装孔盖等均应按要求焊好锚固件,打好
浇注料。各内筒与旋风筒的连接部位按图纸要求填充纤维棉。
It shall weld the anchoring parts and pour castable well as required to each flap valve, access
door, dispersion device, expansion joint and installation hole cover. The connection joints of
each internal cylinder and cyclone shall be filled with fiber cotton according to the
requirements of drawing.

3.12
3.12、旋风筒曲面部分要严格按设计尺寸砌筑。耐火砖或浇注料要平齐,避免出现台阶
或缺口,以保证气流运行畅通。锥体部分要分段施工,斜壁表面斜度要准确,衬里表面
要平滑,以保证生产运行中下料畅通,防止滞料。
The curved part of cyclone is required to be laid strictly in accordance with the design size. The
refractory brick or the castable shall be parallel and level to avoid step or gap and ensure
airflow smooth operation. It shall be constructed in sections for the cone part section, accurate
for the inclination of sloping wall, smooth for the lining surface to ensure smooth material
feeding and prevent material clogging.

18
3.13
3.13、各下料管应在尺寸定位后,在地面按要求焊好锚固件,装好模板且不能移动,浇
注料的边沿不能超过法兰,打好浇注料后再安装到位。
The anchoring parts shall be welded well on the ground as required after positioning the size of
each feeding duct. In addition, the template shall be assembled well which can not be moved.
The edge of the castable can not exceed the flange. It shall be installed in place after laying
castable.

3.14
3.14、注意按图纸要求留好各处的膨胀缝,膨胀缝应留在两锚固件之间,系统中膨胀缝
一般为 10~20mm,用优质硅酸铝纤维毯(或纤维棉)填充,要求托砖板等金属部分不
得暴露在外。
Each expansion joint shall be reserved according to the drawing requirements which stay
between the two anchorages. Normally,it is from 10 to 20 mm in the system that is filled by
high quality aluminum silicate fiber blanket (or fiber cotton). Moreover, it is required that the
metal parts such as the refractory brick support shall not be exposed.

3.15
3.15、该系统所用浇注料品种应按图纸要求,具体施工要求见浇注料施工部分。
The castable type used by this system shall follow by the drawing requirements. In addition,
the specific construction requirements see the castable construction part.

4、三次风管衬砌施工说明 Lining construction instructions of tertiary air duct

4.1
4.1、三次风管衬砌一般均设有硅酸钙板隔热层,直管部分用高强耐碱砖,弯管等处用浇
注料。所用衬砌材料品种、尺寸均须符合图纸要求。
The lining of tertiary air duct is generally set with calcium silicate board insulation. It uses high
strength alkali brick in the straight tube part, castable in the bend,etc. The material variety used
and the size shall conform to the drawing requirements.

4.2
4.2、对硅酸钙板的裁切及粘结剂、防水剂的铺设均按前述要求进行。
It shall cut calcium silicate board and lay binder and waterproofing agent in accordance with
the requirements as said before.
19
4.3、耐火砖从低端挡砖圈开始用耐碱火泥环砌,环缝 2mm。各环间砖缝应错开,一圈
4.3
中不同规格耐火砖应交错使用,小端向心,砖缝 1.5mm。火泥应饱满并勾缝。砌砖至高
端处要留膨胀缝,膨胀缝内连同挡砖圈用硅酸铝耐火纤维棉(毯)塞满。耐火砖若与挡
砖圈相碰,则机械加工缺口。
It shall conduct circular masonry of refractory brick by alkali resistant fire clay from brick
retaining ring at lower end with circular seam of 2 mm. The brick joints between each ring
shall be staggered. Furthermore, the refractory brick of different specification in a circle shall
be used in staggered arrangement with centripetal small end and brick joint of 1.5 mm. The fire
clay shall be full, smooth and jointing. The expansion joint shall be reserved when laying brick
to high place in which it together with brick retaining ring need to be filled with silicate
aluminum refractory fiber cotton (blanket) . If there is a collision of refractory brick and
retaining brick ring, it will cause machining gap.

4.4
4.4、有浇注料处按图纸要求焊接锚固件。对锚固件的处理同前述,除图中特殊要求尺寸
外,V 型锚固件其间距不大于 200mm,Y 型锚固件其间距不大于 250mm,并交错排列。
The anchoring parts in the place of castable shall be welded according to the drawing
requirements. Besides the drawing have special requirements on size, it shall be not more than
200 mm for the spacing of V-shaped anchor and not more than 250 mm for the spacing of Y-
shaped anchor and arranged in a staggered formation.

4.5
4.5、设备中的高温调节阀及膨胀节,按图纸要求打浇注料。其非金属膨胀节的隔热层伸
缩缝要填满硅酸铝耐火纤维棉。高温调节阀的衬砌尺寸要准确,保证阀板顺利开关。
The castable shall be laid according to the drawing requirements for high temperature
regulating valve and expansion joint in the equipment. Moreover, it shall be filled with silicate
aluminum refractory fiber cotton in the expansion joint of thermal insulating course of the non-
metallic expansion joint, accurate for the lining size of high temperature regulating valve in
order to guarantee smooth open and close of valve plate.

20
5、篦冷机、窑头罩衬砌施工说明 Lining construction description of grate cooler and kil
kilnn
head hood

5.1
5.1、此两设备直墙多,平面大,衬砌品种多用浇注料,也有用耐火砖砌筑,顶部有挂砖
结构也有全部浇筑。施工时应严格按图纸要求衬砌材料品种及尺寸进行。
The two equipments have too many straight walls and large plane. In addition, the most lining
varieties are castable and also refractory brick for masonry. It has brick hanging structure and
also full pouring at the top. During construction, it shall be conducted strictly for the lining
material variety and size in accordance with the drawing requirements.

5.2
5.2、全部浇注料结构施工注意事项:
Matters needing attention during construction for all castable structure:
a)、硅酸钙板用整块或裁成条状铺设,块、条与壳体结合面均应涂刷粘结剂,与浇注料
接触面涂刷防水剂。硅酸钙板厚度按设计要求,若采用两层硅酸钙板则层间须涂刷粘结
剂,未注明两层者均为单层结构。
The calcium silicate board shall be laid by the whole or cutting into strips. It shall be brushed
with adhesive for the joint surface of block, strip and shell and painted with waterproofing
agent for the contact surface of castable. Furthermore, the thickness of calcium silicate board
shall be according to the design requirements. If adopting the double layers of calcium silicate
board, the interlayer shall apply adhesive. It is single layer structure without indicating two
layers.
b)、锚固件应按图纸要求布置,对锚固件的处理同前述,除图中特殊要求尺寸外,V 型
锚固件其间距不大于 200mm,Y 型锚固件其间距不大于 250mm,并交错排列。第一排
锚固件距设备边沿 100~150mm。
The anchoring parts shall be arranged according to the drawing requirements and treated as said
before. Besides the drawing have special requirements on size, it shall be not more than 200
mm for the spacing of V-shaped anchor and not more than 250 mm for the spacing of Y-shaped
anchor and arranged in a staggered formation. In addition, the first row of the anchoring parts is
100 to 150 mm away from the equipment edge.

21
c)、浇注料的品种、牌号按图纸要求,除按浇注料施工一般规定外,应注意以下细节:
The castable variety and grade shall be according to the drawing requirements. Except for the
general rules of castable construction, it shall pay attention to the following details.
1)、因其施工面积较大,故应分块施工,每块面积约 1.5m²左右为宜;
It shall be constructed in sections because of its larger construction area. In addition, it is
appropriate for each area about 1.5m².
2)、顶部事先开好浇筑孔,浇筑孔径尺寸按Φ120~150mm、间距 600~800mm 开 设 ;
浇注料施工完毕,并且最好在烘炉结束后,在震捣孔处铺好硅酸钙板或耐火纤维棉,补
焊钢板。
The pouring hole shall be opened in advance which the aperture size is byΦ120 ~ 150 mm, and
the spacing is from 150 to 800 mm. When the castable construction is completed, it is best to
set up calcium silicate board, refractory fiber cotton or repair welding steel plate on the
vibrating hole after completion of furnace drying.
3)、检查设备中各检修门、观察孔、工艺孔位置,并仔细施工,留好防集料斜坡;
It shall check the position of each access door, observation hole and process hole in the
equipment, carry out construction carefully and reserve slope of preventing material clogging.
4)、各浇注料拐角处应做成圆角,以防掉角,并保证料流及气流通畅;
The corners of each castable shall be rounded to prevent edge failure and ensure smooth
material flow and air flow.
5)、按设计要求留足膨胀缝,不得遗漏。图纸无明确要求时,各施工块间或每 1~1.2m
间留一道膨胀缝,各膨胀缝应错开,膨胀缝应留在两锚固件中间位置,膨胀缝宽度一般
按 3~5mm 留设,缝内填塞硅酸铝纤维棉(毯),且与浇注料内面平齐。各浇注料拐角
处做成 Z 或 L 型膨胀缝。
It is required to make enough expansion joints as design requirements that must not be missed.
It shall prepare a expansion joint between each construction section or the place between 1 and
1.2m in which each expansion joint shall be staggered. Moreover, the expansion joint shall be
left in a middle position of the two anchoring parts with general width from 3 to 5mm. It shall
be filled with aluminum silicate fiber cotton (blanket) inside the joint with the same level of the
internal surface of castable. Finally, Z-shaped or L-shaped expansion joint shall be made at the
corners of each castable.
22
6、浇注料施工一般说明 General descriptions of castable construction

6.1、浇注料施工前检查待浇筑设备状况,清理现场。锚固件已按要求焊接到位并进行防
膨胀处理,模板及工机具准备妥当,与浇注料接触的硅酸钙板已做防水处理。
It shall check the condition of pouring equipment and clean up the scene before castable
construction. The anchoring parts have been welded in place as required. Moreover, it has
made good preparation for the templates and tools, and done waterproof processing for the
calcium silicate board contacted with the castable.

6.2
6.2、拟施工部位浇注料必须符合设计要求
The castable in the position planning to be constructed must comply with the design
requirements
a)、浇注料品种、牌号及理化性能指标与设计一致,严禁不同品种、不同牌号浇注料混
用;
It is consistent with the design for the castable’s variety, grade and physical and chemical
property. In addition, it is forbidden to be used mixedly with different types and grades.
b)、产品合格证及使用说明书齐全;
Complete product certificate and use instructions;
c)、检查浇注料的包装日期和出厂日期,进行试块检查,过期、失效的浇注料严禁使用;
It shall check packing date and delivery date of the castable and conduct test piece inspection.
Furthermore, it is strictly prohibited to use expired and invalidated castable.

6.3
6.3、浇注料施工用水达到饮用水标准。
The castable construction water can meet the drinking water standard.

6.4
6.4、用钢板或木板制成的模板要有足够的强度、刚度,不变形、不移位、不漏浆。钢板
内表面应涂脱模剂,木板应涂防水漆。
The template made by steel or wood shall have sufficient strength and rigidity without
deformation, displacement and mortar leakage. Moreover, it shall be applied with mold release
23
agent for the steel internal surface, and coated with waterproof paint for the wood board.

6.5
6.5、浇注料的搅拌必须使用强制搅拌机,先干混,后加水湿混,加水量应严格按使用说
明书要求控制,加水宜少不宜多且应分次加水控制,以稠度适宜为止,搅拌时间不少于
5min。
It shall use forced mixer to mix the castable that conduct first dry mixing and then wet mixing
with water. The amount of water shall be controlled strictly according to the operating
instruction. In addition, the water adding shall be few but good and control water amount by
several times until the consistency is appropriate. Finally, the mixing time shall not be less than
5 min.

6.6、加水搅拌后的浇注料应在 25~30min 内用完,在干燥作业环境时采用小值,已初凝


6.6
的浇注料不得再用。
The castable shall be finished within 25 to 30 min after mixing with adding water. Furthermore,
the small value shall be adopted under drying environment operation. The castable that has
been initial setting shall not be used again.

6.7、倒入模框内的浇注料应立即用振动棒分层震实,每层浇筑高度不大于 300mm,振
6.7
动间距 250mm 为宜。震打时应尽量避免触及锚固件,不得损伤隔热层,不得漏震、久
震或重震,避免浇注料内产生偏析或孔洞。浇筑完的浇筑体在凝固前不得受压或受震。
The castable poured into the model frame shall be vibrated by layer immediately. Each layer of
casting height is not more than 300 mm with appropriate vibration distance of 250 mm.
Moreover, it shall try to avoid touching the anchoring parts while vibrating, and shall not
damage the thermal insulation layer and have missing, long and heavy vibration in order to
prevent segregation or holes happening. The poured casting body shall not be pressed or
vibrated before solidification.

6.8
6.8、待浇注料表面干燥后,立即用塑料薄膜或草袋将暴露在空气中的部分盖严,初凝后
应定期洒水养护,保持表面湿润。养护时间不少于两天,第一天应勤洒水。终凝后仅可

24
拆除边摸并继续洒水养护,待其达到 70%强度后,方可拆除承重模。
The section exposed to the air shall be covered tightly with plastic film or straw bag
immediately after drying on the surface of castable to be casted. It shall conduct sprinkling
maintenance regularly after the initial setting and keep the surface wet. The curing time shall
not be less than two days and shall sprinkle water frequently on the first day. The side form can
be removed after final setting and continue to carry out sprinkling maintenance. The bearing
model can be removed after reaching its 70% strength.

6.9
6.9、模板拆除后应及时对浇筑体进行检查,对发现的质量问题及时处理并养护,严禁用
水泥灰浆涂抹缺陷。
The casting body shall be inspected timely after dismantling the template. Moreover, it shall
timely handle and maintain the quality problem found in inspection. Is is forbidden to use
cement mortar to smear defects.
6.10
6.10、根据不同的浇注料品种、衬体厚度及现场气象条件,留出足够的烘干时间,以利
水分排出,确保不出现衬体爆裂。烘烤必须在模板已拆除且已经凝固后进行。对只使用
浇注料的衬砌,可按供应商提供的烘烤曲线进行,表 1 所提供的升温制度供参考。全部
烘烤时间一般不少于 72h。
It shall give enough drying time to facilitate water discharging, to ensure there will not be
occurred for the lining body burst on the basis of different varieties of castable, lining thickness
and meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the firing shall be carried out after the template
has been dismantled and solidified. The lining for the place only using the castable can be
baked according to the baking crve provided by the supplier. The heating-up system in the
following table 1 shall be used for reference.Total drying time shall not be less than 72h.
浇注料烘干升温制度
heating-up system for castable drying Table 1

温度区间 (℃) 升温速度 (℃/h) 升温时间 (h)


Temperature range Heating-up speed Heating-up time
常温~200
15 12
Normal temperature~200
保温
200 20
Heat insulation

25
200~500 25 12
保温
500 10
Heat insulation
500~使用温度
40 18
500~Use temperature
7、冬天、雨天及暑天施工一般要求 General requirements of construction during winter
winter,,
rainy day and summer

7.1、冬天施工是指环境气温在 5~-5℃时的施工;当环境气温低于-5℃时,只有采取
7.1
可靠防寒措施后才能施工。
The winter construction is the construction when the environment temperature is from 5 to -5
℃. When the environment temperature is below 5 ℃, the construction can be started by only
adopting reliable cold-proof measures.

7.2
7.2、冬天施工时必须采取冬季施工技术措施,做好对工作环境的封闭、挡风、加热及保
温措施,保持砌筑后衬里温度在 5℃以上。
The winter construction technical measures must be taken during the winter construction.
Furthermore, it shall make good closing, wind shielding, heating and insulation measures, and
keep the lining temperature more than 5 ℃ after masonry.

7.3
7.3、在冬天浇注料施工时,干料应存放在取暖间内,并用热水(50℃以上)拌料,拌合
料温度应在 10℃以上,不宜另加化学促凝集或防冻剂。
When pouring material constructing in the winter, dry material shall be stored in the heating
room and mixed with hot water ( over 50℃). The mixed material temperature shall be over
than 10℃, which shall not be added with chemical condensation or anti-freeze agent.

7.4
7.4、冬天在炉内施工时,应先将隔热层砌好,提高耐火层的防冻能力,施工后砌体应用
塑料布覆盖后再用干草帘盖严。对于新砌的窑,其保温时间不少于 10 天。严禁已砌好
的砌体暴露在寒冷的大气中。

26
When constructing in the furnace in winter, build the thermal insulation layer at first to
improve the anti-freezing ability of flame retardant coating. After constructing, the masonry
structure shall be covered with plastic sheeting, then with hay. For the new-built kiln, the
temperature holding time shall not be less than 10 days. It is forbidden to expose the build
mansonry to the cold air.

7.5
7.5、雨天应转入室内作业,所有材料、运输工具、工作场地及砌体均要采取防雨措施。
未竣工的建筑物要盖顶、塞洞、堵漏。已完工的炉体上部孔洞要封闭,地面预制件垫高
加盖,严禁浸泡水中。
In rainy days, transfer to the indoor for working. All the materials, transporting tools, work
yard and mansonry shall be provided with rainproof measures. For the unfinished buildings,
cover the top, fill the hole and plug . The holes on the top of completed furnace shall be sealed.
The prefabricated parts on the ground shall be padded up and covered with cap, which is
forbidden to immersed in the water.

7.6、当环境气温≥30℃时,视为暑天施工。暑天施工时,水温、料温均须控制在 30℃
7.6
以下,烈日暴晒下的物料使用时先冷却降温。
When the ambient temperature be ≥30℃, it shall be as summer constructing. In summer
constructing, temperature of water and material shall be controlled under 30℃. The material
under the scorching sun shall be cooled for temperature declining before using.

7.7
7.7、暑天浇注料施工时,应尽量安排在早晨或傍晚进行,浇筑后及时用草帘覆盖,并洒
水降温。
Pouring material constructing in the summer shall be arranged in the morning or evening as far
as possible. Adopt grass curtain for covering after pouring, then sprinkle water for cooling.

8、衬砌施工的检查及验收 Inspection and acceptance for lining construction

8.1
8.1、工程质量检查应在施工过程中按规程随时进行,发生不合格现象及时纠正,严重时

27
必须返工。Correct the unqualified phenomenon timely.
Project quality inspection shall be carried out during constructing at any time according to the
regulation. If it is serious, take poorly done work over again.

8.2
8.2、检查灰浆饱满度用白格网。
Adopt white square net to inspect the plumpness of mortar.

8.3、检查砖缝厚度用塞尺,塞尺宽 15mm,长 100mm,厚度为 1、1.5、2mm 三种规格。


8.3
每 5m²砌体表面抽查 10 处,塞尺插入缝中的深度小于 20mm 为合格;比规定深度大 50%
以内的砖缝,对回转窑砌体不超过 4 处,其它砌体不超过 5 处为合格。
Adopt clearance gauge to inspect thickness of brick seam, the clearance gauge shall be 15mm
width, 100mm length, which shall be with three specifications of 1mm, 1.5mm and 2mm. Spot
check 10 points in each 5m2 masonry surface. The inserted depth of clearance gauge being less
than 20mm shall be taking as qualified. Less than 50% of regulated depth, the brick seam on
the masonry of rotary kiln being less than 4 points or on other mansonry being less than 5 point
shall be take as qualified.

8.4、检查水平度用 L=500mm 水平尺;检查垂直度用 0.5kg 线坠;检查斜度用万能角尺;


8.4
检查砖型尺寸用直尺和角尺;检查表面平整度用 L=2000mm 木靠尺,按 3~5m 距离检
查一处,靠尺紧靠墙面以测出最大间隙。
Adopt lever ruler of L=500mm to inspect horizontal degree. Adopt 0.5kg dropping line to
inspect verticality. Check inclination with bevel protractor. Check brick size with straight ruler
and angle square. Check surface planeness with L=2000mm wood guiding ruler for inspecting
a point in 3-5m distance. Guiding ruler shall be closed to the wall to measure the max.
clearance.
8.5、浇注料衬里每 20m²工程量留试块一组,每组 3 块,以备检查其强度等主要性能。
8.5
Leave a group of test block for each 20m²constructing quantity on the pouring material liner.
Each group of test block shall be 3 items for inspecting intensity and other main performance.

28
8.6
8.6、凡被覆盖的隐蔽性工程,应在隐蔽性工程检查验收后,方可进入下一道工序。其检
查项目如下:
For all the covered concealed engineering, take next process only after inspecting and accepting
the covered concealed engineering. The inspection items shall be as follows:
a)、锚固件是否牢固(随时检查);
Whether the anchoring part is firm (check at any time)
b)、隔热层是否粘贴牢固并采取防水措施;
Whether the thermal insulation layer is firmly affixed and with waterproof measure
c)、预埋设施是否安装到位并作防膨胀处理;
Whether the pre-buried facility is installed in place and with anti-swelling treatment
隐蔽工程检查后,应填写隐蔽性工程验收单,在建设单位/监理单位签证认可后作为
竣工资料之一保存。
Fill concealed engineering acceptance list after checking, which shall be taken as one of the
completion information for storing after signed by construction unit/supervision unit.

8.7
8.7、分部、分项工程完工后,应进行中间交工验收,其检查项目如下:
After completing part of project and sub-project, carry out intermediate acceptance. The
inspection items shall be as follows:
a)、砌体的外形尺寸,砌体厚度及中心线等;
Overall dimension of masonry, masonry thickness and centerline
b)、材料使用情况:
Material usage
c)、膨胀缝、砖缝、水平度、垂直度及表面平整度;
Expansion seam, brick seam, levelness, verticality and surface planeness
d)、工艺设施及孔洞的留设;
Setting for process facilities and holes
e)、外观检查;
Appearance check

29
8.8
8.8、分部、分项工程检查后,应填写分部、分项工程交工验收单,在建设单位/监理单
位签证认可后作为竣工资料之一保存。
Fill part of project and sub-project completion acceptance list after checking, which shall be
taken as one of the completion information for storing after signed by construction
unit/supervision unit.

8.9
8.9、竣工验收后,施工单位应向建设单位提交如下资料:
After completion accepting, constructing unit shall submit following documents to erecting
unit:
a)、交工验收证明书;
completion acceptance certificate
b)、竣工项目一览表;
Project completion schedule
c)、开、竣工报告;
Commencement and completion reports
d)、标有设计变更的竣工图;
Completion drawing with design alteration
e)、设计变更资料(包括设计文件会审记录);
Design alteration information (including design documents and review records)
f)、材料检验报告单(建设单位供料时由建设单位提供);
Material inspection report (submitted by erecting unit if the material provided by erecting unit)
g)、工序交接证明书(工程总包方或建设单位提供);
Process handing over certificate (submitted by engineering general contractor or erecting unit)
h)、隐蔽工程验收单、分部工程中间交工验收单及质量检测记录);
Concealed engineering acceptance list, sub-project intermediate acceptance list and quality
inspection record
i)、重大工程问题处理意见;
Major engineering problems treatment opinion
j)、冬天、雨天及暑天施工记录;
Constructing records for winter, rainy days and hot summer days
30
k)、其它事项;
Other items

9、火与烘窑 Firing and kiln drying

9.1
9.1、在整个烧成系统完成砌筑养护后,应将内部一切杂物(包括脚手架、模板、废砖、
火泥、工具等)清理干净。办完竣工交接后,方可点火烘窑并准备试生产。烘窑点火前
要确认设备内部没有人员,并关闭所有设备进出口,确保安全。
After the entire calcining system being finished with masonry maintenance, all the
incidentals(including scaffold, template, waste brick, seggar, tools and so on) in the inner side.
After finishing completion handing-over, fire for drying kiln and prepare test-run. Before kiln
firing, confirm that there is no person in the kiln, close all the openings of the equipments to
ensure safety.

9.2
9.2、窑尾预热系统由于衬砌浇注料用量较大,如果不具备足够的晾干时间,则应在正式
点火烘窑前进行系统的与烘干。
Owing to the large quantity of lining pouring material for pre-heating system on kiln end,

.3
9.3
.3、烘窑一般应由试生产部门统一组织,制定方案,有计划进行。
Trail production department shall organize kiln drying, establish plan and carry out.

9.4、烘窑时要有适当的升温制度予以烘烤和降温制度予以冷却,表 2 所列升温制度可供
9.4
参考,用户应根据不同项目耐材的设计供应实际情况加以制定。
There shall be proper heating-up system for baking and cooling system for cooling when kiln
drying. The heating-up system in the following table 2 shall be used for reference. The user can
customize according to the design supply actual situation of refractory materials of different
projects.

31
全部烘烤时间一般不少于 72h。
Total drying time shall not be less than 72h.

一般烘窑升温制度
General heating-up system for kiln drying Table 2
温度区间 ℃ 升温速度 ℃/h 升温时间 h
Temperature range Heating-up speed Heating-up time
常温~200
20
Normal temperature~200
保温
200 20
Heat insulation
200~600 100
保温
600 20
Heat insulation
600~900 50
保温
900 20~30
Heat insulation

9.5、当窑尾预热器系统的 C1 筒出口温度达到 300~350℃时,可认为烘窑结束。


9.5
When the temperature of C1 shell outlet for the kiln end preheater system reaching to 300~
350℃, it is considered that the kiln drying is finished.

9.6
9.6、烘窑必须连续进行,直至完成不得中断。万一因事故中断,则应按降温制度冷却至
常温,然后重新烘窑。如果有把握在短时间内回复烘烤,可采取有效的保温措施,并从
降到的实际温度开始,按升温制度继续烘烤。
Kiln drying must be continuously carried out until finishing, which is forbidden to be
intercepted. In case of interception owing to accident, cool to the normal temperature
according to cooling system, then dry the kiln again. If you are sure to resume drying in a short
time, adopt effective thermal insulation measures and continue drying from the declined actual
temperature according to heating-up system.

32
9.7、烘窑期间为减小设备热应力,可用辅助传动每小时将窑转动 1/4 圈。到烘窑后期方
9.7
可逐步从每小时将窑转动 1/4 圈到每半小时转窑 1/4 圈,直到烘窑结束。从间歇转窑过
渡到慢速连续转窑,并按投料试生产计划挂窑皮,最终按回转窑操作规程正常运转。
In order to reduce the thermal stress of the equipment during kiln drying, adopt auxiliary
equipment to rotate kiln for 1/4 turn per hour. In the later stage of kiln drying, rotate kiln from
1/4 turn per hour to 1/4 turn half an hour gradually until kiln drying finished. Carry out the
transition from intermittent kiln rotating to low speed kiln rotating. Put up coating of the kiln
according the trail production plane. At last, operate according the rotary kiln operation
specification.

9.8
9.8、烘窑期间应密切注意耐火砖状况,如有松动,掉砖等应及时变更烘窑计划。应密切
注意窑的轮带与筒体垫板的间隙变化情况及筒体中心线变化情况,如不正常则应及时修
正烘窑曲线转窑制度。
Pay close attention to the status of refractory bricks during kiln drying. If there is loose or
dropping, change kiln drying plan in time. Pay close attention to the clearance change between
tyre and shell backing plate, shell center line change. If it is abnormal, correct the kiln drying
curve and kiln rotating system in time.

9.9
9.9、烘窑中断的停窑或正常运转时的停窑都必须按规定的停窑降温制度进行,以保证窑
衬安全,延长寿命和保护设备。
Kiln stopping during kiln drying or during normal operating must be carried out according to
the kiln stopping cooling system to ensure kiln liner safety, prolong service life and protect the
equipment.

10
10、维护检查 Maintenance&inspection

检查的目的是为了确切地掌握设备运转情况,早期发现产生事故的主要因素,制定
其预防方案和措施,谋求在稳定操作的同时,对下次检修的时间、范围、施工方法的改

33
进,以及选定更合适的耐火材料等,为制定正确的计划提供基础资料。以使其得到更好
的维护。检修时,对损坏部位的耐火材料、隔热材料、锚固件等必须同时更换,对未损
坏的衬砌,特别是直墙、顶部衬体,必须检查衬体的牢固程度。以免维护其它部位施工
时因震动引起的垮塌事故。
The propose for inspection is to accurately grasp the operation of the equipment. Find the
major factor causing the accident, establish prevention plan and measures, improve the
inspection time, range and constructing method besides seeking the stable operation, select
more proper refractory to provide basic information for establishing correct plan and making
fine maintenance. When inspecting, the damaged refractory, thermal insulation material and
anchoring part must be changed simultaneously. For the undamaged lining, especially for the
straight wall and top lining, must inspect the firm degree of the lining to avoid collapse
accident owing to vibration when constructing on other position.

检查须分为日常检查、定期检查、重点检查。检查方法可以有用眼睛进行判断的“目
视检查”和用热电阻、红外线摄像等的仪器检查。
Inspections shall be divided into routine inspection, regular inspection and key inspection.
Inspection methods can be the “visual inspection” determined by eyes and instruments
inspection by use of thermal resistance and infrared camera.

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