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Experiment-V

FAULT ANALYSIS (LG, LLG) ON A THREE PHASE UNLOADED


ALTERNATOR

Aim: To determine fault current on an unloaded alternator where the fault is


created by fault Impedance (Zf).

Apparatus Required:
S.No. Name of the Component Specifications Quantity
1 Voltmeter
2 Ammeter
3 Rheostats
4 SPST Switch
5 Multimeter
6 Connecting Wires

Name Plate Details of Synchronous Machine:


Rated Output: No. of Phases:
Rated Voltage: Rated Speed:
Rated Current: No. of poles:
Supply frequency: Type of rotor:

Circuit Diagram:
 For L-G Fault without Fault Impedance (Zf):
3-Point Starter SPST Switch
R
Fuse L F A
+
D
P A
S
T A

220V S Z
DC Supply W
I
# N

T
C AA
H ZZ
Fuse B
Y
-
+
A
X
220V
DC Supply

XX

-
Fig.1

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 For L-G Fault with Fault Impedance (Zf):
3-Point Starter SPST Switch
R
Fuse L F A
+
D
P A
S
T A
Zf
220V S Z
DC Supply W
I
# N

T
C AA
H ZZ
Fuse B
Y
-
+
A
X
220V
DC Supply

XX

-
Fig.2

 For L-L Fault without Fault Impedance (Zf):


3-Point Starter
R
Fuse L F A
+
D
P
S
T A

220V Z
DC Supply
S
W
I
# N

T
C AA
H ZZ
Fuse B
Y
- A

SPST Switch +
A

X
220V
DC Supply

XX

-
Fig.3

 For L-L Fault with Fault Impedance (Zf):


3-Point Starter
R
Fuse L F A
+
D
P
S
T A

220V Z
DC Supply
S
W
I
# N

T
C AA
H ZZ
Fuse B
Y
- Zf A

SPST Switch +
A

X
220V
DC Supply

XX

-
Fig.4

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PROCEDURE:

 For L-G Fault with and without Fault Impedance (Zf):

1. The connections are made as shown in the fig.1.


2. Switch on the supply and close the DPST Switch.
3. Adjust the speed of the motor to rated speed by varying the field
rheostat.
4. Vary the excitation of alternator to minimum position and close the
SPST switch.
5. Slowly increase the excitation until the fault current is equal to rated
current of alternator and note down the line and phase voltages.
6. Repeat the above procedure for fig.2 by considering the fault with
fault impedance Zf.

 For L-L Fault with and without Fault Impedance (Zf):

1. The connections are made as shown in the fig.3.


2. Switch on the supply and close the DPST Switch.
3. Adjust the speed of the motor to rated speed by varying the field
rheostat.
4. Vary the excitation of alternator to minimum position and close the
SPST switch.
5. Slowly increase the excitation until the fault current is equal to rated
current of alternator and note down the line and phase voltages.
6. Repeat the above procedure for fig.4 by considering the fault with
fault impedance Zf.
Tabular Column:
Fault Type of Pre-fault Fault
S.No. VRN VYN VBN VRY VYB VBR
Impedance(Zf) fault voltage Current

1 LL
Without
2 LG
3 LL
With
4 LG

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RESULT:

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What do you mean by the zone of protection?
2. What is electrical earthing?
3. What is the difference between electrical earthing and electrical grounding?
4. What is the difference between the relay and the circuit breaker?

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