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THESIS PAPER

THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION IN


REGIONAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION; CASE STUDYOF UNITED
NATIONS AND SUDAN

作者姓名:Anthonia .C. Nlebedum

专业名称:国际关系

指导教师:刘德斌教授

教授 Mr. Wuyenfei

学位类别:全日制硕士

论文答辩日期:年月日

I
PTER 1: Introduction

ABSTRACT
This thesis is an important analysis of the role United Nations plays in resolving
conflicts in various conflicting nations; the case study is Sudanese first civil war. The
study investigates the role of the United Nations in the peace initiatives of the conflict in
Sudan that caused millions of peoples life from decades of deadly civil revolt from 1955-
1972. The Sudan conflict is one of the worse tragedies that has ever befallen mankind,
the conflict brought great disrupt to the system of government of the country placed their
natural and human resources at the brim of extinction alongside the ethnic, religion as
well as finance all of which had enormous consequence on the neighbors of the country;
although the conflict escalated real quick the UN was slow in coming to their aid which
is why the conflict went on for long while with lots of lives lost, homes and properties
destroyed; a lot more fleeing the country and seeking refuge in another country.
Domestically, the conflict came about due to the inequality and uneven distribution of the
income gotten from their natural resources between the northern and the southern
Sudanese and the religious differences; whereby the northerners are Muslims and want
the implementation of the sharia law while the southerners are Christians and so wouldn’t
give up their culture and religion. This creates hatred between the two conflicting sides,
blossoming into a full out war.

Furthermore, the fact that the Muslims and the southerners are mostly occupying
the government seats were excluded from decision-making and treated as inferior. The
southerners began to seek for justice in distribution and allocation of seat and funds after
they got their independent in 1956 but the northern leaders were not ready to let go or
share the leadership of the country with the south so the conflict began to build up and
people began to choose sides, but the conflict came to full fledge when the newly elected
government decided to implement the sharia law; the southern Christians rose in revolt
while the north fought back. For this reason, both sides began killing each other, abusing
and destroying properties worth millions so much that the international humanitarian
community became disturbed and fearful that the fight might spill out to the neighboring
countries in terms of refugees and become an international dispute, if it’s not settled.

II
Therefore, this thesis aims at finding out the UN role in settling the conflict in
Sudan. The research will also be exploring the question of why the UN does not bother to
find out the root cause of conflicts before resolving it.

This thesis argues that the United Nations mission is usually successful but not
permanent and the reason is because the method they used in resolving the conflict does
not touch, the root of the problem and so given chance for a reoccurrence of the same
previously tackled conflict over and over, which is why in the case of Sudan, the rise of
the second civil war which also saw a second UN mission followed by the secession of
south Sudan came also resulting in a temporary peace agreements. This paper highlights
the reform strategies of the united nations and shows an analysis that these reform
exercises are still not enough to prevent future conflicts from reoccurring, regardless of
the temporary peace achievements tackling issues that is most crucial and at the right
time with every available method with enough personnel and intervening at the earliest
sign of potential dispute is what needs to be done in order to put out the fire while no life
is lost yet.

In Chapter 1, the thesis gives detailed explanation of the background that talks
about the Sudanese independence; the early signs of potential conflict and the reason
behind it. Moving down to the significance of the research, which is showcasing how
relevant the United Nations intervention really is in the Sudan conflict and the reason
behind its outcome with the hope that corrections will be applied for future purposes.
Next is the research methodology and question on why the UN does not bother to find out
the root cause of conflicts before resolving it? This chapter also explains theoretical
application in which Frustration Aggression Theory will be used to explain the conflict, a
strategy that argues that social movements occur when frustration leads to collective and
often aggressive behavior to prevent social conflict.

Chapter 2, in this chapter the thesis explains the history of Sudanese conflict
starting from when the country of Sudan got its independence and power relocated and
remained in the north while the southern part of the country suffered from neglect and
poor allocation of revenue, pushing the southerners into revolting for change.

III
Chapter 3, within this chapter the thesis continues explaining the evolution and
purpose of the formation of United Nation and United Nations peace keeping mission
which aim at making and keeping peace; also explaining its reform and conflict evasion
and supervision.

Chapter 4, under this chapter the main focus is placed on UN’s intervention under
organizations like WHO, FAO, UNDP, UNFPA, The chapter explains these
organizations and their involvement based on their objectives and missions in Sudan.

Chapter 5 explains the United Nations task towards resolving the conflict in
Sudan; started with the proposed mission shading light on Darfur situation moving on to
explain the process of the development of UNMIS, the Darfur peace treaty and the
expansion of UNMIS. The referendum process and the termination of UNMIS, this
chapter also talked about the United Nations advanced mission in Sudan and new UN
mission in south Sudan, highlighting the Faults in of the UN first mission in Sudan.

The sixth chapter gives a concise analysis of the role of UN in Sudan, by


explaining the UN’s role in the Election and referendum, security sector, disarmament,
demobilization and reintegration; governance and human rights role, health sector. The
seventh chapter gives the research analysis.

Nevertheless, this thesis contributes and highlights the reform role of the united
nations and goes ahead to explain that these reform exercises are not enough to prevent
future conflict despite the temporary peace; this research hopes to unearth ideas on what
needs to happen in the future to ensure a more improved and successful mission and also
identify the key failures in the UN’s method of rendering assistance to conflicted nation.

Keywords: United Nations, Sudan, Darfur, conflict, election, civil war, Muslim,
Christian.

IV
LIST OF ABREVIATIONS

CW Cold War

CPA Comprehensive Peace Agreement

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

IGAD Inter Governmental Authority on Development

SAF Sudanese Armed Forces

SANU South African National Union

SC Security Council (UN)

SG Secretary General (UN)

SHEC Southern High Executive Council

SPLM/A Sudanese People Liberation Movement

SRSG Special Representative of the Secretary General

UN United Nations

UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

UNMIS United Nations Mission in Sudan

UNMISS United Nations mission in south Sudan

US United States

USSR Union of Soviet Social Republic

WB World Bank

V
WFP World Food Program

WHO World Health Organization

VI
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ I

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS ............................................................................................ V

CHAPTER 1: Introduction .............................................................................................. 1

1.1 Background to the Study ......................................................................................... 1

1.2 Significant Of Research ........................................................................................... 1

1.3 Literature Review .................................................................................................... 2

1.4 Research Methodology and Questions .................................................................. 4

1.5 Theoretical construction ......................................................................................... 5

1.6 ethnic conflict theory and its basic Assumptions ................................................. 6

1.7 Theoretical placement ............................................................................................ 6

CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events ......................................................... 8

2.1 history of Sudan ....................................................................................................... 8

2.2 religions and Ethnicity ............................................................................................ 8

2.3 National Resources .................................................................................................. 9

2.4 Approaching Independence .................................................................................. 10

2.5 The Sudanese Crisis (1955-1972) ........................................................................ 11

Chapter3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention ..................... 12

3.1 Evolution and Formation Purpose of United Nations ........................................ 12

3.2: The United Nations Post Cold War Reform ........................................................ 15

3.3 avoiding Conflict .................................................................................................... 19

3.4 Conflict Supervision .............................................................................................. 21

Chapter 4: The United Nations Intervention ............................................................... 23

4.1The UN’s tasks in Sudan ......................................................................................... 23

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ................................................................ 24

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4.3 UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) .............................................................................. 24

4.4 UN Emergency Mine Action Program in Sudan (UNMAS) ................................. 24

4.5 World Health Organization (WHO) ...................................................................... 25

4.6 World Food Program (WFP)................................................................................. 25

Chapter 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics ............................................................................ 26

5.1 United Nations Mission in Sudan proposed ........................................................ 26

5.2 Deployment of UNAMIS ........................................................................................ 26

5.6 The Conclusion of UNAMIS ................................................................................... 27

5. 7 The Problem with the UN method....................................................................... 28

Chapter 6: Conclusion .................................................................................................... 31

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 34

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................... 39

II
PTER 1: Introduction

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study


More than a decade ago, the world peace body initiated peace operations aimed at
resolving long standing conflict in Sudan, which have experienced unending disputes as
the result of diverse national concern and agendas, which had terrible affects on the
people, their system and infrastructures beyond human imagination and threatened
serious and dare consequences to the international community. During these conflicts, the
international community and several regional and international organizations including
the United Nations intervened to bring an end to these conflicts.

As an international body responsible for the promotion and maintenance of peace


the United Nations goes beyond regional stability, race and sex. In seeking lasting peace
in any conflict situation, post conflict resolution is the key based on the
comprehensiveness of the procedures laid down as a measure to achieve such genuine
and lasting peace.

The peace body since its establishment in 1945 has been faced with series of
challenges in achieving its objectives worldwide as a result of its struggle to deal with its
structural and internal crisis, entrenched and out–pouring conflicts around the globe,
particularly post conflict nations that has contributed to significant portion of the body’s
operations

1.2 Significant Of Research


With emphasis placed on Sudan, this research will explain how the U.N operation
achieved temporary results in the reform processes that are guaranteed in the peace
initiative during and after the civil strife. This paper will also explore the effectiveness of
the UN operation in post conflict initiative and examine to what extent the UN post cold
war reform exercise is impacting its image as the result of its role in resolving the conflict
in Sudan. It will show the current security level as regards to the role of the UN in
Sudan’s peace and security. The research will provide policy direction for the United

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PTER 1: Introduction

Nations in combating future conflicts situations as a means of achieving the best possible
result in attuning durable and lasting peace.

The result of the role played by united nations in this post conflict nation and the
approach that led to the outcome will be analyzed and the result will inform as to what
measures should be instituted in resolving conflicts permanently in the future ,I am
positive that this research will uncover issues deeply entrenched in processes that lead to
temporary peace outcomes which results to conflict/war, it will also account for lasting
peace and solution and pave way for the adoption of strategic measures that can harbor
better formulation of lasting peace discussions as well as cultivating interest of
civilization in conflict and post conflict societies, it will also improve previous
discussions relating to the above –mentioned topic, but with different case studies and
will launch a strategic framework on which multiple ideas and analyses can be built.

1.3 Literature Review


In explaining the UN’s role in the peace initiative and as well as conflict
mediations in post conflict African countries, couple of discussions have been published
on the united nations role in post-conflict African nations with specific emphasis on the
shortcomings and successes scored1.

In a well articulated research book on the role of the United Nations and regional
organizations in preventing deadly conflict and fostering a dynamic interplay between
theory and practice. It suggests effective preventive diplomacy to keep disputes from
turning into violence conflict and backs it up with a long term approach to tackle the
structural causes of conflict and the development of institutions to promote just solutions
to underlying problems. It states that the most secure states are those which provide the
greatest human security to their populations.

Connie Peck in his book argued that peace and security agenda and social
development agenda with practical emphasis on preventive diplomacy are the executing
mechanism of the United Nations achieving lasting peace in its member states entrenched

1 Author’s note- Nlebedum Anthonia, candidate M.A, international relations :school of international and public affairs,
Jilin university-china 2016

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PTER 1: Introduction

with conflict. He also argued that the application of different standards to different cases
by the U.N’s Security Council was due to the clear fact of favoring and pursuing the
geopolitics aims of the permanent members states of the U.N. which was a major obstacle
to its success in previous peace missions. Peck links good governance with conflict
prevention on a path to sustainable peace provides a comprehensive agenda for the
international community in the decades ahead. This work gives useful insights into the
United Nations community in the decades for preventing deadly conflict2.

Miller (1961),explained the role of the united nations in winning and maintaining
peace in post conflict African nations .he asserts that the role of the united nations in
these initiatives ranges from forcefully expelling the Belgian adversaries from the Congo
to conducting a referendum in the southern Cameroon, from supplying capital for
building a huge dam in northern Rhodesia to financing a new railroad in Mauritania,
from combating sleeping sickness in Tanganyika to conducting courses for midwives in
Sierra Leone and from helping educate children in Nigeria to helping educate adult
illiteracy in Liberia. In analyzing the various roles played by the united nations in Africa,
he classified the various activities as political, economic, social welfare and educational.
Although the primary role of the U.N. is to keep the peace but Richard I. Miller in his
article provided and analyzed other subservient role played by the U.N in post conflict
building, which he analyzed as political or economic.3

Kaldor and Vincent (2002) informed that between 2000 and 2002, the focus of the
United Nations was on demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR), the return
and resettlement of displaced people and the extension of state authority with both line
ministries and traditional authorities forming part of the initiative. In addition, they
argued that after 2002, the united nations helped to implement the interim poverty
reduction strategy and national recovery strategy, which included the establishment of the
special court and the truth and reconciliation commission, justice and security sector
reform and poverty alleviation .expenditure by the united nations runs at 80 percent of the
gross national income and is more than double government expenditures. They also
2 PECK, Connie, sustainable peace: The role of the United Nations and regional organizations in preventing conflict.
Rowman and Littlefield publisher,incorporated;1998
3 MILLER, Richard I., the role of the united nations in emerging Africa, south of the Sahara, journal of negro

education ,vol.30, NO.30;1961, PP. 302-315

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PTER 1: Introduction

informed in this article that the United Nations development program (UNDP) played a
pivotal role both in strategic coordination and in filling gaps that other agencies are
unable or unwilling to fill with targeted interventions. their argument further maintained
that since 2002, UNDP’s programs have covered three practical areas (1) recovery and
peace building (2) governance and democratic development (3) poverty reduction and
human development, they argued .the first area is the largest, particularly important
projects like arms for development, innovative community based DDR program; youth
policy, support for elections, especially local elections, and access to justice.4

UN debate (2009), the human security debate continued also in academic circles.
Stewart (2009), argued that poverty and inequality were the root causes of human
vulnerability, and that the absence of pervasive and chronic insecurity was fundamental
to people’s sense of wellbeing. This was a more accurate measure of development than
simple indices of per capita income. She also argued that the lack of security impedes
economic growth both through the physical and infrastructural damage wrought by
violence and by the adoption of short term survival strategies.

Imbalanced development and inequality in turn led to entrapment in a low circle


of improvement and conflict that denied the possibility of realizing human potential and
thus development in any meaningful sense. For the developmentalist, the promotion of
human security required that the state encourage sustainable economic growth targeted at
the very poor, involving the provision of education, health services, wider access to
market opportunities, decent employment and reasonable protection against social and
economic hazards.

1.4 Research Methodology and Questions


The purpose of this research is to examine the extent to which the United Nations
peace operation yield permanent results in conflict situations given the fact that they
don’t approach and or tackle conflicts from the grassroots, particularly in the African
context.

4KALDOR, Mary and Vincent, James: evaluation of UNDP Assistance to conflict affected countries: The case of
Sierra Leone. Journal of united nations development program office in new York;2002

4
PTER 1: Introduction

I analyzed the role of the United Nations as a world body under the support it
provided in the conflict and analyzed the impact on intervention relatively to failure or
success.

Due to resource constrain, I couldn’t travel to the focus areas in this thesis to
conduct interviews and give out questionnaires but significant primary and secondary
sources were referenced in providing me with the necessary details required to complete
this paper. This research was conducted here in china from October 2015 to April 2016,
referencing the required primary sources such as books, articles, government documents
(official website), organizations website (UN), speeches, briefing notes, my balanced
experience as well as some secondary sources. I choose Sudan as my case study because
it is one of the countries that experienced the harshest conflict in history of mankind and
the united was present and active in the resolution of the conflict but the problem was
never permanently resolved, also the UN initiative began at almost the same time period
as the first Sudan civil war, I will be posing the question; Why does the UN not bother to
find out the root cause of conflicts before resolving it?

1.5 Theoretical construction


Serious conflict still occurs with the potential of spilling over to the regional and
international platforms. The UN makes use of various methods in curbing this conflicts
and seeing to the peaceful settlement of those crises. After the cold war, in order to
achieve the goal of mitigating those multiple problems, the UN team up with domestic
authorities, sub regional and regional organizations to share the responsibilities in
achieving the required peace. The international responsibilities for peace and security rest
solely on the shoulders of the UN, making its rights of intervening in and resolving
countries dispute limitless.

Developments in recent years have seen the UN intervention in post conflict


situations around the world with varying results from those situations particularly after
the UN cold war reform exercise. Based on the theory of sovereignty, each state pursues
its own national objectives and shapes its policy accordingly. Hence the role of
international institutions is limited (Amin, Naseer, Ishtiag, 2011).

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PTER 1: Introduction

To better articulate this phenomenon in the theoretical context, I shall explain the
role of the UN on post conflict initiatives using the ethnic conflict theory because no
particular theory can explain it.

1.6 Ethnic Conflict Theory and its basic Assumptions


Ethnic conflict theory is the struggle for state identification, independence. Ethnic
conflict studies can be a source for understanding international relations bearing in mind
that no single book, concept or theory can expect to capture and completely decode such
an extra ordinary such entirety. Political scientists make use of concepts and theories of
sociologists like Smith (1986), Hurd (1986) and Laitin (1986) to explain endemic ethnic
conflicts caused by alienation and suppression of ethnic minority groups that are joined
by history, language, religion, culture and existing in the same territory. This group
perceives itself as 'me-you,” “we-they,” and “minority-majority.” This is further
explained with three competing ethnic conflict theories: 1) Primordialists which stresses
the importance of involuntary act of belonging; 2) Instrumentalist or Circumstantialists
refers to necessitating socio-economic-political factors; and 3) Constructivists site the
social nature of ethnic groups.

1.7 Theoretical placement


Before applying the theory to the role of the UN in the conflict resolution
initiatives of Sudan, let me first state the major assumption underlining the UN
intervention in conflict situations so as to easily pave the way for the understanding of
my application of this theory in this discussion.

In the environment of chaos, where the lives of people are wasted, threatened and
abused against the slightest respect to international humanitarian law based on the lack of
security, the UN place sufficient interest on the lives of the people of that environment,
hence, taking human security as the core during its intervention, as provided for in article
1 of its charter. Therefore, in applying the theory to this thesis, my analysis will center on
the primary objectives of the UN intervention in Sudan as a defining variable of how it
leverages significant focus on human security under the pillar of peace initiative, given
the factors aligned to human security by the UNDP.

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PTER 1: Introduction

Also for human security to fit in the context of this application, we need to
understand what human security constitutes. In 1994, the united nations development
program (UNDP) in its human development report, defined human security according to
seven (7) dimensions, which included; personal security, environmental security,
economic security, political security, community security, health security and food
security (UNDP, 1994). Now, with this understanding, we can analyze that the issues
associated with the conflict situations in the above case study that saw the intervention of
the UN is centered on these problems.5

5 WENDT, Alexander, collective security identity formation and the international state, the American political science
review, vol. 88,NO.;june 1994,pp.384-396

7
CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events

CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events

2.1 History of Sudan


Sudan, Africa’s largest country is located in the North East of the continent,
covering a total area of 2,505,813 square kilometers. It borders the Central African
Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya
and Uganda. Africa’s longest river, the Nile, divides the country on an East West axis
(Levy and Abdul Latif, 2007:7, The World Fact Book, 2010). Sudan consists of a diverse
religious and ethnic population, which during the spread of Islam in North Africa became
divided along geographical, ethnic and religious lines; of the mostly Arab Muslim North
and the Christian/Animist south, according to The Archaeologist of Islam in sub-Saharan
Africa insoll , he provided a detailed account of the spread of Islam in Sudan. Insoll
(2003) explained that in 652AD Muslim Arabs entering from Egypt invaded the Northern
part of what is now modern Sudan, transformed its people’s religious identity, changed
its ethnic affiliations and acquired African slave recruits from the Southern region.
Christianity however persisted in the South since arrival in 569AD (Insoll, 2003; Yoh,
1999).

The nation got its independence in 1956 from the joint administration of Egypt
and the United Kingdom, Each of these groups became loyal to their historical cultures
and values; thereby opting for convenient society to enhance the future of their country
which became a serious segregation issue to face before or after independent. The initial
step taken to avoid the resolution of this issue before independent was not perfect to be
corrected after independent; the deaf ear however played to these issues after the
country’s independent triggered the bitter resentments and escalated the conflict between
the two sides.6

2.2 Religions and Ethnicity


The population of Sudan was estimated at 35,079,814 representing a net growth
of 2.84 per cent and estimates increased to 36,080,373 by July 2001 (Encyclopaedia of

6Authors note-Nlebedum Anthonia, candidate of M.A: School of international and public affairs, Jilin university –
china 2016

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CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events

the Nations, 2010). The Sudanese population consists of about 19 different ethnic groups
and almost 600 subgroups (ibid). Most of the inhabitants are of Black origin, accounting
for 54.8% -Nilotic 24.4% who predominantly inhibit the Southern region and Sudanic
12.9%, Nuba Mountain people 6.5%, Cushitic 6% and other 6% all spread across the
Centre, Eastern and Western regions (Operation World, 2010). Arabs account for 45.2%
of the population and are predominantly in the North (ibid). Because of the deep rooted
religious nature of the Sudanese people, most of the populations are loyal to a certain
faith, mainly to Christianity or Islam, however native religions still persist.

Islam served as both faith and a way of life in the north and a particular cultural
and ethnic identity associated with Arabism. Northerners believes that “human history is
a salvation history that has reached its culmination with the prophetic mission of
Mohamed” (Ajwain & De Waal, 2002:275). For that reason, the Northerners have always
aspired to build a bridge connecting them to the Arab world in order to collectively
revive the divine plan of salvation communicated by Mohamed and spread Islam, the
divine truth (Insoll, 2003). Conversely, the identity of Southern Sudan has been shaped
primarily by the prolonged resistance to the imposition of Arab and Islamic culture from
the North (Deng, 2001), which unified them as Black Africans and has geared them
toward Christianity as means of combating Islam and Arabism. For Southerners, Islam
symbolizes not just a religion, but also (and linked to Arabism) an ethnic and cultural
phenomenon that historically suppressed them as slaves and remains to exclude them as
Black Africans and adherents to a different faith (Yoh, 1999). The Southerners have long
resisted that their religious and ethnic identity be constructed any differently, which
therefore led to the civil war.

2.3 National Resources


Sudan is considered as one of the most socially unequal countries in the world and
its people are highly reliant on its vast landmass as means of livelihood and survival,
however its economy is rapidly expanding due to an increase in oil production,
17th fastest growing economy in the world (Pantuliano, 2007). Sudan’s economy relies
greatly on the agriculture sector which employs 80 percent of the population, and while
Khartoum serves as the financial capital where economic development is concentrated;

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CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events

the South possesses rich land which fuels the economy (Levy & Latif, 2007). Due to the
many streams of the Nile in southern Sudan, the south has greater access to water, and
has therefore much more fertile soil while the north of the country is on the edge of the
Sahara desert (Pantuliano, 2007). The rapid expansion in the oil production since its
discovery in the Southern region played an important part in the economy. Because the
Oil revenues makes up 70 percent of sedans export earnings and contributes 50percent of
its GDP (De Waal, 1999; Switzer, 2002), it becomes very important for the General
Government of Sudan (GGOS) .The attempts by the GGOS to control these resources to
ensure survival of the Northern regime, and the Southern resistance have also contributed
to Sudan’s civil unrest.

2.4 Approaching Independence


The North and South regions merged to form a single administrative region
following the British decision to grant Sudan independence in 1956. The Line of
Demarcation drawn on 1 January 1956 provided governmental control solely to the North
(Khartoum) and semi-autonomous rule for the South (Maitre, 2009). according to
Douglas Johnson, (2003) in The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars , he stated
that “Sudanese independence was forced upon the Sudan by a colonial power eager to
free itself from the responsibilities; While Southern politicians favored federalism as a
way of protecting the southern provinces from being completely subordinated to the
Northern-dominated central government (Malwal, 1981). Majority of the northerners
rejected the idea of federalism, because they saw it as the first step towards separation, a
separation that came to characterize modern Sudan. The Failure to achieve a federal
constitution therefore was seen by the South as a beginning of the North colonization of
the South (ibid). The colonial regime left behind a style of governance which was
characterized by individualism and rigidity (Beshir, 1984), thus leaving Sudan to Arab
Muslim Northern rulers who lacked the leadership qualities to govern a modern state
system and the ability to approach solving political problems from a rational scientific
manner, which was what the country needed to keep intact and progress.

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CHAPTER 2: Background and Survey of Events

2.5 The Sudanese Crisis (1955-1972)


According to Scopas poggo (2009) “In the First Sudanese Civil War: Africans,
Arabs, and Israelis in the Southern Sudan, 1955-1972” he explained that the civil war
began in 1955 before the Sudan became officially independent, while the transfer of
power from the British to the Northern administrators was in transit. Due to the political
uncertainty, Southern insurgents from the Equatorial Corps (from the South) rebelled at
Torit (a district in East Equator), this rebellious act led to the formation of the separatist
movement, Land Freedom Army (better known as the Anya-Anya (AN) guerrilla
movement) which later formed the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement/Army SSLM/A
(Poggo, 2009). When the AN escalated their attacks, a low intensity civil war started
against the newly formed GGOS with the aim of achieving autonomy for the South. The
AN began to burn and destroy villages and properties, torturing the Northern
administrators in the South, as a symbol of increased opposition to the GGOS. The action
was met with further repressive action by the GGOS, which climaxed the conflict
(Johnson, 2003, DeRouen, 2007). However Douglas Johnson (2003) argues that it was
the 1964 change that portrayed the start of the civil war. In 1964 General Ibrahim Abbud
an Arab and Muslim military man, became Sudan’s first official president. As a reflection
of his religious passion, he began to pursue programs of Islamization and Arabicization in
the South, as part of his policy on the belief that emulsifying as a complete Muslim
country would ensure national unity (Johnson, 2003; Poggo, 2002). The move however
resulted in an open revolts in the South ,stimulating the AN into more effective
organization thus the formation of the SSLM/A led under General Joseph Lagu at the
time, which continued to fight the GGOS until the war came to an end after the signing
Addis Ababa Peace Accord in 1972.

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CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

Chapter3: The United Nations Conflict Management


and Prevention

3.1 Evolution and Formation Purpose of United Nations


Before diving into the United Nations conflict management mechanism, let’s look
at the history of the evolutions and purpose of the UN formation. The formation of UN
came as a result of the climax of the World War II, when the victorious side of the war
agreed to create a world organization that will be responsible for the prevention of any
future war outbreak, like the one that took place in the past, that saw to the about World
War II, they foresaw an organization that will hold the authority to take binding decisions
to oppose aggressions and threats to world peace. The plan was to institute measures and
platforms to maintain peace and stability after the horrible experience of World War II
that left a mark of immeasurable horror on human lives and properties.

The united nations as an intergovernmental body was formed on 24th October


1945 to promote international cooperation from the start there were 51members of the
world peace body during its formation stage, but the membership has long since grown
due to its importance and the essential role it plays on world affairs, especially in
international peace and security .the united nations since its formation has been devoted
to maintaining international peace and security, building friendly relations among nations
and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.7

The purpose for the creation of united nations among other reasons was to tackle
and correct those flaw that led to the failure of the league of the nations, which was
originally formed to stop and prevent inter-state conflicts, which included the lack of
commitment to the collective security arrangements for the preservation of international
peace and security and the contradiction of member states to use force for settlement.
Instead of adhering to the collective security arrangements, a balance of power was
encouraged, thus undermining the principles of the League of Nations. The outlaw of
their action was so obvious that there wasn’t a binding authority on member states of the

7UN source: www.un.org/en/aboutun/index.shtml

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CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

league and as such every nation conducted its own wishes at its pleasure 8 . Many
deficiencies in the collective security of the League of Nations compositions contributed
to its failure. Those flaws associated with the collective security assumptions as noted by
the League of Nations are some of the many reasons actually responsible for the collapse
of the body’s operations. The first assumption is that the states will identify their own
security with the existing world order to an extent that they will be prepared to defend
that order by involvement in situations that is unrelated to their national interests, States
will be able and willing to agree on the determination of attacker in a particular situation,
offenders will be so weak or lonely that it will be possible to confront him with a superior
international force;

States inspired by the objective principles of collective security, will be willing to


punish their closest allies as severely as they would their distant adversaries. Alliances,
affinity and common culture will simply melt away. Nation-states will renounce their
power of separate decision in the disposition of their armed forces in areas which their
national interests are not involved and Public debate in a permanent international
conference will prove a more effective technique for reaching accords than the traditional
method of discreet negotiation between the interested parties alone. These assumptions
were grossly unrealistic and didn’t conform to any workable model for international
behavior. The assumptions below counter-analyses can be proffered to the above
assumptions:

1. The loyalties built around nations-state cannot be relocated to one nation of the
world community.
2. The cause of conflict in a one nation might be considered self defense in another
nation.
3. Many small powers may possess very valuable weaponry that the international
community could find difficult to contain, like the issue with North Korea and its
nuclear weapon.
4. Nations just like human beings, are not excused from laws of human nature, they
do not react with equally or grant indulgence toward adversaries and allies.

8 LATIF, DILEK, the united nation changing role in the post cold war era: eastern Mediterranean university

13
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

5. Statesmen will not surrender their discretionary response on such crucial issues as
the use of their country’s armed forces. Even the harmless use of forces for agreed
peacekeeping and humanitarian purposes causes strong resentment when there are
casualties.

These collective security principles failed to reach the standard for international
acceptance because it did not reflect the spirit of contemporary age. It was introduced in a
world of nation’s states, yet it called on states to suddenly behave in a way that states had
never behaved in the history of man, one of the most tormenting aspects of collective
security was the decision of immaculate legality which became harmful and isolated from
the chain of consequences. In addition to the league convenient, decisions affected some
member of the league and immune a greater number due to some conflict of interest or
balance of power theory practiced. The action against the Soviet Union including its
expulsion from the League of Nations as the result of its invasion of Finland provides an
unquestionable example of the lip-service collective security.9

The underlying assumptions of the universal membership of the League of Nations


could not be achieved since the United States was never a member of the league due to
the unacceptable invasion of Finland, expulsion brought down the union of the soviet
socialist republic (USSR) from the league. It was so vivid, the many pitfalls that underpin
the survival of the world body at the heat of its operations, a uniform agreement was
required by all members of the organization for action but arriving at the same point and
agreeing on the same thing was a big challenge as members choose to participate at will,
meanwhile the exclusion of the axis powers that resulted to their alienation and sabotage
was also an obvious weakness that was extracted from the treaty, which provides for the
formation of the league of nations.

With time the problem became an inevitable weakness and the interwar period
aggravated these obvious weakness, the alliance system became a matter of must and the
issue of collective security as an integral principle of the league became a lip-service and
member state refused to take action against aggressions and aggressors, due to these
accounts, the league of nations broke down and plunged the international community in
9 EBAN, Abba , the united nations idea: The slow death of collective security ,council on foreign affairs 1995; p. 4-11

14
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

to the chaos of World War II. The formal dissolution of the body came in 1945, when the
United Nations came into being, taking over some major assets/properties of the
dissolved body. 10

Findings reveal that the formation of the world peace and security body was
engineered by prime minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill and the president of the
United States, Franklin D Roosevelt on an occasion of the British prime minister’s visit
to the United States of America in 1942. Its intent and goal has to a larger extent been
achieved since the World War III has been avoided up to date, its formation was intended
to prevent nations from engaging in brutal global conflict that took so many lives (Kraus
-2011).11

3.2: The United Nations Post Cold War Reform


As I try to explain the situations involved in the reform process of the United
Nations, it might not be as completely done like many others have explained the process
overtime and in detail. This period saw the UN in the middle of a game where it was
faced with the situation of setting a balance between reforming its structural deficiencies
and focusing on its stator mandate as a peace and security body. The essence of my
narration here is to illustrate the magnitude to which the UN has been overhauled in the
discharge of its founding mandate and the lapses it has inherited overtime as the result of
failures incurred in some situation while trying to bring an end to world conflicts.12

The post cold war era of the United Nations can be viewed as a material gain
towards the many efforts of the body in its peace seeking initiatives around the world as it
can be observed; the body became more viable in its peace seeking efforts after its post
cold war reform. The UN after the cold war, undertook a major reform exercises,
particularly the united nations principle of non intervention/interference in the domestic
affairs of any state, outlined in article 2 chapter 7 of UN charter, where there is no

10 LATIF , DILEK, united nations changing role in the post cold war era: eastern Mediterranean university;1999

11KRAUS , DON , evaluation of the united nations security council. Citizens of global solution, 2011; p.1-8,
https://globalsolutions.org/files/public/document/the_evaulation_of_the_united_nations_and_the
_security_council_0.pdf
12 Author’s note- Anthonia Nlebedum ,candidate of M.A: school of international and public affairs , Jilin university ,

china ,2016

15
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

provision for intra-state or civil conflicts, as well as its prescribed role to maintain
international peace and security concomitant with its efforts to resolve those conflicts
around the world at the time.

Prior to the climax of the cold war, the United Nations was involved in two
controversial peace and security operations in the Republic of Congo and the West New
Guinea as it attempted to fill the power vacancy created as the result of decolonization,
where the organization experienced horrible casualties including the death of its secretary
general. In both situations, the lines of sovereignty and security (non use of force in peace
keeping operations) were crossed by the United Nations which made the organization to
stay out of the business of running the internal affairs of other countries after learning
enough lessons.13

At the climax of the cold war, the number state of the United Nations amplified its
programs, signaling a change in the relation between what is in the legitimate authority of
state sovereignty and what is subjected to legitimate international intervention. During
the period between 1990 and 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted a smart
intrusive interpretation of UN charter chapter VII, the provisions concerning the
application and enforcement of international peace and security. However, the
endorsement of member states of a radical expansion in the range of collective
intervention just as a series of ethnic and civil wars erupted across the globe, signifying
a resounding support to the other , soon provoked a severe crisis in peace enforcement.14

Since the end of cold war, the activities of the UN shifted and expanded its field
operations from customary missions, which involved observer initiatives carried out by
military/paramilitary personnel to a complex multiple dimensional enterprises. These
multi dimensional activities were developed to foster the execution of comprehensive
peace agreement and assist in solidifying the foundations for sustainable peace. The
characterization of conflicts also changed over the past years, the UN peacekeeping,
originally developed as a means of dealing with inter-state conflict, was increasingly

13 KABUNDURGURU, Mathias, peacekeeping and the UN lessons from Rwanda , Asian pacific press / Australian
national university , 1999, https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/bitsrtream/1885/41691/cem99-.pd
14 DOYLE, Michael W. And SAMBANIS, Nicholas, making war and building peace: the United Nations peace

operatio ns. The international organization review, vol 1. Issue 4, 2006; pp. 401-403

16
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

being applied to intra state conflicts and civil wars. the united nations peacekeepers were
tasked with various responsibility that is very different, ranging from monitoring the
human right condition to reforming the security sector to giving a helping hand in
restructuring and or rebuilding institutions etc, while the military department of
peacekeeping remained the main body of UN ,the post cold war reform saw to the birth
of so many more departments that is as well important in the organization.15

The intervention of the UN in conflicts and post conflict initiatives in the


restoration or maintenance of peace and security is examined against its character based
mandate and on emerging international responsibility to protect vulnerable populations
against conflict where states and their government are unable to do so.16

At the closure of the cold war, the material and ideological interests of the cold
war rivals however changed the course and direction of international affairs, thereby
mounting significant pressure on the United Nations to engage new frontiers, such as
conflict prevention /peacemaking, conflict management and post conflict peace building.
The United Nations was therefore expected to fill the vacant space after the pullback of
the armed and humanitarian assistance by the superpowers from their global interest,
which were focused mainly on the third world or developing countries. The United
Nations secretary general in his agenda for peace initiative in 1992 showed the main
problems that the united nation was facing and the factors behind it. He complained of
the, he complained of the oppositions that the organization is facing .However, the UN’s
presence in terms of peacekeeping missions subsequently increased in countries where it
initially had limited involvement due to the decrease in the number of support.
Meanwhile, the quality and efficiency of the UN peacekeeping intervention was still an
issue to contain. The UN’s failure at peace initiative at the time was a conclusion to tag it
on such analysis.

The UN began to express a severe setback in efficient and effective peacekeeping


mission due to the financial difficulties in supporting regional peace initiatives. This can
be attributed to the actions of the state turning their backs on contributing to the UN

15 United nations website/ www.un.org/en/aboutun/index.shtml


16 See 16

17
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

initiatives at the time and the United States huge debt to the United Nations also
magnified the situation, leaving the UN in such a strangled picture.17

The UN’s new direction of reform according to former SG, Boutrus Ghali, was
later on welcomed by the new UN strongman, Kofi Annan, whose reform program was
endorsed by the UN’s General Assembly late the same year that it was recommended. A
historical and water shed paper came out at the beginning of the new century when the
United Nations published the renowned Brahimi Report on the UN reform agenda.
Lakhdar Brahimi was an eminent UN diplomat and a former Algerian foreign minister,
who prepared his report on the United Nations peace operations at the request of the
secretary general Kofi Annan. As I said earlier, the UN had encountered severe crisis of
confidence when the internal structure of the body was questioned in the reports, which
constitute the genocides in Rwanda and the massacres of Srebrenica. The report was very
negative and in all fairness reprehended the United Nations.18

The United Nations document A/55/305, 2000, revealed that the Brahimi’s report
proposed through extensive reform changes in the UN subsequent operations to create an
effective international security presence and According to the document, Brahimi
lamented that the United Nations had repeatedly failed to meet the peace and security
challenge of protecting people from the scourge of war, which has undermined its
principle mandate. The report emphasized on the importance of adjusting the UN to the
new reality of field work and peace operations, unlike its conference work focus
originally envisaged to be the main activity of the UN.19

The Brahimi report can be assumed to be a successful platform to head the UN


future plans because it widens the broad operations of the UN from a multilateral
diplomatic perspective which entails a complex performance detail nature and tailor it
down to a bilateral nature involving a synchronized detail with a comprehensive and
specific deliverable acquisition.

17 LATIF, DILEK, the united nations changing role in the post cold war era: eastern Mediterranean university;1999
18 DURCH,WILLIAM J.,HOLT, Victoria K., EARLE, Caroline R. and SHANAHAN, Moira K., the Brahimi report
and the future of the UN peace operation; the Henry L. Stimson press center, 11 DuPont circle , NW, Washington DC
20036;2003
19 United nations document/a/55/305/2000: The united nations security council on A comprehensive revision on its

security operations in all aspects: The united nations, A/55/305-S/2000/809;2000

18
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

The collapse of the cold war has encouraged many countries to pursue
independent policies toward their individual survival in the newly competing
international arena, which brought about a new world order. As Mesquita, Morrow,
Siverson and Smith states that ‘in contemporary age, the diplomat’s responsibility has
also shifted due to the promotion of high tech human security issues on the international
top table and the solution of the traditional national security concerns.20

In 2002,another reform package under the auspices of ‘An agenda for further
change’ from the UN- strongman , Kofi Annan Was approved at a resolution assembly
of the UN General Assembly as part II of Annan’s UN reform, under the strengthening
of the united nations future operations. The resolution emphasizes the alignment of
priorities of all the United Nations organs with the must talk about MDGs (Annan,
2002).21

3.3 avoiding Conflict


The issue of conflicts within and among nations varies according to the situation
or nature of the conflict on issues of interest of a nation based on the domestic
party/international influence of such group, but the effects of those conflicts are
unequivocally similar in dimension. Conflict evasion is an official policy framework of
other regional and world bodies like the European Union ,the G-8,the United Nations and
many other sovereign states, therefore it plays a major role in the UN post-cold war
reform exercise.22The requirement of the UN peace operation after the cold war includes
three major activities, which includes conflict prevention/peacemaking; conflict
management/peacekeeping and post conflict peace building. These mechanisms were
adapted to overhaul the shortcomings linked to the failure of the body’s operation in
many peace initiatives around the world.

Conflict prevention or peacemaking handles conflicts in progress, offering to


bring an end to the dispute using available tools like mediation and diplomacy. While

20 MESQUITA, B.B. De., MORROW, J., SIVERSON, R.M. and SMITH, A., an institutional explanation of the
democratic peace. American political science review;vol.93.no .4,1999
21 ANNAN, Kofi, strengthening of the united nations: An agenda for further change , report of the secretary general ,

2002 http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/images/nepad/a-res-57-300.pdf
22 LUND, Michael S., conflict prevention: theory in pursuit of policy and practice. the sage handbook of conflict

resolution, 2009

19
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

working towards realizing this peace settlements, government envoys, state groups,
regional organizations, the United Nations or non-governmental organizations as well as
non state actors are included in the facilitation to achieve peace, for instance, in the
negotiation leading up to a peace accord for Mozambique .as for peacekeeping, it is an
age old activity that has transformed overtime due to its significance in the operation of
the UN in the last decades, its transformation had grown from traditional military model
of observing ceasefire and force separation after inter-state wars, to a more complex
method ,which now includes military and civilians working together to build and
maintain peace in dangerous aftermath of civil conflicts.

Peace building, emerged in the UN policy framework for the purpose of


sustaining peace and security, it is a modern term used to define activities undertaken
on the far side of conflict to reassemble the foundation of peace and provide the tools for
building on those foundations, something that is more than just the absence of war, it
includes reintegrating former combatants into civilian society, strengthening the rule of
law, which is, training and restructuring of local security institutions, judicial and panel
reforms ,improving regards for human rights through education, monitoring and
investigating of past and existing abuses ,providing technical assistance and support for
free media and promoting conflict resolution and reconciliation techniques.

The success of conflict prevention and peacemaking are often quiet and politically
discreet. The implementers of these successes are often not brought to the limelight ,but
just to provide a courtesy of their efforts, those personalities are made the personal
envoys and representatives of the secretary-general (RSGs) or special representatives of
the secretary-general (SRSGs) they are the heroes and heroines that have complemented
the diplomatic initiatives of member states of the UN and at other times have taken into
account that member states could not readily duplicate, for example ,the ceasefire
achievement in the Islamic republic of Iran - Iraq war in 1988,the freeing of the last
western hostage in Lebanon in 1991 and the avoidance of war between the Islamic
republic of Iran and Afghanistan in 1998.

Political commentators whose interests are in conflicts and it assumptions argued


that short term initiatives are functions of long term preventive strategies; therefore, they

20
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

conclude that long preventive strategies are necessary complements to short term
initiatives, prior to the climax of the cold war, the united nations peace keeping
operations mostly had traditional cease fire monitoring mandates and no direct peace
building responsibilities, thus, limiting the entry and execution strategies or sequence of
events and decision leading to united nations deployment as a straightforward jacket,
which included war, ceasefire, invitation to monitor ceasefire compliance and
deployment of military observers or units. At the same time, significant efforts continued
for a political settlement in the improvement of the above mentioned initiatives.

All peace and security related issues on the role of the United Nations around the
world became a deep-rooted strategy for thorough reform as the result of their
straightforwardness, which in real sense lacked ‘plan B’ and posed serious risks to the
intelligence and deployment requirements to peacekeeping. But traditional peacekeeping
which treats the symptoms rather than sources of conflict has no bulletin exit strategy and
associated peacemaking was often slow to make progress. As a result, traditional
peacemaking has remained in place for over 50 years (as in Cyprus, the Middle East and
India/Pakistan). By the standard of more complex operations, they are relatively low cost
and politically easier to maintain than to remove, however, they are also difficult to
justify unless accompanied by series and sustained peacemaking efforts that seek to
reform a ceasefire accord into a durable and lasting peace settlement.23

3.4 Conflict Supervision


The conflict management and peace building challenges at the gratification of
international peace and security by the United Nations around the world is nothing less
than a comprehensive re-structuring of institutions in the international level. It has
become a challenging responsibility at all levels, including and for constituted and
potential national leadership. With the expectation to take on such a heroic responsibility
in a post-conflict atmosphere, through intervention from the sovereignty of a nation, often
without a functioning state, would appear impossible to accomplish, and yet this is

23LATIF , DILEK, the united nations changing role in the post cold war era: eastern Mediterranean university, 1999 ,
http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/44/670/8528.pdf

21
CHAPTER 3: The United Nations Conflict Management and Prevention

precisely what the UN has been increasingly called upon to do after some horrible
experience.

Recognizing the high possibilities of a relapse into conflict after a peace


agreement has been signed; the UN today often intervenes on the bases of complex
mandates that extends well beyond responding to humanitarian needs and monitoring of
the peace agreement. the emergence of complex conflict management and peace building
as a central activity for the UN is based on the recognition that securing the peace and
building lasting structures conducive to development requires a more robust and
comprehensive intervention that borders on state building.

The UN was established principally to prevent inter-state war. Issues regarding to


security were politically and institutionally separated from the emerging policy field of
development within the UN. This policy field was functionally organized according to
specific issues and agencies; the organizational set up was a reflection of the then
prevalent notion that states may come to cooperate easily with each other when
cooperation was confined to clearly define technical issues. This structure may have been
conducive to creating good condition for inter-state cooperation; however it becomes
increasingly clear that it does not sit well with the tasks that the UN has set itself in the
field of peace building and conflict management.

Against this background a loose consensus has emerged about the need to bring
the political, developmental and humanitarian sides of the UN closer together in an effort
to make peace building efforts more coherent. The challenges has been defined in terms
of how best to harness the expertise and resources in these respective policy fields, which
are all important in preventing violent conflict and rebuilding war-torn societies. The
efforts however, are proven difficult.24

The need to secure and maintain peace is still a work in progress and with great
assistance from the local government and local organizations, the future of conflict
resolution might be very successful and permanent,

24 See 27

22
CHAPTER 4: The United Nations Intervention

Chapter 4: The United Nations Intervention

4.1 The UN’s tasks in Sudan


The UN has been a major partner of Sudanese people for several decades.
Specifically, the UN has focused efforts on working to save lives, reducing human
suffering, providing essential social services, supporting and enhancing national
capacities and resilience, as well as supporting and strengthening grass root peace
building mechanisms. The UN operates through all of Sudan, making use of an area-
based approach to identify and focus on priority areas for humanitarian, developmental
and recovery interventions. The overall purpose of UN assistance is to "promote a
peaceful environment that enables the fulfillment of the rights of Sudanese people to
survival and protection, to be able to exercise informed choices, and to enjoy equal
dignity and development."

The UN family is led by the Office of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator
for Sudan and is composed of the following individual agencies:

1. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)


2. UN Population Fund (UNFPA)
3. UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
4. UN Emergency Mine Action Program in Sudan (UNMAS)
5. World Health Organization (WHO)
6. World Food Program (WFP)

In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the numerous forms of intervention


and support that the UN offers in Sudan, a snapshot capturing the focus of each agency is
provided below. The mission statement and a statement on how effectively funding
aspirations are being met will be provided for each agency. In the interest of keeping this
report from becoming too long, a brief opinion will be offered on only selected UN
agencies.

23
CHAPTER 4: The United Nations Intervention

4.2 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)


The purpose of the mission was to Reducing food insecurity, hunger and rural
poverty, Ensuring an enabling policy and regulatory framework for food and agriculture,
fisheries and forestry, Securing sustainable increases in the supply and availability of
food, Conserving and enhancing the natural resource base, Capacity building:
knowledge generation in food and agriculture, fisheries and forestry, Promoting
agriculture and food security as tool for mitigating conflicts and enhancing peace.

The success of the FAO relies on effective coordination across various institutions
also partners perhaps more than most other UN agencies. It has noticed major
breakdowns across internal and external agencies regarding program planning and
implementation, lack of incentive to collaborate effectively, and no indicators of success
for constituents to strive towards. The FAO is now taking the lead in establishing these
catalytic steps that will help not only this individual agency, but also the UN System as a
whole. Funding received in 2003 was $3,103,476 compared to $18,907,587 needed25.

4.3 UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF)


The purpose is to advocate for the protection of children’s rights, to help meet
their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential. To
contribute to the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals and the goals of
promoting healthy lives, providing quality education, protecting against abuse,
exploitation and violence, and combating HIV/AIDS. Total UNICEF funding required for
2003 was $69,075,775 and the total amount received was $20,733,275.26

4.4 UN Emergency Mine Action Program in Sudan (UNMAS)


“The Emergency Mine Acton Program aims to work within the confines of a pre-
peace/ongoing conflict environment to support the development of realistic and
documented standards to establish and document proven operational capacity and
professionalism of National NGOs in promoting and assisting the development of a fully
integrated National Mine Action planning and coordination body that will immediately
be able to plan and cope with human security issues that are of great importance in a
25 http://www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=FAO
26 http://www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNICEF

24
CHAPTER 4: The United Nations Intervention

post-conflict environment.”The total funding required for UNMAS in 2003 was $8.5
million and amazingly not one dollar of funding was actually raised!27

4.5 World Health Organization (WHO)


“Promoting the health status and well being of the population of Sudan through direct
partnerships with national counterparts. WHO provides technical support to priority
national healthy programs to all of Sudan through:

1. Fielding experts and consultants


2. Fellowships
3. National Training Activities
4. Provision of supplies and equipments
5. Research support, particularly operational research
6. Inter-country and Regional meetings organization
7. Information exchange & support”

In 2003 the WHO required a total of $12 million while they received a total of $4
million28.

4.6 World Food Program (WFP)


The civil war in Sudan is the main cause of food insecurity and population
displacement. This is compounded by periodic droughts and erratic rainfall. WFP works
in partnership with national counterparts as well as with 22 NGO’s. WFP employed 60
international staff and over 450 national staffs to cover activities in Northern and
Southern sectors of Sudan. The top 2 donors to WFP Sudan are the United States with a
total contribution of $136 million and Japan, a distant second with $14 million. As the
year end 2003, the total shortfall of funds required by WFP Sudan was $144,981,488.

27 http://www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=UNMAS
28 http://www.unsudanig.org/system/index.jsp?agency=WHO

25
CHAPTER 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

Chapter 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

5.1 United Nations Mission in Sudan proposed


At the conclusion of signing the comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) by the
parties to the Sudanese conflict, the United Nations SG recommended in a
comprehensive report, the establishment and deployment of a multidimensional peace
support UN mission to the Sudanese about the future role the UN could play in
solidifying the achievements made in the war torn nation and to facilitate the
implementation of the CPA, including the size, structure and mandate of the expected
mission. He encouraged the SC in his report to deploy the mission size 10,130 military
personnel, of whom 750 would be military observers and 160 staff officers, he also saw
the formation of units comprising of 5,070 troops and a force protection component of
4,150. He also proposed the deployment of 755 international civilian police officers,
including 108 senior grade officers, 244 middle grade officers and the remaining 403 be
the junior grade officers.

With regard to the mission structures, the SG stressed that UNAMIS would reflect
a multipurpose dimension ,with a wide range of components all of which would be
aligned with the UN agencies operating in the country, he highlighted politically, civil
affairs, military, civilian police, rule of law, human rights, public information, electoral
assistance, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, sustainable development,
mine action, gender, recovery, return, sustainability, development, and personal conduct.

5.2 Deployment of UNAMIS


Following the establishing resolution, the deployment of UNMIS military
elements commenced, enabling the force headquarters in Khartoum and the Joint
Monitoring Coordination Office in Juba to achieve an initial operating capability, but a
number of factors resulted in delays in the deployment rate of some military and police
elements. In the following months, UNMIS continued its deployment at a steady pace,
albeit behind schedule, and assisted the parties in implementing the CPA and resolving
ongoing conflicts. At the same time, the deployment of UN human rights monitors to
Darfur accelerated.

26
CHAPTER 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

, on 28 April 2005, the AMIS force in Darfur was increased by the AU Peace and
Security Council to a total of 6,171 military personnel and 1,560 civilian police. By
September 2006, UNMIS military and police components were at full strength at 8,727
troops, 695 military observers, 186 staff officers, and 666 police officers.

5.6 The Conclusion of UNAMIS


On 9 July, the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) ended
following the completion of the six-and-a-half-year interim period set up by the
Government of Sudan and SPLM during the signing of the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement (CPA) on 9 January 2005.

On 17 May 2011, the Secretary-General urged the parties and the Security
Council to consider a three-month extension of UNMIS due to ongoing security concerns
in South Sudan that were directly related to security issues that the North and South had
to address together. In his report to the Security Council (S/2011/314) the Secretary
General explained that this period would allow the mission to begin downsizing its
presence in Khartoum while assisting the parties in seeking resolution to the ongoing
security issues, as well as the residual CPA and post-referendum issues, including finding
a mutually acceptable arrangement, for monitoring the border. On 31 May 2011, the
Secretary-General transmitted a letter from the Government of Sudan (GOS) to the
Security Council (S/2011/333), announcing the Government of Sudan’s decision to
terminate the presence of UNMIS as of 9 July 2011.

Under-Secretary-General of the Department of Field Support, Susana


Malcorra paid tribute to the work of the mission on a visit to Sudan in July: ‘I believe
that the people of this Mission need to be proud of what has been done in the referendum
- it was an incredible achievement – it was an incredible challenge that most of the world
believed was not going to happen.’ She continued: ‘I think people in this Mission have
done an incredible job in the process of DDR in the processes of for example of mine
action – trying to make sure that they clear for mines important extensions of the territory;
in supporting all the important mandated tasks by the Security Council but most
importantly engaging with the Sudanese in trying to arrive to a better place where peace
can be achievable.’

27
CHAPTER 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

5. 7 The Problem with the UN method


With such an enormous, multi-faceted and comprehensive approach to delivering
aid to Sudan, why are so many Sudanese still suffering? Why does the situation in Sudan
remain the most serious humanitarian condition in the world today? Many believe it is an
intense lack of coordination that undermines the UN’s efforts. There are times when
disagreements crop up between the UN donors and the UN officials in Khartoum.
Although this type of disagreement could be expected to a certain extent, too often they
grew out of what donors regard as indefensible operational deficiencies on the part of
some UN agencies. The UN’s fragmented structure of separate, independent agencies is
at the heart of the lack of effective operation29.

The UN does not have a strong chain of command in place to create the sense of
accountability and responsibility necessary for permanent and successful execution of the
organization’s agendas in Sudan. According to Don Peterson of his time in Sudan, the
top UN official in Khartoum had the title of UN coordinator. As far as was observable,
the coordinator was not empowered to direct any of the agency heads on what to do. The
only power at the disposal of the UN coordinator was apparently the power of persuasion
which, to state the obvious, will not always be successful.

The UN also needs to be more assertive in dealing with conflicts. Random


decisions by government officials, most frequently military or security personnel that
hamper relief operations should be sanctioned. Many who worked in support of the UN
felt that the organization should express more of the anger felt when the government
behaves wrongly. The UN officials meanwhile disagree with that idea saying that
confronting the government is “not their function”.

A high-level official of the United Nations gave the account that a more assertive
approach would make it even more difficult for UN agencies to accomplish their mission.
Ultimately the UN effort in Sudan is much like a bunch of very talented players trying to
win a game without actually playing against any opponent. These players can play hard,
but they have a healthy and well warranted fear of playing “hard ball”. The chances of

29http://www.unsudanig.org/system/data/UN_Sudan_Factsheets/WFP.pdf. “World Food Programme Sudan:


2003 Facts and Figures.”

28
CHAPTER 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

such a team overcoming a formidable opponent are extremely slim—so far the team has
not beaten the odds.

The obstacles to delivering aid become countless when the UN is forced to


function in the face of dangerous attacks,. There are many examples of bombings and
attacks on parts of the country for which there is no military justification. Efforts to
supply these towns with support are often scrubbed for one reason or another. At times,
the roads leading to towns housing people in need are filled with land mines. The UN is
forced to load supplies onto barges and to travel via water until these threats are bypassed.
Once land is reached and a more efficient route can be used, the UN must hope that no
news of a planned military action will be received regarding the area where they are
positioned. If so, the operation must be cancelled and the entire journey must be taken in
reverse with no support reaching the needy.

Inefficient land travel has posed serious problems for the delivery of UN care. In
one example, World Food Program (WFP) Director Khalid Adly reported that a relief
train to Wau had not even reached its final destination due to repeated instances of
looting while en route. Only 300 of the train’s load of 1500 metric tons of grain were
delivered to intended targets. Even if the SPLA leadership in the South intended to honor
its agreement to protect the train, it could not control its local commanders. The sad
reality is that malnutrition levels are already so high that that people are utterly desperate
leaving the looting of trains full of food a near certainty. Given this status, it no longer
made sense to continue sending food by train; however, the next alternative would be air
delivery which is extremely expensive by comparison. The additional financial strain
consequently imposed on UN donors can easily lead to insufficient funding. Although in
many locations people have become totally dependent on airlift and airdrop operations,
individual needs often cannot be met. On the basis of such news, which is being
corroborated by many different locations, extremely serious food shortages are likely to
occur.

Members appointed in this organization must be known for their independence


and their impartiality and should include people with a profound understanding of the
region and a professional and recognized knowledge in human rights law and practice

29
CHAPTER 5: Proposed Unamis Tactics

and should also be accorded sufficient time and adequate resources in order to make
proper investigations and conclusions.

Unfortunately it appears that the strategy of the UN is flawed in places where that
are still experiencing war. The UN’s passive approach to providing support is great for
situations when battle has subsided. It is under these conditions that humanitarian access
is the greatest and the UN is perhaps the best organization imaginable to come to the
rescue of those in need. to become more effective, the UN must identify the root cause
of the conflict and treat it from there to avoid any resurgence or reoccurrence in the near
future. a mechanism for attracting the international community and their leverage to put
down the antics of the parties at war should also be put in place to remind and prevent
bad people from walking free from the trouble they caused, it is a huge so focus should
therefore be put on goals more within the scope of reasons such as to embark on more
aggressive fundraising efforts and introduce a meaningful chain of command within the
UN to facilitate inter-agency coordination for a more effective and permanent outcome .

30
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion

Chapter 6: Conclusion

Sudan has experienced civil unrest for so long that it has become a pattern withing
the country’s political society. I believe that this paper has provided the reader with the
background knowledge to understanding the issues of the Sudan civil war and how it
came to existence. The analysis shows my fair opinion about the UN operation in Sudan
regarding its success or failure based on the UN intervention or role mentioned,
particularly in peace and security and technical benchmarks in which expectations were
aligned to address and achieve lasting peace and humanitarian relief.

In my opinion, there is a clear difference between peacekeeping and peace


building, you cannot keep peace without building it, in that when those technical
benchmarks are put in place, the keeping of such peace comes in and strengthen it. In a
required effort to solidify the gains of any mission under the UN flag, the support to local
government peace initiative should allow them to function properly without external
assistance, which means, those government, after receiving the necessary support should
muster the courage and strength to stand on their own in terms of security, rule of law and
economic prospects.

My analysis critically evaluates the situation that brought about the crisis in Sudan
and I applaud the Sudanese and the UN for coming to terms on the agreement of ending
the UNMIS mission after the completion of UNMIS mandate. This clearly speaks to the
fact that something positive has happened, whether it is permanent or not, it shows that
the Sudanese have agreed to take their own peace and security and other important issues
under their own control, which to a larger extent was the sole purpose of UN intervention,
but did the conclusion of UNMIS lead to permanent peace?

At the conclusion of the UN mission in Sudan analysts expressed thoughts that


the UN achieved its mandate and that the mission was a success given that it led to the
secession of southern Sudan from the republic of the Sudan. Does the secession guarantee
future peace given that UNMIS has achieved its objectives?30

30 United nations source; www.un.org.en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unmis

31
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion

These questions left me wondering as I strolled through the analysis of the UN


role that horridly wrapped up its mission in the Sudan during the six (6) years of the
mission, the UN made considerable progress in the implementation of the CPA and
strengthened relationship between the two parties the agreement, the UN successfully
achieved a peaceful holding of elections and the exercise of rights of self-determination
for southern Sudan that led to the creation of the world newest nation (the republic of
southern Sudan)

The UN mission in the Sudan accomplished lots of tasks but not permanently,
obviously the UN lack of competence in the case of Sudan is drawn from ignoring the
persistent confrontation in the red zones or flashpoint areas in Sudan and conducting
secession process of southern Sudan climaxing the UN mission tasked with the
responsibility of reaping lasting and durable peace in the Sudan. Establishing new
mission in southern Sudan clearly shows that the previously concluded mission was not
completely resolved and that the conflict had restarted again. I believe that as a peace
body, the UN should have tried to squash out the fire before separating the two sides
because the tension between the two side was bound to instigate into another round of
conflict, which it did .allowing the secession of southern Sudan before attempting to
settle scores in those flashpoint areas was a bad move on the side of the united nation,
because no matter how good and successful you are at keeping peace, without rooting out
and dissolving the root cause of the problem, the probability of reoccurrence is very high
and that is what my paper have tried to show case here, that the united nation may have
put in a lot of effort into keeping peace in Sudan but because the most crucial step was
neglected ,it brought about disrupt and a second civil war.

With the new mission established in southern Sudan ,the strategy is now
underlining the gains made by the UN in the Sudan and as the result of this very issue
that cannot be excused from the bigger picture of the Sudan saga, the reformed image of
the united nation may have been tainted. With the secession of south Sudan, a part that
constituted huge portion of the initial UN Sudan mission, success cannot be claimed
because the threats posed by the uprising conflicts in these new areas have the potential
to destroy the entire UN image and the previously achieved peace. I believe that the

32
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion

success achieved by the UN in the Sudan settlement would be permanent if the UN had
focused on resolving the tension before the succession of south Sudan, they wouldn’t
have had to embark on a second mission in south Sudan. Because the agreement that
ended the first civil war in 1972 did not get rid of the tension that had originally caused it
at first leading to another start up of north south second civil war which lasted from 1983
to 2005.although the second war is over now, the tension is still in air between these two
country.

The crucial point to get across is not to dwell on arguing about the possibility of
war, but to make the united nations and the Sudanese people realize that if the tension
between the two country is not resolved starting from the root cause, the probability of
them slipping back into war no matter the form of agreement that is reached, will
continue to be high.

33
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38
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express gratitude to all my professors for the guidance and patience
through my masters studies in Jilin University. It was a privilege and a great experience
to be taught by them. My gratitude also goes to my supervisor Mr. Liu Duben for his
directions and patience, also my co supervisor Mr. Wu Yen Fei who have guided me and
whose support was essential in order to make this thesis complete.

I want to also appreciate other lecturers who have empowered and enlightened me in one
way or another, Dr Raj Verma and Dr Wang Li both of whom have always been very
supportive and kind to students, Mr. Jung for his spectacular way of imbibing knowledge
to student, making it very fun and easy to understand even the hardest topic, Dr Alex for
his never discouraging attitude toward every attempt, makes it comfortable for everyone
to participate and share their views on topics discussed in class.

Great thanks to Jilin University for having me as student of international relations


program. It is an honor to be part of the school and to live and share experience with
colleagues from different parts of the world.

39

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