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Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Effects of using Bitumen Modifiers on
Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Effects of using Bitumen Modifiers on

Effects of using Bitumen Modifiers on Mix design

and Pavement Performance

Hussain Bahia

Professor and Director of MARC

11:00 11:30

Seminar organized by the Ministry of Infra-structure Development MOID- UAE January 24-25

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

11:30 Seminar organized by the Ministry of Infra-structure Development MOID- UAE January 24-25 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Outline

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Outline • Mixture Design Methods: Marshall

Mixture Design Methods: Marshall & Superpave

Mixing and Compaction Temperatures

Aggregate Blends and effect of modifiers on Packing Structure

Mixture Performance Testing & Role of Bitumen Grades

Pavement Performance

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

Structure • Mixture Performance Testing & Role of Bitumen Grades • Pavement Performance H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Asphalt Mixture Design: Achieve better performance

Asphalt Mixture Design: Achieve better performance by selecting:

1.

Aggregate size distribution

2.

Air Voids

3.

Bitumen Content and modifiers

H. Bahia

2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path
2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path
2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path
2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path
2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path

Contact Length

Contact Zone

Stress Path

www.uwmarc.org

2. Air Voids 3. Bitumen Content and modifiers H. Bahia Contact Length Contact Zone Stress Path

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Basic Mix Design Objective: Determine Bitumen

Basic Mix Design Objective:

Determine Bitumen Content that allows achieving 4% air voids at a given temperature and compaction effort for each aggregate blend to achieve balanced properties

4.0 % 0 3 6 9 12 Traffic Resistance Durability
4.0 %
0
3
6
9
12
Traffic Resistance
Durability

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

to achieve balanced properties 4.0 % 0 3 6 9 12 Traffic Resistance Durability H. Bahia

% Air Voids

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Rutting in Asphalt Mix Rutting in

Rutting in Asphalt Mix

Rutting in HMA represents Permanent vertical deformation
Rutting in HMA represents Permanent vertical deformation

H. Bahia

in HMA represents Permanent vertical deformation H. Bahia Wheel Loads Asphalt Surface Mix Asphalt Base Mix
Wheel Loads Asphalt Surface Mix Asphalt Base Mix
Wheel
Loads
Asphalt
Surface Mix
Asphalt
Base Mix

Poor Quality Bitumen Bitumen Content is too high

Wheel Loads Asphalt Surface Mix Asphalt Base Mix Poor Quality Bitumen Bitumen Content is too high

www.uwmarc.org

Wheel Loads Asphalt Surface Mix Asphalt Base Mix Poor Quality Bitumen Bitumen Content is too high
Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Fatigue Cracking

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Fatigue Cracking

Cracks in the Wheel Path
Cracks in the Wheel Path

Poor Quality Bitumen Bitumen Content is too low

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

Wheel Path P o o r Q u a l i t y B i t

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 How to Balance Mix ? Phase

How to Balance Mix ? Phase Diagram For Mixture Void Analysis

Volume V v = cm 3 cm 3 V be = V b = cm
Volume
V v =
cm
3
cm
3
V be =
V b =
cm
3
cm
3
V ba =
cm
3
V mb =
cm
3
V mm =
cm
3
V sb =
H. Bahia
www.uwmarc.org

Air Voids

Effective Bitumen

Absorbed

Bitumen

Effective Stone (Impermeable to binder)

Weight

g W be = W b = g g W ba = W s =
g
W be =
W b =
g
g
W ba =
W s =
g

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Marshall Mix Design Method • Select

Marshall Mix Design Method

Select and test aggregates

Select and test bitumen

Establish mixing and compaction temperatures

Develop trial mixes

Heat and mix bitumen and aggregates

Compact specimen (100 mm diameter)

Measure Stability and flow

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

bitumen and aggregates – Compact specimen (100 mm diameter) • Measure Stability and flow H. Bahia

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Effects of Modifiers on Mixing/Compaction Temps

Effects of Modifiers on Mixing/Compaction Temps

10000 Viscosity, cSt
10000
Viscosity, cSt
5000 We can use special additives; WMA, special polymers Modified Bitumen 1000 Unmodified Bitumen 500
5000
We can
use special additives;
WMA, special polymers
Modified
Bitumen
1000
Unmodified Bitumen
500
Compaction Range
300
200
Mixing Range
100
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
Temperature, C

Modifiers vary in effect on the mixing and compaction temperatures

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

180 190 200 Temperature, C Modifiers vary in effect on the mixing and compaction temperatures H.

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Minor Differences between Manual and Automated

Minor Differences between

Manual and Automated Compaction

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org
www.uwmarc.org
9-11
9-11

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Workability: Measuring Required Compaction Effort Superpave

Workability: Measuring Required Compaction Effort

Superpave Gyratory Compactor

• Simulate field compaction with roller • Also simulate traffic densification % Gmm – Density
• Simulate field compaction with roller
• Also simulate traffic densification
% Gmm – Density
Unmodified
Bitumen
96 % Gmm
ram pressure
ram pressure
ram pressure
ram pressure
92 % Gmm
Modified Bitumen
600
600
600
600
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
150
150
150
150
mm mold
mm mold
mm mold
mm mold
10
100
1000
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
deg
deg
deg
deg
30
30
30
30
gyrations
gyrations
gyrations
gyrations
N- Gyrations (Roller passes)
per minute
per minute
per minute
per minute

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

gyrations gyrations N- Gyrations (Roller passes) per minute per minute per minute per minute H. Bahia

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Need Control of Density/Air Voids To

Need Control of Density/Air Voids

To Balance Performance (Rutting and Cracking)

Very Important for durability and performance:

Required Levels:

35% at Optimum %AC in Design WHY?

6-8% at Time of Construction WHY?

If Air Voids are too high:

Poor Durability (Moisture and Aging), raveling

Shorter Fatigue Life

Less Resistance to Rutting

If Air Voids are too low:

Less Rutting Resistance

Bleeding

Less skid resistance safety - issues

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

low: – Less Rutting Resistance – Bleeding – Less skid resistance – safety - issues H.

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Marshall Mix with PMB - UAE

Marshall Mix with PMB - UAE

Design Bitumen Content Total Voids VMA VFB Module !-14 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Design Bitumen Content
Total Voids
VMA
VFB
Module !-14
H. Bahia
www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Qatar Construction Specifications- 2014 For Pen

Qatar Construction Specifications- 2014

For Pen Bitumen and Modified Bitumen

Module !-15 H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org
Module !-15
H. Bahia
www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Superpave HMA Performance Tests Fatigue Cracking

Superpave HMA Performance Tests

Fatigue

Cracking

Rutting

Workability

(mix & compact)

Thermal

Cracking

ram pressure
ram pressure
(mix & compact) Thermal Cracking ram pressure SGC 1.25 deg - 20 20 40 135 Pavement
(mix & compact) Thermal Cracking ram pressure SGC 1.25 deg - 20 20 40 135 Pavement
(mix & compact) Thermal Cracking ram pressure SGC 1.25 deg - 20 20 40 135 Pavement
SGC
SGC
1.25 deg
1.25 deg
- 20 20 40 135
- 20
20
40
135

Pavement Temperature, °C

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

compact) Thermal Cracking ram pressure SGC 1.25 deg - 20 20 40 135 Pavement Temperature, °

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Effect of Polymers on Compaction Effort

Effect of Polymers on Compaction Effort of mixtures at 145 o C

Sample

N92- 8 % air-

N96 4% air-

% Change in

voids

voids

compaction effort

Control

36

111

0

Elastomer

32

100

-10

Plastomer

26

86

-23

Hybrid

24

76

-41

Titan and Hybrid can reduce compaction effort ( up t

Or allow wider temperature range for compaction

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

Hybrid can reduce compaction effort ( up t • Or allow wider temperature range for compaction

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Rutting: Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Test

Rutting: Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Test

2017 Rutting: Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Test TIME Flow Number • Rutting - Flow Number (FN)
2017 Rutting: Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Test TIME Flow Number • Rutting - Flow Number (FN)
TIME
TIME

Flow Number

Rutting

- Flow Number (FN) at High Temp

H. Bahia

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Load Permanent Deformation Test TIME Flow Number • Rutting - Flow Number (FN) at High Temp

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Measuring Rutting in the Lab Flow

Measuring Rutting in the Lab

Flow Number (FN) Test

24-25, 2017 Measuring Rutting in the Lab Flow Number (FN) Test Courtesy of pavementinteractive.org H. Bahia

Courtesy of pavementinteractive.org

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

24-25, 2017 Measuring Rutting in the Lab Flow Number (FN) Test Courtesy of pavementinteractive.org H. Bahia

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Improvement in Rutting Resistance FPE H.

Improvement in Rutting Resistance

FPE
FPE

H. Bahia

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Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Improvement in Rutting Resistance FPE H.

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Improvements in Rutting Resistance (FN) Single

Improvements in Rutting Resistance (FN)

Single Polymers and Hybrid:

   

FN

Mix

Air Voids

FN = Cycles Replicate

Average

CV

% Increase

(%)

FN

(%)

in FN

Control

7.2

133

     

6.9

138

136

2.6

0

 

7.1

736

     

Elastomer

7.1

741

739

0.5

+443 %

 

7.1

849

     

Plastomer

6.7

980

     

6.9

860

896

8.1

+559 %

Hybrid

7.2

1588

     

(SBS+Titan)

7.3

1900

1744

12.7

+1182%

H. Bahia

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7.2 1588       (SBS+Titan) 7.3 1900 1744 12.7 +1182% H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Rut Accumulation rate (strain / cycle )

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Reduction in Rutting Rate

Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Reduction in Rutting Rate 80 60 40 20 0 70

80

60

40

20

0

70 12.1 6.3 4.3
70
12.1
6.3
4.3

Control

SBS

CBE

Hybrid

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

24-25, 2017 Reduction in Rutting Rate 80 60 40 20 0 70 12.1 6.3 4.3 Control
24-25, 2017 Reduction in Rutting Rate 80 60 40 20 0 70 12.1 6.3 4.3 Control

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Wheel Tracking Tests - Optimum Bitumen

Wheel Tracking Tests - Optimum Bitumen and

H. Bahia

Less Rutting

Specialty Polymers +Anti Strip
Specialty Polymers
+Anti Strip

60 % reduction in rutting

www.uwmarc.org

Tests - Optimum Bitumen and H. Bahia Less Rutting Specialty Polymers +Anti Strip 60 % reduction

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Asphalt Properties for Pavement Design Dynamic

Asphalt Properties for Pavement Design

Dynamic Modulus /E*/ Phase Angle,

  o sint       o sin(t- Time, t

o sint

o sin(t-
Time, t

0

0

t

i

|

*|

E

H. Bahia

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 o sin(t- Time, t  0  0    t i | *|
 o sin(t- Time, t  0  0    t i | *|

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Pavement Design Methods • AASHTO 1993

Pavement Design Methods

AASHTO 1993

SN = a 1 D 1 + a 2 D 2

+ a 3 D 3

SN= Structural Number

D: Thickness

a i : Layer coefficient ~ Modulus

• D: Thickness • a i : Layer coefficient ~ Modulus • Pavement ME – 2012--
• D: Thickness • a i : Layer coefficient ~ Modulus • Pavement ME – 2012--

Pavement ME 2012--

Mixture Dynamic Modulus : E*

Higher E*= Less deformation, less damage

H. Bahia

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ME – 2012--  – Mixture Dynamic Modulus : E* • Higher E*= Less deformation, less

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Dynamic Modulus (E*) Master Curve 1.E+07

Dynamic Modulus (E*) Master Curve

1.E+07 CBE SBS Hybrid 1.E+06 Control 1.E+05 T 70 °F ref = 1.E+04 -6 -5
1.E+07
CBE
SBS
Hybrid
1.E+06
Control
1.E+05
T
70 °F
ref =
1.E+04
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
E* (psi)

Log (Reduced Time))

H. Bahia

www.uwmarc.org

70 °F ref = 1.E+04 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Europe has used this concept for

Europe has used this concept for more than 25 Years EME- For Sustainable Roads

to reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources (aggregates and also

bitumen) by using Enrobés à Module Elevé (EME - High Modulus Asphalt mixes), since more than 25 years.

The thickness reduction can reach to 30 35% less

compared to traditional flexible pavement.

This technique presents an excellent solution to reduce the use of

materials while maintaining a very long service life ”

Source : ISAP 2012 Yves Brosseaud, French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks (IFSTTAR), France

H. Bahia

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Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks ( IFSTTAR), France H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

28

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 28 Current AASHTO 1993 Design- PMB

Current AASHTO 1993 Design- PMB Benefits

Type of

Approximate Speed MPH

Not

7.5% SBS

2.5 % FPE HON- Titan

Highway

Modified

HiMA

% Increase in Service Pavement Life

Expressway

60- 80

0%

64%

107%

Intersections

~

5

0%

173%

218%

% Reduction in Asphalt Layer Thickness

Interstate

60- 80

0%

9%

14%

Intersections

~

5

0%

20%

22%

H. Bahia

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Interstate 60- 80 0% 9% 14% Intersections ~ 5 0% 20% 22% H. Bahia www.uwmarc.org

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 These findings are not new :

These findings are not new :

Enhanced Performance of HMA by Use of Polymer Modification

(H. Von Quintus – AMAP Meeting 2/2004)
(H. Von Quintus – AMAP Meeting 2/2004)

H. Bahia

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Performance of HMA by Use of Polymer Modification (H. Von Quintus – AMAP Meeting 2/2004) H.

Superpave and Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017

Thank you

Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Thank you Questions and Discussions

Questions and Discussions

H. Bahia

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Modified Bitumen in the UAE Dubai- UAE , January 24-25, 2017 Thank you Questions and Discussions

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