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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Media communications technologies are imperative for frontline investments

for sustainable globalised tourism development indicators. The powerful effects of

media communications can bring sweeping changes of attitudes and behaviour among

the key actors in local, national and global tourism for peace, security and sustainable

development. The social, cultural, economic, political and environmental benefits of

tourism would usher in monumental and historic changes in the country. As the

verdict goes, the media has a social responsibility to enhance the blending of local,

national and international cultural values for enriched politics, society and economy.

Public communications strategy based on access to quality information and

knowledge will drive the new global tourism through partnership initiatives such as:

peace and security, conflict resolutions for eco tourism, quality tourism, Joint

ventures, technology transfer, etc.Ukonu et al.,(2006)

The role that the media is playing in the various aspects of life is becoming

increasingly greater each day, especially in spheres like social interaction, and cultural

and educational aspects of our life. As archaeological monuments can articulate the

traditions, customs and heritage of the past, the media can in its turn clarify today's

values and civilizations of the different countries and hence attempt to correct any

widespread erroneous information. Both the media and archaeological monuments

have messages and missions with various dimensions. The media contributes greatly

in activating tourist attractions. Dell Shakib(2010).

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Before discussing the role of the media as an instrument in tourism policy, it

should be noted that, broadly speaking, the relationship between tourism and the

media is one of inclusion. When speaking of tourism policy that focuses on specific

areas of tourism, the media become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning

that they mediate in a process of conveying tourism products from the producers to

the consumers. Behnam(2010).

Development in communication is one of the best ways to go in developing

culture and tourism industry. This strategy involves the planned communication

component of programmes designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of specific

groups of people in specific ways through person to person communication, mass

media, traditional media or community communication. It is aims at the delivery of

services and the interface between service deliverers and beneficiaries where people

are empowered to by informed choice, education, motivation and facilitation effecting

the expected changes. This can be done by media advocacy targeting all key

stakeholders involved in the tourism industry. Effective use of communication

techniques can barriers and promote better uses participatory message design which

combines both traditional and modern media. Like: The internet granted the freedom

enjoyed by print media and common carriers such as letters, mails, and cable to the

public media. Through audio streaming it is possible to enhance the reach of radio

signals to any part of the world. The internet’s vast capacity enables each media house

to exhaustively investigate and publish in depth analyses. Internet radio is not limited

to audio as pictures, images, digital files and graphics are accessible to the users.

Advertisers and their audiences can easily interact via the internet broadcasts. Majid

et al.(2011).

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The media have a crucial role to play in putting emerging destinations. The

relationship between tourism and the media is vital and complex. Tourism is highly

dependant on media reporting because the vast majority of travel decisions are made

by people who have never seen the destination first hand for themselves. When there

is bad news or a crisis the impact on tourism can be devastating. Tourists are scared

away from destinations caught in the glare of round-the-clock disaster coverage,

causing communities dependent on tourism to lose their source of livelihood.

Kazemzadeh et al.(2011)

1.1 Background of the study

Tourism is currently the world’s largest industry with annual revenues of over

3trillion dollars. It provides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the

country’s largest employer, (WTO2004). Tourism is a collection of activities, services

and industries that provides a travel experience, including transportation,

accommodations, eating and drinking, retail shops, entertainment businesses and other

hospitality and tourism services provided for individuals travelling away from home,

(World Tourism Organization, 2008). According to Geoffery and Alister (2006),

tourism is a temporary movement of people to destination outside their normal places

of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations,

the facilities created and the services provided to care for their needs. The

development in which environment is the key component of tourism development

(Holden, 2008). The attributed of environment can either be viewed as natural or

cultural. Tourism development takes place where the natural/cultural environment is

attractive and desirable.

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According to the NTDC (2007) organized tourism in Nigeria dates back in

1962 when the Nigeria Tourism Association (NTA) was formed by a group of private

practitioners to project the tourism potentials in Nigeria and encourage both domestics

and international tourism. The efforts of their association led to the international

union of official travel organization (IUOTO) New World Tourism Organization

(WTO) in 1964 and the promulgation of degree 54 of 1976 establishing the Nigeria

tourism board. Also the (NTDC) Nigeria Tourism Development Cooperation, 1992

thus, became the apex tourism agency of the Federal Republic of Nigeria charged

with the overall responsibility of promoting marketing and coordinating tourism

activities in the country. (Franklin, 2003).

Tourism development focuses mainly on specific areas of tourism, the media

become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning that they mediate is a

process of conveying tourism products. According to the World Tourism organization

(2004) defined mass media as that which covers all the activities and process to bring

buyers and sellers together. Mass media is the mode of communication which

provides information about products, service and places; people move to different

destinations for the purpose of leisure, rest, sightseeing and recreation. Their choices

of destination depend upon the information they get from mass media. That is, they

choose destination based on what they have heard, read or seen from mass media

(Iledia, 2003). Mass media is a non-personal channel of broadcasting a message to the

general public through television, Radio, Newspapers, journals and internets etc.

According to Alegre and Acladera, (2006) advertisement is less effective in

convincing people to visit a tourism destination from which they have little or no

knowledge at all, and even less effective in convincing people to visit a place for

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which they have negative (-) experience. Therefore, a profound knowledge of mass

media is very necessary, if the destination has a good reputation; advertising is the

most economic and effective way to promote those tourism destinations in Nigeria

state such as Osun Shrine, Azumiri Blue River, wonder tree in Amakama, national

war museum in Umuahia, National Museum, Ile-Ife, Osun Oshogbo Grove, Olumirin

waterfall etc.

According to Echtner and Ritchie, (2013) the main purpose of advertising a

tourism destination is to create awareness, promote product of the industry, service

brand image and for communication on the existence of such tourism destination in

Nigeria. The internet vast capacity enables each media to exhaustively investigate and

publish in depth analysis. Mass media have a crucial role to play in tourism

development, the relationship between tourism development and mass media is virtual

dependent on mass media because the vast majority of travel decisions are made by

tourist who has never seen the tourism destinations for the first time.

Ananda (2011). Tourism development and mass media refers to all the

activities such as skill development, jobs and wealth creation and marketing of

tourism products through various channels of mass media so that tourist will get to

know about those tourism potentials in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of problem

Local broadcast content in Nigeria is meant to be a conduit through which the

people experience culture. Hence cultural learning can be enhanced by promoting and

sustaining the moral and community life of the Nigeria people. Despite the stipulation

of the NBC code, radio broadcasting in Nigeria (especially private stations) continue

to be criticized over the foreign nature of its content, while its local content feature a

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high level of hybridization- an infusion of western and Nigeria tourism and culture-

which do not necessarily compliment the culture of its listener, but which exposes

them to modes and values that are contradictory to their own culture. This raises the

major concern over the tourism and cultural modes and values that would be

transmitted to the next generation of Nigerian youths who constitute the majority of

radio programme listeners and are at risk of losing the basic thrust of their cultural

heritage. This research also points to the issue of low level of tourism and cultural

education and awareness among people in the society. The situation is responsible for

the high rate of societal vices.

1.3 Aim and objectives of the study

This research aim at evaluating the significance of mass media in promoting

culture and tourist sites such as National Museum, Ile-Ife, Osun Oshogbo Grove and

Olumirin waterfall. It explores how radio programmes (Unique FM-103.1) have

helped to promote norms and values within the society.

The objectives of the study are:

1. to examine the value of mass media (Unique FM-103.1) in promoting tourism

sites in Osun State.

2. to determine the perceived effectiveness of mass media as marketing

communication tool in the tourism industry.

3. to create awareness about preservation of indigenous culture using radio as a

medium.

4. to examine the extent to which mass media can influence the final decision of

a tourist.

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5. to evaluate the contribution of radio programmes in teaching and learning the

cultural norms in the state.

1.4 Research Questions

This study shall answer the following questions:

 How does the mass media (Unique Fm-103.1) use its cultural programmes

to improve people’s way of life and make the society a better place?

 What types of radio programmes can facilitate cultural awareness?

 What are the challenges facing radio stations in producing culture-based

programmes?

 Does Unique FM (103.1) create awareness about preservation of

indigenous Nigerian culture?

 How does Unique FM(103.1) transmit Nigeria culture through its

programmes?

Hypothesis

In addition to the f research questions posed above, the following hypotheses

will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

H0: Mass media has no significant impact on culture and tourism industry

H1: Mass media has a significant impact on culture and tourism industry

1.5 Significance of the study

This research work is expected to serve as an eye opener for all categories of

people to learn about their culture and tourist’s sites through radio programmes. The

work is significant because it will explain in details why people need to be conversant

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with their culture. In this research work, ways and manners by which people can learn

about their culture are identified and explained.

Also the relevance of radio programmes will be examined as a medium

through which cultural knowledge and awareness can be acquired. A radio

programme promotes cultural norms, values and ethics just as it serves as a means of

acquiring cultural education which will aid and promote societal decency. The

research becomes significant because it is one of the ways of exposing the radio

stations as a means of promoting Nigerians cultural heritage among youths. The study

is also expected to benefit diverse sectors of the economy as follows:

 Media house: mass media organizations will benefit from this work

because it will enable them to pay more attention to cultural preservation

and promotion, aside serving as a veritable agent of socialization.

 Citizens: Nigerians will through this study know the benefit of mass media

in the area of socialization and teach their children what and when to listen

to radio programmes.

 Government: government at all levels will benefit from this study

especially by partnering with community media to showcase and boost

cultural values of the society.

In the light of the above, this research draws attention to the need to

assiduously harmonizing the cultural elements of the Nigeria people, and in most

specific terms examine the working of Unique FM (103.1) in the area of cultural

promotion.

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1.6 Limitation of the study

This study focuses only on the significance of mass media in promoting

culture and tourism industry and the limitation is as follows;

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the

researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the

process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other

academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research

work.

1.7 Definition of terms

This aspect of study is aimed at explaining the meaning of terms used in this

research work in relation to its usage.

Media: Media include every broadcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines,

TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. (Wikipedia)

Culture: Culture is a word for people's 'way of life, meaning the way groups do

things. Different groups of people may have different cultures. A culture is passed on

to the next generation through learning. (Wikipedia)

Tourism: Tourism is “the business of providing things to do, place to stay etc while

people are on holiday. A tourist is thus the individual who travels to a place for

pleasure activities. (Wikipedia)

Promotion: Promotion is the direct method through which an organization

communicates the product or service to targeted audiences. (Wikipedia)

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Hybridization- an infusion of western and Nigeria tourism and culture- which do not

necessarily compliment the culture of its listener, but which exposes them to modes

and values that are contradictory to their own culture. (Wikipedia)

Communication: This is the dissemination of tourism and cultural information to a

wide range of addressees. (Wikipedia)

National Broadcasting Commission(NBC): This is a parastatal of the Federal

Government of Nigeria established by Section 1 of the National Broadcasting

Commission Act, cap. NII, laws of the Federation, 2004 and vested with the

responsibilities of, amongst other things, regulating and controlling the broadcasting

industry in Nigeria. (Wikipedia)

Imperialism: Imperialism refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal

relationships between civilizations, favouring the more powerful civilization. The

term is employed especially in the field of history, cultural studies, and postcolonial

theory. (Wikipedia)

Cultural tourism: Cultural tourism can be defined as that activity which enables

people to experience the different ways of life of other people, thereby gaining at first

hand an understanding of their customs, traditions, the physical environment, the

intellectual ideas and those places of architectural, historic, archaeological or other

cultural significance which remain from earlier times. Cultural tourism differs from

recreational tourism in that it seeks to gain an understanding or appreciation of the

nature of the place being visited.( ICOMOS, 2007). (Wikipedia)

Socialization: the process by which, through contact with other human beings, one

becomes a self-aware, knowledgeable human being, skilled in the ways of a given

culture and environment. (Wikipedia)

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Norms: These are regarded as collective representations of acceptable group conduct

as well as individual perceptions of particular group conduct. (Wikipedia)

Values: This can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of

actions or outcomes. (Wikipedia)

Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or

without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with

factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of

an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true.

(Wikipedia)

Cultural Imperialism: The extension of the influence or dominance of one nation's

culture over others, now usually through the exportation of cultural commodities such

as film, music, etc. (Wikipedia)

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CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Communication is one of the human activities that we all engage in but

cannot satisfactorily define. This is so because it is both a field of study and a set of

activities. People do not only study communication but inadvertently engage

themselves in it. It is a conscious or unconscious, subjective and creative activity that

is vital to our existence as human beings; it is like the air we breathe that everyone

needs it.

Berko et.al(2014) define communication as “Conscious or unconscious,

intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas as are expressed

verbal and or nonverbal messages, sent, received and comprehended”. John Fiske (8)

sees communication as a social interaction through messages. This definition of Fiske

tallies with what Mowlana and Wilson (2009) says when they see communication as

“social interaction by means of messages which are both human and technological”.

Jayaaweera (2007) similarly defines “communication as an interaction process

through which persons or groups relate to each other and share information,

experiences and culture” Communication is a complex phenomenon because it

occurs in forms and ways and through different outlets. Communication can be

classified as verbal and nonverbal, personal and non-personal, interpersonal and

intrapersonal. Communication is achieved through a mode or outlet.

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However, due to advancement in technology, the media is taking the lead by

serving as the most efficient and effective way through which communication can be

achieved. The media can be classified into different form which is the print media and

electronic media. Print media comprises of magazines, journals, newspaper etc.

Electronic media includes television, radio, and film. The media in specifics the

electronic medium is the major and most reliable form of mass communication.

Mass communication as a process takes place through so many channels.

These channels are simply regarded as the major gateways through which large

number of people receives information, entertainment and education. Mass media is

therefore a term used to denote a section of the media specifically designed and

envisioned to reach a very large number of people such as a state, nation or country.

The media comprises books, journals, magazine, newspaper, radio, film and

television. The television is believed to the central to the overall development of

society. This perspective has been generally accepted as a long standing traditional

role of the television and radio as a catalyst for change in the society. This suggests

that television and radio are relevant in power distribution and in watching over the

extent to which such power has positively and negatively impacted the people. The

fact that television and radio transmits ideas, entertainment and information to

targeted audience shows that it is responsible for influencing the behavioral patterns

of people in the society. Sometimes those activities take the targeted audience

unaware yet they themselves are trapped in the mainly station of the desired behavior.

Most developing countries like Nigeria have in the past revolutionized their capacity

to communicate with their own citizens through the power of television and radio.

This is due to its massive outreach, linguistic barrier breakage, easy to operate nature

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and instantaneous effect. Television and radio has a special authority in the sense that

it raises public and official awareness about different development issues such as

cultural promotion strategies.Babatunde ( 2001).

Television and radio communicates new facts and skills and as well as helping

to involve people in major news information programme such as cultural imperialism

and promotion of the fight against cultural imperialism. According to Thompson

(2004), “the functions of the mass media (far beyond entertainment and information)

include presenting views, events and cultural life through images and stories that

inevitably contribute to a sense of identity as well as shape beliefs and values”.

This function is a means of sharing and fostering cultural learning. Therefore,

if broadcasting in Nigeria is to bring about cultural learning and fulfil the Unique

FM(103.1) cultural objectives, its content must be seen to propagate the various

elements of culture which are: languages, customs and traditions, norms and values,

festivities, rites, rituals, dressing codes, music and food. However, the level of

practice and transmission of these elements from one generation to the next is highly

influenced by the society especially the mass media.

2.2 What is Tourism?

Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a

travel experience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking

establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and other

hospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home. The

World Tourism Organization (WTO) claims that tourism is currently the world’s

largest industry with annual revenues of over $3 trillion dollars. Buhalis et al.(2008)
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The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2007) defines

tourism as 'the activities of persons travelling to, and staying in places outside their

usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and

other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the

place visited’.

Mathieson and Wall (2012) created a good working definition of tourism as

"the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of

work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations,

and the facilities created to cater to their needs."

According to Macintosh and Goeldner,(2013) tourism is "the sum of the

phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business

suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and

hosting these tourists and other visitors."

According to UNWTO (2007) Tourism is truly cross-sectorial, involving a

wide range of issues that can include the following:

 Trade and investment policy

 Employment and labor laws

 Enterprise development

 Public-private partnerships

 Community and urban planning (land use planning, transportation, etc.)

 Infrastructure development

 Conservation of cultural heritage, protected areas and biodiversity

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 Management of natural resources (water, energy, waste)

 Safety and security

 Education and workforce development.

2.3 Tourism and Communication

Communication should be understood as a process in which the parties

involved create, share and exchange meaning with reference to cultural, political, and

economic contexts of a given system and it is inseparable from those contexts,

because the communication processes and institutions are inextricably interwoven

Rogers, (2003); Melkote and Steeves, (2001). It is shared meaning—a process that

involves issues at grassroots, community, regional, national, and global levels of

consideration and participation Melkote and Steeves, (2001).

There are vast numbers of stakeholders, with their different and sometimes

opposing interests and agendas. The multiple stakeholders at both national and local

levels must be able to access the information they need to understand their long-term

interests, articulate their opinions, identify proposals, and network effectively with

one another. Tourism development choices must balance between national and local

needs, public and private sector, host communities, civil society, tourists, and mass

media. Political choices, in particular, must reconcile immediate returns and longer-

term benefits, which requires a clear and well-defined vision. Sustainable tourism

development thus represents a very complex task. This implies that communication

involves the use of different approaches and methods of communication at the

different levels of issues and depending on prevailing contexts. Communication has a

huge role in supporting sustainable tourism development and managing its multiple

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dimensions. Communication can create and facilitate a system that allows

stakeholders to exchange opinions and arrive at consensual solutions. Ukonu (2006)

Effective use of communication tools can also link products to markets, and

can contribute to visitors’ safe and positive experiences. A comprehensive

communication strategy, which should identify how information, awareness creation,

advocacy, network building, conflict mitigation, and communication platforms will be

supported, is essential for any successful sustainable tourism development activity.

Effective communication is therefore essential for policy-making and implementation.

Both conventional communication methods (e.g., forums, meetings and workshops)

and the application of new technologies (e.g., telecommunication, Internet, emails,

data bases) are key to developing sustainable tourism policies. Wogu (2006)

2.4 The Concept of Culture

The word culture (from the Latin cultural stemming from colere, meaning to

cultivate) has been defined and used in various ways by different classes of people.

However, the word culture is mostly used in three basic senses and they are:

 Excellence of taste in fine arts and humanities also known as high culture.

 An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends

upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning.

 The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an

institution, organization or group.

Culture is a very crucial term and in view of this it has been subjected to

various definitions by scholars. Firth (2013) defined culture as “the component of

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accumulated resources, immaterial as well as material, which people inherit, employ,

transmit, add to and transmit. Lan Robertson also defined culture as “all the shared

products of society: material and nonmaterial.

Another scholar Kroeber (2003) defined culture as “the mass of learned and

transmitted motor-reaction, habits, techniques, ideals, values and the behavior they

induce”. From the above definitions, it is obvious therefore that culture is the totality

of learned socially transmitted behavior. It includes ideas, values and customs (as well

as the music, language, dress pattern, food types, sign symbols and pattern of social

relationships) of groups of people.

The concepts of culture and society are closely related. Culture is defined as

the products of society (material and non-material), society consists of interacting

people living in the same territory who share a common culture. We really cannot

have one without the other (unless you want to call archaeological remains and

historical records ‘culture’). People in society create culture; culture shapes the way

people interact and understand the world around them. From the above explained it

can be seen that culture determines what we know, what we don’t know and what we

want to be. Kluckhohn(2003)

Culture is considered to be group-specific behavior that is acquired, at least in

part, from social influences. Here, group is considered to be the species-typical unit,

whether it is a troop, lineage, subgroup, and so on. Culture is a stream flowing down

through the centuries from one generation to another. Each generation contributes

something to this stream, but in each generation something is left behind, some

sediments drops to the bottom and is lost to society. Firth (2013)

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Culture is critical to survival of human race because of the nature of animal we

are, unlike most animals that are specially adapted to the environment in which they

live, we lack special physical characteristics such as long fangs, sharp teeth, jaws,

feathers or scales; or even physiological behavior patterns such as hibernation which

enable us to survive in an hostile environment. But like the higher primates (which we

are one of its type), we share a number of important characteristics such as sociability,

smartness and the likes. Kroeber (2003)

However, there are biological characteristics possessed by man alone

schooling, locomotion (humans alone walk erect), symbolic speech (using symbols to

communicate, humans alone have developed a highly complex system of symbolic

speech). Every Human possesses a highly developed and complex brain which allows

him/her to communicate symbolically, learn quickly and to innovate. However, we

lack instincts (or if they exist they are not readily apparent). It is our culture that thus

enables us to survive as a species. Culture provides answers to such basic problems

such as finding shelter, food and clothing. Culture provides guidance for our everyday

lives; social organization which keeps us from tearing each other apart. Every

generation has to learn from the culture of its society or it will perish.

Kluckhohn(2003)

All the basic institutions of the society; the economy, education, religion,

recreation, politics represent the need that society must meet and ways of meeting

these needs are handed over from one generation to the next. The key point is that all

behavior is learned. Humans can change culture without changing genes. Biology sets

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the stage by giving us unique capabilities that distinguish us from other species;

culture determines how we use those unique capabilities. AyalewSisay, (2009)

2.5 Types of Media

Television

Fictional genres in television series have been the major mass media and have

been influencing especially in tourism in the twentieth century (Beeton, 2006).

Media-induced tourism indicates that people visit sites where movies and TV

programs have been filmed (Beeton, 2005). Media is essential on tourism; as a result

many countries have developed media-induced tourism. Films and television

programs will continue to influence beliefs and behaviors individually and socially as

the use of television and video popularize quickly (Brown & Singhal, 2006). Motion

pictures, such as televisions and films, have become more influential than print media

due to high reliability and good accessibility of the information sources (Butler,

2001).

Urry (2002) referred to modern tourists as post-tourists who visit the film site

through the television, video, and film and form an image of destination to travel.

The empirical research proved that films and television drama series are great ways to

raise awareness of destination image without any changes or campaigns for tourist

attraction (Tooke & Baker, 2006). Kim, Agrusa, Lee, and Chon (2007) stated that

television is one of the most effective tools for appealing the public among visual

media. The fact that visiting the place featured in the drama of the viewers who are

impressed by the image of the drama is animatingly.

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Film

Motion pictures are an important element of popular culture. They have a

strong impact on many people in a short period. Watching movies is a major leisure

activity throughout the world (Kim & Richardson, 2003). In study of Hahm and

Wang (2011), they mentioned that film is one of the most important motivational

mass media for tourism. Film tourism is defined as tourist visits to a screened

location that was featured in film, television, or video, also referred to as movie-

induced tourism (Hudson & Ritchie, 2006).

According to Beeton (2005), people visit the film site where the movie has

filmed,experience the film or to get more closed to the celebrities. Riley and Van

Doren (2002) conducted a research about the effect of attracting tourists through film

and asserted that film has an ability to advertise the destination in the long run, which

could lead to enhance the image of the featured destination and increase public

awareness of the town by utilizing the storyline and the perfect camera framing.

Additionally, other exploratory research proved that destinations featuring or being

portrayed in films could increase the number of tourists (Riley & Van Doren, 2002,

2004; Tooke & Baker, 2005). In the aspect of destination marketing, film-induced

destination marketing concepts and have given attentiveness to mass audiences. Film

is also considered as a more credible and trustworthy mass media source compared to

other promotional materials (Connell, 2005; Tasci, 2009).

Radio

Due to its outreach, Radio is still the most effective medium even today. The

use and place of radio in our social system has, however, undergone a huge change
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during the last 30 years. The concept of centralised radio broadcasting through

Medium Wave and Short Wave broadcasters is shrinking and community radio

through the FM broadcasting is now order of the day. The FM radio, started in the

early 1990s, has now expanded to small towns and in rural areas as well because of its

low cost and easy maintenance and operational convenience. Though the FM

broadcasting has shown a mushroom growth, but importance of the Medium Wave

broadcasting cannot be under estimated. The MW signals, because of their strength

and wider coverage, are required for reaching out to the far-flung areas, and the

Short Wave broadcasting is important for covering even farther areas inside the

country and across the borders for communication of the messages of good will,

brotherhood and projection of country’s soft image to its neighbours and friends.

Blackshaw, et al (2006).

Print Media

Book, Magazine, Newspaper, and Brochure. According to Brown and

Chalmers (2003), published guidebooks were the one of the most typical information

for tourists. The use of travel guidebooks is widely welcomed by tourists such as

beach tourists, film tourists, etc (Law, Bunnell, & Ong, 2007). Zillinger (2007a,

2007b) found that travel guidebooks played an important role in guided tourism

investigating tourists’ behavior when they traveled. The influence of travel

guidebooks on these processes can generally be divided into two categories. First,

guidebooks may influence the formation of destination images, which may

subsequently determine tourist expectations and satisfaction (Lew, 2002). McGregor

(2000) confirmed that guidebooks facilitate and encourage the formation of certain

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images of places without actual visitation. Next, there was a possibility that

guidebooks influence individual travel decisions, either positively or negatively (Lew,

2002). They could give an impression both the desirable and undesirable aspects of a

certain destination and induce tourists to choose among the product options (Carter,

2002; Lew, 2002).

Depending on the extent of tourists how much they accept the perspectives,

their individual interests and demands would be varied (Lew, 2002). Robertson and

Rogers (2009) defined newspaper was an important medium in the decision making

process of tourists. There were many preceding studies that newspaper had a

carryover effect (Clarke, 2003; Givon & Horsky, 2004; Herrington & Dempsey, 2005;

Tull, 2006).

According to the study of Kim, Lee, Mjelde, and Lee (2014) about the

carryover effect, for example, newspaper reports had a positive effect on attendance

with this media effect increasing for the first four days after publication. Through

information collecting process, potential tourists were able to solve doubts and

enhance the quality of their trip (Fodness & Murray, 2007).

Internet

Nowadays, people generally recognize that the Internet is the most used

information source (Choi & Lee, 2009; Sorensen, 2003). The Internet basically

reformatted the way people gather tourism-related information when they plan to

travel and purchase the trip (Buhalis & Law, 2008). Tourists tend to devote more

time and effort on the more unfamiliar destination when searching for information

before making their purchase decision (Fodness & Murray, 2009). This is a
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particularly important process because information search is the first step toward the

purchase of a product or service (Murray, 2001).

The Internet has had a profound impact on business generally since the mid-

1990s (Wirtz, Schilke, & Ullrich, 2010). It has resulted in creating new business

models and provided more choice and information for consumers (Benson &

Standing, 2008). Consequently, a significant amount of destination marketing has

also shifted to the web.

In recent years, the World Wide Web approaches have spawned large

amounts of user-generated content in the form of travel blogs and reviews (Huang,

Chou, & Lin, 2010). Thus, the Internet is now considered as a critical factor to the

success of tourism products and services (Buhalis & Licata, 2002; Carson, 2005). As

the Internet has had a significant impact on the tourism sector, this has been reflected

in a number of research studies examining various issues related to the topic (Law, Qi,

& Buhalis, 2010). Xiang and Gretzel (2010) asserted that there are two mega trends

that have developed on the Internet: social media websites and Internet searching.

The changes can significantly impact the tourism system. Being one of the

two “mega trends” that can significantly impact the tourism system. According to

Doolin, Burgess, and Cooper (2002), the tourism industries acknowledged that the

design of tourism websites were able to provide a virtual experience for tourists about

a destination, and were able to influence the formation of a tourism destination image

in their minds.

The Internet has changed the ways of travelers’ consumptions for hospitality

services besides online web searches and bookings (Ong, 2012). The tourists, in
24
particular, have greater access to gain more information, compare prices and acquire

overall greater choice and convenience. Indeed, it is argued the Internet has

facilitated a shift of power from travel providers to consumers since they now have

access to a wide range of travel providers on the Internet that often compete on price

(Law et al., 2010).

Furthermore, the Internet media have affected many governmental

organizations, and corporates in the hospitality. Travel agencies, for example, use

Internet technology for reservation, accounting, inventory management functions, etc.

Global distribution systems are used for reservations, information search, client

management, and reporting (Standing, Tang-Taye, & Boyer, 2014). Numerous

corporate and organizational websites already have online pressrooms that provide

journalists with access to crucial information and media materials such as press

releases, fact sheets, backgrounders, newsletters, brochures, photographs and

audio/video clips, and many downloadable materials (Yoo & Kim, 2013).

According to Yoo et al. (2013), official state tourism websites have been a role

of major information sources for journalists and tourists. Government-sponsored

tourism websites are considered as credible sources (Cox, Burgess, Sellitto, &

Buultjens, 2009) for the tourists. Their study emphasized that it was important to

understand the role of official websites in online media relations. Consequently,

Pettigrew and Reber (2010) referred an online newsroom on U.S. state tourism

website as another type of media.

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Social media

Social media is one of the fastest growing communication technologies in the

Internet environment and played a significant role in tourism industry (Blackshaw,

2006; Blackshaw & Nazzaro, 2006; Buhalis & Law, 2008; eMarketer, 2007; Chan &

Guillet, 2011; Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). Social media and the World Wide Web are

two popular media, which have brought about pervasive changes in business-to-

business communication, business-to-customer communication, and customer- to-

customer communication (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011).

From the study of Li and Wang (2011) and Thevenot (2007), they defined social

media that the Internet has evolved from a broadcasting medium to a participatory

platform that allows people to become the “media” themselves for collaborating and

sharing information.

It refers to Internet-based online media in which individuals with common

interests, goals, and practices engage in social interactions constructing personal

profiles and sharing information and experiences (Chiu, Hsu, & Wang, 2006). The

proliferation of social media meant that consumers are no longer limited to

information provided by professional reviewers, print guides, and hospitality

businesses when they make purchase decisions on hotels, cruises, tours, and

restaurants (Ong, 2012).

In recent years, there are numerous social media types on the Internet. Akar

and Topcu (2011) sorted the major types of social media; social media represents a

variety of forms such as social networks (e.g., Facebook), photo sharing sites (e.g.,

Flickr, Photobucket), video creating and sharing sites (e.g., YouTube, Ustream),

26
online communities, microblogging tools (e.g., twitter), social tagging (e.g., Digg),

newsreaders (e.g., Google Reader), public Internet boards and forums, review/rating

websites (e.g., TripAdvisor), blogs/moblogs, tagging sites, podcasting, wikis, and

individual websites.

According to Bodnar’s study in 2010, on each day, more than 3 million photos

are uploaded to Flickr, 5 million tweets, and a million new blog entries are posted on

Twitter and other blog sites. The accessibility of social media is uniquely easy, so

that potential consumers enable to acquire, and share information online by uploading

pictures, sharing the experiences with their friends and family. Additionally, they

share information and knowledge about the product and services as well (Hajli,

Bugshan, Lin & Featherman, 2013).

User-review information is likely to be latest, real-time, and compiled by a

large number of consumers (Ong, 2012). Reviews can also affect the morale of the

hospitality team and impact recruitment efforts (Frumkin, 2007). Goeldner and

Ritchie (2006) have shown that most consumers prefer familiarity over novelty when

traveling to a new destination for the first time. Social media is widely used by repeat

visitors; they share their experiences with newcomers or other repeaters and try new

things that they have not experienced before.

Mobile

According to the data of the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet

Association’s (CTIA) wireless industry statistics (2012), the number of the U.S.

mobile phone subscribers was around 322.8 million by June 2011. According to U.S.

Census Bureau, the U.S. population of February 2011 was around 313 million (U.S.
27
Census Bureau, 2011); in other words, the mobile phone usage rate was over 100%.

Additionally, according to the ComScore Reports (Mohamud, 2012), smartphone

owners in June 2012 were approximately 114 million in the U.S; it means that nearly

one third of U.S. mobile phone users own smartphones.

Mobile phones have developed with faster processors and enhanced operating

systems and have delivered “smartphones” that allow people to use them as fully

functional computers. Smartphones include features of cellphones with Internet

access, user-friendly interfaces, and various applications that are able to support

tourists (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010; Wang, Park, & Fesenmaier, 2012). With the advent

of iPhone from Apple in 2007, the number of smartphone users gradually increased

(Shin, 2014). A smartphone is recognized as a multi-functional device, such as

Internet browser, music player, GPS navigator, mobile TV, and camera (Shin, 2014).

According to the survey that conducted from the Telegraph (Richmond, 2012),

Internet browsing was ranked in the first place for smartphone usages while making a

phone call was ranked in the fifth place for smartphone usages.

2.6 The Interplay among Media, Culture and Communication

The relationship among media, culture and communication is very strong as

even the existence of one is often dependent on the existence of the others. The

following subtopics are devoted to discuss the connections among the three terms or

concepts.

2.6.1 The Interface of Culture and Communication

No culture exists without the process of communication. Hence

communication is the hub and common denominator of all cultures on earth. As a

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result of which, Rogers (2005.) conclusively asserts that “cultures must communicate

their content to future generations if they are to survive.” Accordingly, it can be said

that communication is the lifeblood to culture as is water to fish. This is because,

without communication and communication media, it would be impossible to

preserve and pass along cultural features from one place and time to another.

Similarly, as Baran (2002) notes that, communication facilitates the creation

and maintenance of culture and its elements within and across generations. Creation

and maintenance of a more or less common culture occurs through communication,

inhering mass communication. When we talk to our friends; when a parent raises a

child, when teachers teach; when grandparents pass on recipes, when politicians

campaign; when media professionals produce content that we read, listen to and

watch, meaning is being shared and culture is being contracture and maintained

(Ibid,2002:10).

More specifically, communication is the means of human interaction through

which cultural elements_ customs, beliefs, language, roles, rules, laws or other

patterns_ are created and shared among its members. Indeed, it works cross culturally

as well. One can say, therefore, that culture is created, shaped, transmitted and learned

through communication and communication only.

According to Jandt (2004), the reverse also is the case; which is,

communication practices are largely created, shaped, and transmitted by culture. Any

communication behavior that does not take the social context into account, not

governed by the cultural patterns at hand, is likely to face challenges. Put it

differently, unless the way we communicate, both verbally or nonverbally, fits to the

29
value and norms of the communicator(s) or the dominant society, the communication

process hardly succeeds to achieve its goal.

This might even extend to the extent of putting the life of the communicator(s)

at risk. Discussing on this case, Rogers (2005) suggests that communication at the

very first place, if to be fruitful and safe should be highly situational and context

bound. He further writes: knowing the cultural background of your counterpart and

communicating accordingly would be vital particularly in intercultural

communication processes. For culture by its very nature is subjective, Griswold

(2004) observes, its subjectivity also is manifested in the communication patterns of

its respective societies. Communication pattern varies as per to cultural variations,

therefore.

2.6.2 Media Influence on Culture: Pros and Cons

Because culture is not stagnant, the means of communicating attitudes and

values often create their own contributions to the changing nature of culture. In this

regard, the influence of mass communication or mass media on culture is immense.

As Kellner (online) observes: The media are profound and often misperceived sources

of cultural pedagogy: they contribute to educating us how to behave and what to

think, feel, believe, fear, and desire and what not …. They show us how to

dress, look and consume; how to react to members of different social groups, how to

be popular and successful and how to avoid failures, and how to conform to the

dominant system of norms, values, practices and institutions.

Servaes (2002) also speculates that mass media are considered institutions by

which the new meaning systems are transmitted in ritual manner in a community. The

very idea is that, the media as means and agents of communication do have the

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potential to influence the culture of their society (indeed, that of others, too) positively

and/ or negatively. The controversial issue of cultural imperialism can show us the

double sided impact of the media on culture. Fortunately (may be unfortunately too),

there are few physical borders between countries in a globally mediated world.

Krug (2006) contends that, this together with the technological advancements

and ideological motives, paved a way for the invasion of an indigenous people’s

culture by powerful foreign countries through mass media_ cultural imperialism.

According to Baran (2002) due to the unidirectional flow of media (cultural) contents,

which facilitated the realization of cultural imperialism, the third world countries

feared that Western cultural values, especially those of the United States, would

overshadow and displace those of other countries. “The resistance to the U.S. media

would not exist among international friends if they did not worry about the integrity

of their own cultures. It is folly, then to argue that non native media content would

have no effect on local cultures, __ as do many U.S. media content producers” (Ib

id:491).

Indeed, the western culture manifested in various forms such as music, dressing

style,food, furniture, language, hairstyle, etc. could not have prevailed in every corner

of the globe unless and other wise disseminated in such a way via mass media. This

has ended up to the disadvantage of the indigenous cultures of the rest of the world.

Even though they might have benefited at least to a minimum extent, majority of the

world cultures are forced to assimilate themselves into the ‘dominant’ Western culture

(Jandt, 2004; Baran,2002).

For cultural imperialism is made possible dominantly due to the powerful

influence of the media on culture, nations urged for a balanced flow of information

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acrossthe globe. Such an argument finally led to the establishment of a NWICO

(1980), (Baran,2002).

Now, let us see the positive impact of media on culture again from the issues

of cultural imperialism. Obviously no society or nation is cultureless. Yet, no culture

is globally as omnipresent influential as the Western culture. This is not because that

the Western culture is the best of all cultures on earth. Rather, it is because of the

reason that it is highly promoted and disseminated through the multifaceted mass

media technologies to the reset of the world (Krug, 2006).

2.6.3 The Influence of Culture on Media

The influence between culture and the media is not unidirectional. It is not

only the media that have the potential to impact culture (both positively and

negatively); culture on its part also influences the overall workings of the mass media.

McQuail (2008), to this end, argues: “Often media take it upon themselves to speak

up for and express what they believe to be the dominant values of their own society.”

Practitioners of the media as researches reveal, operate within limits of what is

considered broadly acceptable in terms of criticism of government and society or

matters of public morals and behaviors. Frequently these limits are set by unwritten

convention rather than by law or censorship (Campbell et al, 2010).

What is more, as McQuail contends in this line of thought: Studies of media

content have often found that mainstream mass media tend to be conformist and

supportive rather than critical of dominant values. This support takes several forms,

including: avoidance of fundamental criticism of key institutions such as business, the

justice system and democratic politics; giving differential access to the ‘social top’;

and symbolically rewarding those who succeed according to the approved paths of

32
virtue and hard work, whilst symbolically punishing those who fail or deviate.

(2008:99)

Thus, culture’s influence on the mass media routines is high, albeit least recognized

and rarely pronounced.

2.7 Relevance of Cultural Programmes in Broadcasting

According to Radcliff, (2006).Globalization and the quest for cultural

diversity are strengthening cultural colonialism in Africa. But as much as we can

blame colonialism on the Whiteman we cannot entirely blame cultural colonialism on

him because cultural colonialism is a two-way street. You have to share the value of

an idea with its author for such idea to have the intended effect on you. Otherwise it

fails the author’s motive, positive or negative. In essence, the adverse impact of

globalization on local cultural expressions is one area in which Africans cannot blame

the Whiteman and exonerate themselves.

Television and radio is arguably the most powerful tool of mass

communication invented by man. Together with film, this medium is perhaps the most

potent weapon of cultural colonialism in Africa as they help to assert Western

influence on African societies to the detriment of indigenous cultural expressions.

Nigeria, the ancestral home of one in every three Africans, is one of the biggest

victims of this trend. And like it happens in many African countries, the country is not

doing anything serious to reverse the trend. There are more Mexican soap operas and

other types of foreign programmes on Nigerian television today compared to locally

produce ones. Even in the case of locally generated programmes, a vast majority of

such programmes still mirror Western values, lifestyles and languages rather than

33
those of the local people, and to the detriment of our local cultural values and

expressions. South Africa seems to have realized the danger that such a trend portends

to its culture and it is doing something, drastically too, to counteract it. Campbell, R.

et al. (2010)

In September 2006 the South Africa Department of Arts and Culture (DAC)

and the national television broadcaster, SABC, initiated a partnership aimed at

adapting literature about the culture and the arts of South Africa for television

(Richard 2007). This is primarily aimed at initiating interest of the younger generation

in arts and culture through TV. In the words of Dr. Z. P. Jordan, the Minister for Arts

and Culture of South Africa, “the South African society is not a reading one” (Richard

2005). Hence, there is the need to propagate and preserve the cultural values and arts

of the people through the TV adaptation of literary classics written in indigenous

South African languages. This is expected to help the younger generation who watch

more TV than they read books, learn their arts and culture through TV while also

being stimulated to get interested in reading about their culture. Straubhaar,(2006)

Long before the Literature for Television Adaptation, the South African film

and television industry seems to have seized the initiative. The SABC broadcasts in

all of the country’s eleven official languages to serve its linguistically diverse

population. Although English is the language most widely understood in South

Africa, emphasis is, however, deliberately placed on promoting all the languages

through the media and other means. Consequently, there are news bulletins in all the

official languages on SABC today. (Wikipedia encyclopedia).

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However, apart from the SABC, other local content providers have been doing

a great deal in trying to infuse elements of culture propagation in their programmes.

This they do through an aggressive pro-local approach to programme packaging. But

while it may be argued that there is a lot of local content on Nigerian TV today, it is

imperative to point out that true local content is the creation and dissemination of

programmes expressing a people’s knowledge and experience the communication of

which provides the people with an avenue to express their own ideas, knowledge and

culture in their own language. And this is not what the array of foreign programmes or

locally produced programmes on Nigerian TV stations that reflect foreign lifestyles

and values more than those of the local people suggest. Nyaminjoh, (2005).

2.8 Socio-cultural Transformation via the Radio Medium

The radio performs so many roles in cultural transformation and propagation,

they carry out so many functions in the propagation of culture in Nigeria, and they

carry out these functions through many means. Radio propagates culture through

audience participating programmes; for instance radio stations engage in programmes

where issues are picked and discussed openly, issues on culture are sometimes

discussed in programmes hence promoting the cultural heritage of the people. Radio

also serves as an agent of transformation of culture through invitation of guests (two

or more) who discuss issues on culture and beauty of the cultural heritage of a

particular society. Campbell, R. et al. (2010).

Furthermore, radio also promotes culture through music which is displayed

and heard often on the broadcast media. Radio also promotes indigenous culture

through playing of indigenous songs regularly as people tend to react to what they

35
hear according to the cultural norms theory. Also radio propagates culture through

sensitization campaign which is a veritable means of propagating and promoting the

culture of the people. For instance, the National Orientation Agency (NOA) which

sensitizes the public on practices such as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM),

widowhood practices such as when a woman is forced to drink the water used to bath

her dead husband or when a widow is denied access to properties of her late husband.

Another practice is gender inequality whereby it becomes a taboo to send a girl child

to school. In addition NOA also educates the general public on the need for child

spacing in both English and local dialect (Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo) through the media

(Radio). Wilson S. R. (2001)

2.9 Factors militating against the propagation of Culture and Tourism through

the Radio

In the course of this research, the researcher was able to discover a number of

factors hindering radio stations from achieving efficient and effective propagation of

culture. Nweke, O.F (2012) also listed factors militating against the propagation of

culture by radio as follows:

Poverty: As a result of high cost of engaging the media in passing cultural

information to the public through radio, it therefore becomes difficult for the

broadcast media to promote culture.

Lack of equipment and logistics: Due to inadequate logistics and lack of relevant

equipment that could enable the media effectively cover cultural events in various

societies, the radio station find it difficult to promote indigenous culture.

36
Norms, values and beliefs: Owning to certain beliefs in some societies, the media

finds it very difficult to promote the culture of the people. This is so because some

societies forbid and disallow airing and broadcasting of their cultural activities to the

mass audience. For example, during the yearly Osun Osogbo festival, the public is

never allowed to see the kind of rituals that take place inside the Osun Osogbo shrine.

This can also be seen during the Egbesu festival in the Eastern parts of Nigeria where

due to certain ritualistic elements, the media personnel are prevented from covering

the events because strangers are forbidden from seeing them.

Gender inequality: In most societies, women are denied access to some cultural

activities of the people; hence it becomes difficult for women journalists cover such

cultural events.

Illiteracy: As a result of ignorance and lack of education in some parts of the country,

the people involved in cultural activities find it difficult and unnecessary to invite the

media to cover the events about their cultural heritage, hence this prevents the

television and radio medium from promoting the culture of the people.

2.10 Major Tourist Attractions in Osun State

Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove

Osun-Osogbo or Osun-Osogbo Sacred Grove is a sacred forest along the

banks of the Osun river just outside the city of Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

The Osun-Osogbo Grove is among the last of the sacred forests which usually

adjoined the edges of most Yoruba cities before extensive urbanization. In recognition

37
of its global significance and its cultural value, the Sacred Grove was inscribed as a

UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.

The 1950s saw the desecration of the Osun-Osogbo Grove: shrines were

neglected, priests abandoned the grove as customary responsibilities and sanctions

weakened. Prohibited actions like fishing, hunting and felling of trees in the grove

took place until Austrian, Susanne Wenger, came and stopped the abuse going on in

the grove.

With the encouragement of the Ataoja and the support of the local people,

"Wenger formed the New Sacred Art movement to challenge land speculators, repel

poachers, protect shrines and begin the long process of bringing the sacred place back

to life by establishing it, again, at the sacred heart of Osogbo

Every year, the Osun-Osgogbo festival is celebrated in the month of August at

the grove. Yearly, the festival attracts thousands of Osun worshippers, spectators and

tourists from all walks of life.

For the people of Osogbo Land, August is a month of celebration, traditional

cleansing of the city and cultural reunion of the people with their ancestors and

founders of the Osogbo Kingdom.

The Osun-Osogbo Festival is a two-week-long programme. It starts with the

traditional cleansing of the town called 'Iwopopo', which is followed in three days by

the lighting of the 500-year-old sixteen-point lamp called 'Ina Olojumerindinlogun'.

38
Ina Olojumerindinlogun, the sacred lamp lit at the beginning of the annual

Osun-Osogbo festival then comes the 'Ibroriade', an assemblage of the crowns of the

past ruler, Ataojas of Osogbo, for blessings. This event is led by the sitting Ataoja of

Osogbo and the Arugba, Yeye Osun and a committee of priestesses.

National Museum, Ile Ife

The museum was established by K.C. Murray in 1948 and opened to the

public in 1954 on land donated by the Oni of Ife, Oba Aderemi.

It accommodates a collection of ancient Ife bronze and terracotta objects, as

well as archaeological finds from Ile Ife and outside it. Other facilities are Yemoo

Pottery Museum annex along Moor Road, contemporary art exhibition, craft shop,

bronze casting workshop, hair plating saloon.

Erin-Ijesha Waterfalls

Erin-Ijesha Waterfalls (also known as Olumirin waterfalls)[1] is located in

Erin-Ijesha. It is a tourist attraction located in Oriade local government area, Osun

State, Nigeria. The waterfalls was discovered in 1140 AD by one of the daughters of

Oduduwa. However, according to The Nation,"Olumirin waterfall was discovered by

hunters in 1140 AD" The fall features seven floors, on top of which the village Abake

is located.

2.11 Theoretical framework

According to Udofia (2002) theories are conceptual representation or

explanations of communication process. The theories applied here are based on social

responsibility and cultural norms. The place of these theories in communication and

39
investigation cannot be overemphasized as they provide the researcher with

readymade framework or spectacle through which the present investigation can be

carried out.

Udofia (2002) also said that theories perform a number of functions among

which is to simplify research findings. He explained that theories allow the researcher

to predict the outcome and effects in the data. Theories are also used as observational

aids because they direct the researcher on how to observe rather than just pointing out

what to observe.

Cultural norms theory

This theory was propounded by McLuhan in 2012. He propounded this theory

when Minneapolis stayed without a newspaper and it was seen that with newspaper

there was less crime around, this was because of the ways the media presented issues

on crime, but there was a report of the media as watchdog to the society, it then

looked as if nothing was wrong.

Thus, it can be seen that people tend to pattern their attitudes according to

media (television) presentations. This theory says that people tend to pattern their

lives according to dominant way through which the media present selected issues.

According to Wogu (2003) “some themes are purposefully emphasized or portrayed

to influence people due to the pattern of their presentation”. For instance, women can

learn to wear certain costumes or follow a given dress pattern which they get from

television presentations. Thus through selective presentation and hype on certain

themes, television creates the notion among the audience that such themes are part of

40
the society or given cultural norms of the society. The socially influenced members of

the public often follow such media presentations.

Meanwhile critics’ stress that the media are likely, if unchecked to emphasize

bad behavior and mislead people, yet the media can also encourage good behavioral

pattern at the same time. Cultural norms theory thus provides the much needed

theoretical understanding on the investigation of the role of television and radio in

propagating culture. For example, the more television and radio lays emphasis on the

importance of culture, the more people tend to follow and pattern their lives towards

it. In other words, what the television says or broadcasts about culture is what can

make the society a much better place to live in.

Social responsibility media theory

The Social Responsibility Theory, first developed in the 1940s by Robert

Maynard Hutchins, is still a guiding principle for the media today. To combat the

pressures that threatened freedom of the press, this theory was first introduced in 1947

and was recommended by the Hutchins Commission on Freedom of the Press. It

stated that the media should serve the public, and in order to do so, should remain free

of government interference. It defined guidelines that the media should follow in

order to fulfil its obligation of serving the public. (Goke Raufu, 2011)

The Social Responsibility Theory claimed that the media could be self-

regulating by adhering to the following precepts:

 Media has obligations to fulfill to a democratic society in order to preserve

freedom.

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 Media should be self-regulated.

 Media should have high standards for professionalism and objectivity, as

well as truth and accuracy.

 Media should reflect the diversity of the cultures they represent.

 The public has a right to expect professional performance. (The proponents of

this theory had strong faith in the public’s ability to determine right and

wrong, and take action to preserve the public good when necessary.)

The social responsibility does not only fall upon the reporters and producers of

media. The responsibility also falls to the consumers to become media literate and

maintain high, yet reasonable expectations of the media. In theory, if these things

happen, there will be no need for government intervention. The Social Responsibility

Theory was set forth as the ideal way for the media to conduct business. Over the

years since its introduction, this theory has met with much criticism as well as

support. It has become the standard for United States media practices. Goke Raufu

(2016)

It has also set the standards for much of the currently accepted media ethics.

Since the Hutchins Commission produced its famous theory, the United States has

developed better educated journalists, seen a reduction in news sensationalism and

enjoyed more accuracy in reporting.

Many journalists are now also advocates for the public and for social issues

and reform, getting their messages out through the media. Other recommendations of

the Hutchins commission as explained by Goke Raufu (2016) are:

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1. The press should be accountable to the public.

2. It is the duty of the press (print and electronic) to provide truthful,

comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s event in a context that

gives them meaning.

3. The press should serve a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism.

4. The press should serve as presentation and clarifications of the goals and

values of the society.

5. The press should give a representative picture of the constituent groups in the

society.

6. The press should give provide full access to the day’s intelligence and finally

should engage in the gigantic project of news.

7. The press should raise social conflict from the plane of violence to the place of

discussion.

The social responsibility theory is peculiar to this research work because the

theory holds that while the media informs, educates, and entertains, they are equally

to be socially responsible and to see that all sides of social and political issues are

fairly and fully presented. This research work therefore conforms to this theory

because it shall inform the public about their culture through radio programmes.

Furthermore, the social responsibility theory stresses that the media must

perform a duty to the public and serve as presentation and clarification agent for the

goals and values of the society. This is important because the television uses the talk

show programme to present and clarify issues about culture which cannot be

overlooked in the society. Goke Raufu (2016)

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2.12 Media and Society

The mass media have immense potential to impact a society for good and/ or

for evil. The nature of their contents and the way they communicate the contents,

among others, influence their respective addressees in quite different ways and extent.

The following theories strengthen this argument.

2.12.1 Media Socialization Theory

Socialization, according to Edgar and Sedgwick (2002) is the process by

which the individual learns to be a member of particular society and culture, and

hence to be a genuinely social and cultural being. Likewise, DeFleur defines

socialization as “a complex, long-term, and multidimensional set of communicative

exchanges between individuals and various agents of society that result in the

individual’s preparation for life in a socio-cultural environment” (1989: 209).

As can be understood from these definitions the “member” who undergoes

socialization surely needs the help of somebody else (or may be something too) to

mentor him/her the experiences of the environment. Family, friends, schools, the

community at large and the media are among the agents that can feel such a gap_ help

socialization to take place.

Harris (2009) observes that the media, particularly television, are extremely

important socializing agents for national and cultural socialization. Children’s

perceived reality about the culture they live in, according to Harris is, in part, a media

creation.

Moreover, McQuail (2008) contends, that the thesis of media socialization has

two sides to it: on the one hand, mass media can reinforce and support other agencies

of socialization; and on the other hand, they are also viewed as a potential threat to the

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values set by other agents such as parents, educators, religious leaders, and the like.

The main logic underlying the thesis is that the media can teach norms and values by

way of symbolic reward and punishment for different kinds of behavior as represented

in the media. An alternative view is that it is a learning process whereby we learn how

to behave in certain situations and expectations which go with a given role or status in

society. Thus the media are continually offering pictures of life and models of

behavior in advance of actual behavior (Ibid: 494). It is widely believed among

scholars, that the media have a socialization effect, albeit in the nature of the case it is

difficult to prove.

Even so, Harris (2009) asserts that socialization effects of mass media

especially television are particularly strong on frequent viewers who have few

information alternatives and relevant life experiences available. Early studies of

children’s use of media have confirmed a tendency for children to find lessons about

life and to relate these with their own experience (McQuail: 2008).

Similarly, studies of content also drew attention to the systematic presentation

of images of social life which could strongly shape children’s expectations and

aspirations (McQuail, 2008; Baran and Davis, 2009; Thwaites, 2002). Additionally,

the mass media have a large role in initiating children into the society. According to

Vivian (2001), this socialization process is essential to perpetuating cultural values,

but some people worry that it can be negative if the media report and portray

undesirable behavior and attitudes, such as violence and racism.

In its totality, socialization theory tends to emphasize the conformist role of

media. In this view, McQuail (2008) contends, the media are neither ‘pro-social’ nor

‘anti-social’ but tend to favor the most dominant and established values”. As Vivian

45
(2001) argues that media also contribute to togetherness by creating commonality,

even nationhood and perhaps, with global communication, a fellowship of

humankind. What Vivian believes is that, using the media can be a social activity,

bringing people together. For example, going to the movies with friends is a group

activity, especially these days.

2.12.2 Media Social Learning Theory

Virtually all social scientists acknowledge that attitudes, values, and behaviors

of any individual may be developed, at least in part, through observational learning

(Lowery and DeFlour, 2004). To this end, Bandura, a legendary psychologist who

propounded the Social Learning Theory, argues that learning would be exceedingly

laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely merely on the effects of

their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is

learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea

of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information

serves as a guide for action (Bandura, A., 1977).

Bandura’s social learning (also known as observational learning) theory stems

from the basic idea that we cannot learn all, even much of what we need to guide our

own development and behavior from direct personal observation and experience

alone; hence we have to learn much from indirect sources, including mass media.

According to Suresh (online), Bandura identified three basic models of

observational learning:

1. A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out

a behaviour

2. A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations

46
of a behavior, and

3. A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying

behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.

Meanwhile, as McQuail (2008) notes, Bandura’s model posits four basic process of

social learning that occurs in sequence: attention, retention, production; and

motivation. Our attention is directed at media content of potential relevance to our

lives and personal needs and interests. We may then retain what we have learnt and

add it to our stock of prior knowledge. The third stage- that of production refers to the

actual application in behavior of lessons learnt where it may be rewarded (reinforced)

or punished, leading to greater or less motivation to follow any particular path

(McQuail, 2008:33).

The theory has a general application to socializing effects of media and the

adoption of various models of action. It, as Harris (2009) asserts, applies to many

everyday matters such as clothing, appearance, style, eating and drinking, models of

interaction and personal consumption. Nonetheless, in Bandura’s (1986) view as cited

in McQuail (2008), the theory only applies to “behavior that is directly represented in

symbolic form”. The theory also implies an active engagement on the part of the

learner, and relies on the individuals self-reflective capability; “It is not the same as

imitation or mimicry”(ibid).

Despite their tremendous provision of modeling, many scholars agree that,

mass media are rarely the only sources of social learning. This is to mean that, there

are strong collective influences on the process of social learning such as intrinsic

reinforcement, parents, friends, teachers, and the like. For instance, Bandura described

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intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a

sense of accomplishment, among other things.

Yet, as McQuail (2008) argues, social learning theory holds that media can

have direct effects on people, and their influence does not have to be mediated by

personal influence or social networks.

In line with this thought, Suresh (2003) also observes that, social learning

theory specifies that mass-media messages give audience members an opportunity to

identify with attractive characters that demonstrate behavior, engage emotions, and

allow mental rehearsal and modeling of new behavior. The behavior of models in the

mass media also offers vicarious reinforcement to motivate audience members'

adoption of the behavior, Suresh further contends.

2.12.3 Media System Dependency Theory

Developed by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin De Fleur (2003), media

dependency theory, also known as media system dependency theory, dictates that

audiences depend on media content to meet needs and reach goals, and social

institutions and media systems interact with audiences to create needs, interests, and

motives in the person.

This theory, as Baran and Davis (2009) note, has been explored as an

extension of or an addition to the uses and gratifications approach, though there is a

subtle difference between the two theories. That is, media dependency looks at

audience goals as the origin of the dependency while the uses and gratifications

approach emphasizes audience needs (Griffin, 2006; Waston, 1998; and Baran and

Davis, 2009). Both, however, are in agreement that media use can lead to media

dependency.

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“In its simplest terms” Baran and Davis (2009:273) write, “media system

dependency theory assumes that the more a person depends on having his or her needs

met by media use, the more important will be the role that media play in the person’s

life, and therefore the more influence those media will have on that person.”

From a macroscopic societal perspective the theorists argue, if more and more people

become dependent on media, media organizations will be reshaped, the overall

influence of media will rise, and media’s role in society will become more central

(Campbell et al, 2010). Melvin DeFlour and Sandra Bell-Rokeah (2003) as quoted in

Baran and Davis (2009) have provided a fuller explanation in several assertions. First,

the basis of media influence lies in the relationship between the large social system,

the media’s role in that system and audience relationship to the media. In other words,

effects occur, not because all powerful media or omnipotent sources make that

occurrence, but because the media operate in a give way in a given social system to

meet given audience wants and needs.

Second, the degree of audience dependence on media information is the key

variable in understanding when and why media messages alter audience beliefs,

feelings or behavior. In further explanation of this assertion Baran and Davis (2009)

note that the ultimate occurrence and shape of media effects rests with the audience

members and is related to how necessary a given medium or message is to them. In

this line of thought, Watson (2002) reflects the belief of the theorists as; the fewer the

diverse sources of information there are in the media world, the more likely the media

will affect our thoughts, attitudes and how we behave; and vice versa.

Third, “… we are becoming increasingly dependent on the media (a) to

understand the social world (b), to act meaningfully and effectively in society, and (c)

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for fantasy and escape.” As our world becomes more complex and dynamic, we not

only need the media to a greater degree to help us make sense to help us understand

what our best response might be and to help us relax and cope, but also we ultimately

come to know that world largely through those media.

Finally, fourth, “the greater the need and consequently the stronger the

dependency…the greater the likelihood that the media and their messages will have

an effect.” Put it differently, not everyone will be equally influenced by the media.

This also is to mean that those who have greater need and thus greater dependency on

media will be most influenced. DeFlour and Ball-Rokeach (2003) as taken from

Suresh (2003) offer the following model that better illustrates the whole process of

media system dependency theory.

According to Folkerts et al (1998:34), dependency theory suggests that media

affect individuals in six ways:

1. Self-understanding: people depend on media to learn about themselves and to

grow as individuals.

2. Social understanding: people depend on media to learn about the world and

their community.

3. Action orientation: people depend on media to decide what to buy and how to

act.

4. Interaction orientation: people depend on media to decide how to behave

towards other people.

5. Solitary play: people depend on media to divert and entertain them when they

are alone.

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6. Social play: people depend on media to entertain them when they are with

friends and family.

2.12.4 Functionalist Theory of Media

Society, according to Dennis McQuail (2008), is viewed as an ongoing system

of linked working parts or subsystems, each making an essential contribution to

continuity and order. As to McQuail, “The media can be seen as one of these

systems.” (P. 96) Mass media o f any kind, serve certain functions to the society that

it works in, therefore. To this line of thought, the functionalist media theory “depicts

media as essentially self-directing and self-correcting” (ibid). And it, as a social

institution, has a social responsibility to offer some, if not all, functions.

Even when appearing oppositional, Krug (2006) congruently states, mass media

function as official sources of information and social influence and contribute to the

normalization of specific ideas of culture. Stemming from this notion, McQuail

(2008), having analyzed the normative functions of the media proposed by other

scholars earlier, provides a useful summary of his own.

Accordingly, he asserts that, mass media are essential to a society for:

Information:

 Providing information about events and conditions in society and the world.

 Indicating relations of power.

 Facilitating innovation, adaptation, and progress.

Correlation:

 Explaining, interpreting and commenting on the meaning of events and

information.

 Providing support for established authority and norms.

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Socializing:

 Co-ordinating separate activities.

 Consensus building.

 Setting orders of priority and signaling relative status.

Continuity:

 Expressing the dominant culture and recognizing subcultures and new cultural

developments.

 Forging and maintaining commonality of values.

Entertainment:

 Providing amusement, diversion and the means of relaxation.

 Reducing social tension.

Mobilization:

 Campaigning for societal objectives in the sphere of politics, war, economic

development, work and sometimes religion. (McQuail, 2008: 97-98).

These lists of media functions are worth of elaborating; thus what is next is an

endeavour to this end. Of course, due emphasis is given to correlation, continuity and,

entertainment for their excellent relevance to the area of investigation at hand: a

merge of media and cultural studies.

The information (surveillance) function, as Baran and Davis (2009) state,

refers to the media’s collection and distribution of information. This is much related

to the news and current affairs services of media firms.

The correlation function of media encompasses many tasks that the mass

media can do in their day to day activities. Of which, interpreting or explaining events

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that impact the society is one. The mass media beyond their informing role provide

explanation and interpretation on the ultimate meaning and significance of those

events. In this regard,

Dominick (2007) contends, the interpretation function can also be found in

media content at first glance might appear to be purely entertainment. The

interpretation of events, according to Dominick, exposes the individual to a large

number of various points of view, probably for more than he or she could come in

contact with through personal channels. Additionally, the mass media make available

to the individual a wide range of expertise that he/she might not have access to

through interpersonal communication.

As part of their correlation function, the mass media join together different

elements of society that are not directly connected or are not familiar to one another.

Likewise, Dominick (2007) notes, “… it is entirely possible that the media can create

totally new social groups by linking members of society who have not previously

recognized that others have similar interest.” In such a linkage role, the media can

also serve as agents of socialization: provide individuals with portrayals of a society

that can help them adopt the behaviors and values.

The mass media, in performing their continuity function, whether consciously

or not, instill the mainstream culture and other co-cultural values and behaviors in

their audience. To this end, Baran and Davis (2009) state that the mass media

communicate values, norms, and styles across time and between groups. In other

words, media not only circulate socio-cultural matters within a generation, but also

manage to pass down these cultural norms, practices, values, etc. to next generations.

In doing so, they contribute to the preservation of socio-cultural heritage (ibid).

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Mass media’s entertainment function, according to McQuail (2008:97)

quoting Mendelssohn (1966), “ may be part of the transmitted culture but it has

another aspect that of providing individual reward, relaxation and reduction of

tension, which makes it easier for people to cope with real life problems and for

societies to avoid breakdown.”

Finally, the mobilization function is “designed to reflect the widespread

application of mass communication to political and commercial propaganda”

(McQuail, 2008). At the heart of this function is the media’s intent to initiate the

general public for a certain action such as voting, taking care of one’s health

conditions, environmental protection, defending against any foreign threats, and many

more.

2.13 Impact of Media in Promoting Tourism Industry

According to Straubhaar, J. (2006).Over the years media have contributed

towards shaping tourism into a responsible industry by promoting the following good

practices;

1. It protects the environment and minimizes the negative social impact of

tourism.

2. It generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well-

being of host communities.

3. It makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural

heritage and promotes the world’s diversity.

4. It provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful

connections with local people.

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5. It helps to understand the local cultural, social and environmental issues.

2.14 Media Advocacy for Culture & Tourism Industry

1. Traditional Media

Specifically for the Arts, the media has been a very faithful spouse, but the

Culture and Tourism managers have been behaving like a husband who marries a very

devoted wife, but prefers to neglect her while squandering his energies in nocturnal

ventures. The varied media resources have always offered themselves as willing tools

to be exploited by the Arts and its managers in realization of their own agenda, but the

operators of art or the culture producers have either being blinded to the

instrumentality of the Media or are too engrossed in their own survival battles to

notice this available instrument. Nijokamp,(2009).

It bears re-stating that the Arts have not fully cultivated the Media to

effectively put itself in the heart of the national agenda. Interestingly, the little

mileage that the Arts has recorded would not have been possible without the creative

impute of some Media workers who insist on being apostles of cultural advocacy.

The Artist produces (and will continue to produce) quite all right, but it is the

Media that helps to disseminate the products to the attention of the consuming public

or the patrons. One could stress that the reason artistic Products have not commanded

enough attention in the public is because the producers have been lukewarm in their

engagement of the media. It should be noted that reference to the media here, goes

beyond its traditional models -- press and electronic broadcasting – to include its other

varying dimensions — public relations, advertising, branding, marketing inclusive.

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And there is the new media with its vast, ever-expanding fingers in the form of the

cyber networking. Krekovic, S. (2003)

This is why just as Media is an important tool for Culture and Tourism sectors

to engage for greater fulfillment of their potentials, Culture is also a vehicle that is

readily available for the Media to ride on for a distinctive character in the vast world

of communication. The symbiosis must be nursed.The luck we have had for the

seeming (but deceptively so) cordial relationship between culture producers and the

media is the fact that indeed many of the Journalists on the arts beat are themselves

producers of culture as well as activists within the Culture sub-sector itself. That is

what has sustained the presence of the Arts in the media. Thus it could be said that the

present representation of the arts is traceable to the passion and commitment of

individual journalists, and that is why it may NOT be a reliable strategic tool.

Krekovic, S. (2003)

A worst case scenario best illustrates the danger of relying on this ad-hoc

relationship to build a promotional platform for culture an tourism in the media: the

moment a particular journalist steps out of the beat or the profession, the page

ultimately keeps an appointment with death; the commitment of the particular

medium peters out; the visibility of the arts in that particular media house suffers

grave consequences, most often total eclipse. Thus there is the urgent need to

schematically link the Culture and Tourism sector and the Media as functional

partnership. Aside the traditional media – print and broadcasting – there are the other

Media Resources that we have not even begun to engage. Krekovic, S. (2003)

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2. Advertising

Nigeria is renowned for its highly professionalised and competent Advertising

and Public Relations sub-industry. There are tens of small and medium scales

agencies operating already, and we could see their impact in the lives of many of our

corporate organizations and private institutions. Fortunately, these sub-industries

unlike many aspects of our national life, have collective fronts that regulate their

activities, thus the job of sieving the chaff from the grains has been half-done.

Malhotra,(2010).

The Ministry of Culture and Tourism and its agencies should be resourceful

enough to fraternize with, for instance the Association of Advertising Practitioners of

Nigeria (AAPN), which is the collective for the advertising professionals as well as

the other fingers of the industry such as the Organisation of Outdoor Adverstisers of

Nigeria, OOAN, VAN (Voice Artistes of Nigeria); Radio and Television in

Advertising Association etc. For maximum advantage, the agencies should not lose

sight of the oversight function of the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria,

APCON, which regulates activities of the various bodies of practitioners.

Also very important, many of these advertising companies have viable

affiliation with internationally reputable Advertising companies. Thus they have

advantages of helping to push agenda of their clients internationally.

An effective engagement of these professionals would have prevented the shameful

campaign that featured the ex-President dancing like a robot in a TV copy at about

same time when Thabo Mbeki of South Africa was on the international screen reciting

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the great inspiring poem: ‘I am an African’, and grabbing the attention of the world

through a well-conceived and executed image laundering campaign. Brown, J. (2011)

3. Public Relations

No doubt, the most effective tool for marketing, promoting and presenting the

products of our cultural and tourism sector -- or that of any other country -- is Public

Relations. That is why purpose-driven economies spend huge resources to create good

images for their country with the ultimate aim of selling same as destination that is

worth attention of the people from other climes, who love to move around and explore

new possibilities for their personal lives and businesses. The various advertisement

copies that we see on international media such as the CNN, BBC, Al Jazeera, Sky etc

are all products of deeply-thought-out PR strategies with the final aim being to ensure

that others see the country as a tourist-friendly and consequently, investment-

deserving economies. Nedelea, et al.,(2013)

Incidentally, past efforts by consecutive governments in Nigeria to engage the

resources of PR to serve the interest of building a good image of the country has never

been well schemed to achieve the set objectives. Some of those initiatives had been

reactionary rather than being deliberately authored actions to help boost the image of

the country. It is to popular knowledge that billions of dollars were sunk into

international image laundering projects for Nigeria, especially since the country

slipped into pariah-ness following the imbroglio that trailed the annulment of the June

12, 1993 elections. We could say that the only period that we seemed to have

managed to reap some benefits from such huge investment was between 1999 and

2007 when president Obasanjo re-launched the international campaign to pull Nigeria

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out of the woods. But we also know that aside engaging international image

launderers, the President against the popular support of the people had to embark on

innumerable trips to all parts of the world to assure the global community that Nigeria

was reinventing itself, politically, economically and culturally.

“Public relations is the art and science of planning actionable programmes for

the purpose of establishing a mutually beneficial understanding between an

organisation and her publics whilst studying trends, analyzing same, predicting their

consequences and counseling organisation leaders. Where strategies are properly

executed, issues bothering on hostility, apathy, prejudice and ignorance would have

been motivated to attract the sympathy, interest, acceptance and knowledge needed to

help the industry thrive.(Wikipedia)

The tourism industry is in a position to benefit from a clearly outlined public

relations strategy and amongst such possible benefits are:

• Increased awareness for the tourism industry in Nigeria

• Educate Nigerians about attractive tourism destinations of the country

• Publicize industry to the International community

• Create awareness for business potentials of the industry

• Awareness on employment benefits

• Revenue generation for national income

• Foreign Direct Investment earning potential

• Enhance the image and reputation of the country locally and internationally

• Social economic development

• Educational benefits to the citizenry

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• Encourage return of Nigerian Professionals abroad back home

• Ensure that hard earned income being taken abroad by Nigerians for tourism

purpose are spent here at home

• Relieve Nigerians of stress induced culture of work and no rest which is

destroying lives, just like the advertisers, the Public Relations professionals have

collective fronts in NIPR that could be effectively engaged for maximum

performance. Aside the NIPR is also the FAPRA, which gives international

oversights to operation of the industry.

4. Integrated Communication

Use of cyberspace – Internet, Facebook, My Space; You tube

Human communication and interaction have gone beyond the traditional face-

to-face meeting often facilitated by physical migrations. Now, millions of people

criss-cross boundaries and destinations just by banging or picking on keyboards

located in one little corners of their room – even in the rural areas. The cyberspace has

further enhanced the ‘villagelisation’ of the world; and for anyone desirous of

reaching out to the world, the cyberspace is the easiest, cheapest and instantly

delivering platform. Krekovic, S. (2003)

Thousands of Nigerian youths and potential consumers of cultural and tourism

products are hooked to the cyberspace every minute of the day – that explains the

immense almost phenomenal instant stardom that a lot of our young artists, especially

musicians and Nollywood actors, have attained – just as they have barely stepped out

to the public attention. If you were to type the name TUFACE or ASA in the google

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search machine, you will be amazed at the volume of fans they have amassed from all

over the world even from places they have never been to.

The Cyberspace is a great promotional and marketing platform that is just there

to be engaged almost FOC – FREE OF CHARGE. And if private individuals,

especially the youths who have no funding source than probably their pocket money,

can use it effectively in spite of our national challenges with power and technology,

imagine what each of the culture and tourism parastatals can do with just having a

Computer and internet facilities – of course manned by a trained and focused

personnel, and not just an over red taped, grumbling civil servant – with such an easy-

to-use, cheap-to-use and sometime fun-to-use platform. Devenport, (2006)

5. Marketing

Media has become the most pervasive, permanent aspects of our lives: we

expect it, we need it, we demand it, and we are lost without it. Media plays a critical

role in how we make a sense of our world politically, socially, geographically,

economically, spiritually and environmentally. Media has become a tool for

education, liberation, inspiration and unification across geographies, ages, cultures,

religions, parties and generations. Bush, (2010)

Marketing plays a critical role in expressing a nation’s: Focus on the future;

Aspirations for growth and development; Capabilities at social, technological,

industrial and economic levels; Spirit of its People; Values as a Culture; Energy as a

reflection of its Personality; Stability as a society, as a holiday location, as a centre for

investment. And to make marketing function optimally in the interest of Destination

Marketing, it could be strategically designed to Provoke curiosity; Create interest;


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Shift perceptions; Build national image and appeal; Inspire visitors and investors to

show greater interest and respect in cultural and tourism products of Nigeria.

Clarke(2003)

2.15 The Effectiveness of Mass Media as a tools for Marketing Tourism

The need for cultural preservation and cultural identity among nations has

become an important consideration in this age of globalization. Today, the world has

not only become a global village, but a global bedroom. With the tremendous

development of the communication and information sectors, particular attention has

been paid in recent years to the need for cultural diversity in the media as a way

of preserving and promoting cultures. It is, therefore, imperative for a people to have

some certain characteristic features that can easily distinguish them from others.

There is no doubting the fact that the mass media is responsible for the dissemination

of values, ideas, and developmental information in many ways and this goes a long

way in elevating cultures and cultural identity. The way and manner the morals and

cultures of the typical Nigerian community is promoted depend solely on its mass

media. This article, therefore, focused on the television as a mass medium with a view

to examining its role and effectiveness in promoting Nigerian indigenous culture, as

well as its continued relevance to the preservation and sustenance of Nigeria’s cultural

identity. McGonagle(2008)

The role that the media is playing in the various aspects of life is becoming

increasingly greater each day, especially in spheres like social interaction, and cultural

and educational aspects of our life. As archaeological monuments can articulate the

traditions, customs and heritage of the past, the media can in its turn clarify today's

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values and civilizations of the different countries and hence attempt to correct any

widespread erroneous information. Both the media and archaeological monuments

have messages and missions with various dimensions. The media contributes greatly

in activating tourist attractions. Folkerts(2006).

Before discussing the role of the media as an instrument in tourism policy, it

should be noted that, broadly speaking, the relationship between tourism and the

media is one of inclusion. When speaking of tourism policy that focuses on specific

areas of tourism, the media become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning

that they mediate in a process of conveying tourism products from the producers to

the consumers. Behnam(2010).

Development in communication is one of the best ways to go in developing

culture and tourism industry. This strategy involves the planned communication

component of programmes designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of specific

groups of people in specific ways through person to person communication, mass

media, traditional media or community communication. It is aims at the delivery of

services and the interface between service deliverers and beneficiaries where people

are empowered to by informed choice, education, motivation and facilitation effecting

the expected changes. This can be done by media advocacy targeting all key

stakeholders involved in the tourism industry. Effective use of communication

techniques can barriers and promote better uses participatory message design which

combines both traditional and modern media. Like: The internet granted the freedom

enjoyed by print media and common carriers such as letters, mails, and cable to the

public media. Through audio streaming it is possible to enhance the reach of radio

signals to any part of the world. The internet’s vast capacity enables each media house

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to exhaustively investigate and publish in depth analyses. Internet radio is not limited

to audio as pictures, images, digital files and graphics are accessible to the users.

Advertisers and their audiences can easily interact via the internet broadcasts. Majid

et al.(2011).

The media have a crucial role to play in putting emerging destinations. The

relationship between tourism and the media is vital and complex. Tourism is highly

dependant on media reporting because the vast majority of travel decisions are made

by people who have never seen the destination first hand for themselves. When there

is bad news or a crisis the impact on tourism can be devastating. Tourists are scared

away from destinations caught in the glare of round-the-clock disaster coverage,

causing communities dependent on tourism to lose their source of livelihood.

Kazemzadeh et al.(2011)

2.16 Preservation of Indigenous Culture through Mass Media

Media reflects the norms, culture and values. Media can lead to evolution and

revolution of mind and heart of the people fostering information, literacy and

awareness in the nation. Broadly speaking, the relationship between culture and the

media is one of inclusion. An example of this is the media in Malaysia and Singapore

which reports extensively on the festivals of the different communities, their religious

practices and so on. Television broadcasts, news articles in the media on how the

different communities mix and mingle with one another have led to an interesting

practice of Malaysians of different backgrounds coming together to celebrate the Yee

Sang ceremony as part of the Chinese New Year festivities. Campbell, R et al., (2010)

According to Wilson, R.J(2001),media can help promote culture by:

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 Highlighting What’s Making News: Using local media (print/digital) and

popular press to share and highlight innovative approaches for preserving

ancient culture. For example, tribal people in Purulia district in Bengal in

Eastern India have a rich heritage of folk dance, drama and music. In an effort

to revive their folk art as a means of sustainable livelihood, the artists have

formed Self Help groups (SHG), linking to banks for support under micro

finance programs. However, it is important to note that government policy on

the role of the media must recognise the latter’s role in disseminating cultural

knowledge and promoting cultural discourse.

 Creating a Cultural Confluence: Intercultural dialogue is critical in today’s

globalized and blended world. It helps to contributes to one’s sense of

community both in the host and home countries. With the increasing number

of internet users, new media helps people across the world communicate and

belong to different networks via virtual communities on the Internet regardless

of boundaries and geographies.

 Identifying Cultural Ambassadors: The promotion of cultural events and

cultural products is highly effective through the promotion of those people

who can become brand ambassadors of culture. The personalization of culture

and cultural events, can help create the feeling that the cultural product is

intended specifically for him/her.

 Sharing and Connecting through Visuals: It is estimated that by 2017 over a

third of the world's population, i.e. nearly 2.6 billion people are projected to

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own a smartphone. Instant connection with people through pictures and videos

can bring to life and revive cultures across the seas. A two-minute video

recorded on a simple mobile phone camera can go viral; can create an impact

and even generate new followers.

 Leveraging Radio as a Medium: radio programme broadcasts can have a

powerful influence on the culture of the people and influence intercultural

dialogues. This medium can also play a crucial role in educating members of

the society and enlightening the people on the need to uphold their culture.

 Promoting through Television and Films: television and films are perhaps the

most powerful weapon that can influence people and culture. The television

camera can travel over the length and breadth of the country, into the most

remote villages and unearth traditional practices and celebrations and present

them forcefully and creatively to viewers.

This is not an exhaustive list but does give an idea on how media is crucial to

promotion of culture and can lead to increased social awareness, impact and

empowerment through a participative and informative approach. However, for long

term sustainability of culture, it is important to include learning from past experience,

simple and impactful messages, and evidence based examples through a participatory

approach.

The culture of any society is important because that is what differentiates one

society from another and media has the power to affect our relationship with the

world and have a transformative impact on culture and the society at large. However,

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one needs to ensure that efforts are centred around bridging the gap between ‘high’

and ‘low’ culture, between elite and pop culture; creating a transparent media strategy

for the public rather than closing in to narrow specialist groups; creating a strategy of

improved criteria and raised standards in promoting cultural content in high-

circulation media and news broadcasts which include culture reports; supporting

cultural projects which have no recognisable commercial value; refusing to engage in

futile competitions with the commercial market; promoting a dimension of the new in

culture in relation to existing culture and lastly preserving, promoting the nation’s rich

heritage. Dominick, R. et al.(2002)

2.17 Influence of Mass Media on Tourist Choice on Destination

The mass media plays a unique role in modern society. Its growth has

accompanies an increase in the magnitude and the complexity of actions and

engagements within society. With rapid social change, innovation in technology, an

increase in personal income, standard of life and the decline of some traditional forms

of control and authority. Although much debated, there is an association between the

development of mass media and social change, even after years of study into the

influence of the media. Many of the consequences whether beneficial or detrimental

which are attributed to the mass media are almost without doubt due to other

tendencies within society. Sociologists would rarely deny the significance of mass

media and mass communications as a whole, as being a main feature in the

construction and circulation of modern social understanding and imagery. Berger, A.

(2000).

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The media play a crucial role in putting emerging destinations in Eastern

Europe and Central Asia onto the global tourist map, helping to boost the local

economies, according to the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO,

2008). The vast majority of travel is decided upon by people who have never before

travelled to that particular destination, and are therefore dependant on media

reporting. Should a crisis occur, tourism can be seriously damaged. It cannot be

ignored that the recent boom in tourism can be attributed to the media. Information is

accessed using it and an education regarding the many interesting attractions to be

found around the world. The internet is possibly the most popular source of

information on destinations and the best way of reaching them. Folkerts, J. et

al.(2006), through the internet, information and various articles on a destination can

be found which will give the traveller an advantage.

They will also gain knowledge to determine which places best suit them and

offer them the most. Using the internet is fairly easy and cheap to book. With online

travel agencies, flights and trips can be booked simply by logging on to a particular

website and making a choice from any of the tour packages the agency offers. There

are concerns that the development of tourism could lead to some destinations losing

their cultural identity if they cater for the presumed requirements of their tourists, in

particular, the international market. This is based on the observations of other

"destinations" having compromised their sense of identity. The experience of tourism

can be somewhat different to the things people see and do when in a home

environment; this includes the real life experience and lifestyle of the places and the

people they may see during their visit. Boyer, M. (2014)

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Tourism is an opportunity for cultural exchange and more, creating an

interaction within people of different lifestyles, aspirations and needs. Putting

economic benefits aside, experiencing outside contact within various communities

draws attention to the host community. People will always want to interact with other

cultures and communities in the hope of learning of their traditions or possibly be

confronted by new challenges and perspectives on life. It has been said that travel is a

means to "discover that things unknown or forgotten within ourselves". Tourism is

obviously an experience driven industry the more you do it the more you want it. In

addition local culture is a unique experience, along with the local personality, food

and hospitality. The more one knows and learns about a destination, the more

fulfilling the experience will be. Boyer, M. (2014)).

Tourism is often used as a tool for raising awareness. The local branding of

certain products and achievements can create regional identity, nationally and

internationally. The needs and awareness of local issues can be raised by tourism.

There is a global trend that aims towards investment in interpretation of natural and

cultural resources. The attraction to natural and heritage icons often helps to fund

numerous conservation project it also provides opportunities for the management of

those sensitive and significant areas. A growing and important number of cultural

celebrations have emerged which highlight many important events whilst paying

homage to their ancestry. Cultural events can assert their identity which help and

preserve local traditions for younger generations they also influence and inform

visitors. In Australia main urban areas which tend to be multicultural and have

developed their own very unique cultures. Many mostly regional areas are very much

69
influenced by the food and the culture of their founders. Local food, crafts and

personalities are always kept alive and kicking purely by tourism whilst raising funds

for the greater community. Krekovic, S. (2003)

Tourism can often boost the preservations and transmission of cultural and

historical traditions. This will often help with conservation and the sustainable

management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a revival of

indigenous cultures and arts and crafts. Many impacts are socio-cultural and result in

a lack of information, false impressions, poor communication and knowledge and

misinformation. Negative perceptions and attitudes towards visitors and tourism in

general can affect tourism and communities. Ill feelings towards tourism,

delays/obstructions to tourism product development plus lack of council/authority

support can prevent tourism from flourishing; perhaps these communities are not yet

ready or even prepared for the onslaught of tourism. Problems with the economy or

the environment can all too easily, rightly or wrongly, be blamed on tourism. Leaving

the channels of communication open and with adequate consultation transparency and

involvement at community level at all stages during the planning process can benefit

communities in taking ownership of tourism. O’Neil, D. (2007)

In some circumstances the word "tourist" has become a negative term; in fact,

many travellers no longer consider themselves as tourists and prefer the term

"traveller". There is a clear change in attitude of both the traveller and communities to

the concept of the "visitor". This concept now gives strength to the fact that travellers

are merely guests of the community and that their stay in that community is very

much a privilege and not a right. Godahewa, N. (2011)

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2.18 The contribution of Mass Media in teaching and learning Cultural norms

The globalization and the proliferation of mass media have brought with them

the risks of cultural uniformity and the possibilities of unparalleled cultural

integration. In the context of integrated world culture, fears of loss of national identity

and culture are reasonably felt by underdeveloped nations. Pakistan is one such

underdeveloped nation which imports its culture from the economically more

developed nations. Its culture is, to a great extent, vulnerable to the products of

Bollywood and Hollywood. Media globalization is a well-known twenty first century

phenomenon. It has taken the form of media imperialism with the emergence of

multinational media conglomerates. These international media empires control the

global networks of communication to serve their own ends. They promote Western

ideologies, values and traditions. Nigeria, like other underdeveloped countries, has

severely been victimized by these global media empires. As a result, the Nigeria

cultural norms and values have undergone massive changes. The best way to

understand a society and its dynamics, especially of change is through a thorough

understanding of its social institutions. As far as Nigeria is concerned, it is

undoubtedly going through unprecedented changes in which the role of media cannot

be underestimated. Historically, Nigeria has had conservative leanings which are

vigorously being replaced with more modern approaches. Watson, J. (2002)

The Nigerian social system is rapidly undergoing social and cultural changes.

Social institutions, like political institutions, religious institutions and communal

institutions are increasingly losing significance. Islamic republic has been replaced by

democratic republic, “muftis” in mosques have been replaced by “aalims” on-line and

71
activities of the communal youth have been reduced to texting on mobile phones.

There is no denying the fact that mass media has constantly been changing the

traditional agencies of socialisation and public order, like family and schools. It has

played a central role in weakening the family system. The level of informal social

control has drastically declined and there has been increasing need for formal tools of

social control. This means that stringent laws have replaced folkways and mores

which are losing their significance in the face of rapid mass media globalization.

Watson, J. (2002)

The impact of media on Nigeria conventional social system can better be

understood by analysing it in context of social institutions. Family is the basic unit of

any society. In Nigeria the institution of family has been very strong. The extended

family system was the most popular in the past. Mass media brought about a change

in this domain replacing joint families with nuclear and neo-local families. Another

noteworthy social change facilitated by mass media is the rising incidence of divorce.

In the past, it was considered a social anathema but has now become more acceptable

in society. This is a good example that demonstrates how mass media has altered the

family norms and values in the last ten years or so. Folkerts, J. (2006).

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CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

This study is a descriptive survey and the data for the study was generated

from the natural environment. It tends to evaluate the significance of mass media in

the promotion of culture and tourist sites such as National Museum, Ile-Ife, Osun

Oshogbo Grove and Olumirin waterfall, Ijebu-Ijesa. A random sampling technique

was used in order to reduce the problem of bias. It helped to strengthen the reliability

of data when elicited.

The methods of data collection applied in the study were questionnaire and

interview. The questions constructed helped to draw the attention of respondents on

the specific area of study. 150 questionnaires were distributed and only 120 were

answered and returned. In the analysis of data frequency table and percentage were

adopted. These enhanced the accuracy and understanding of the research.

3.2 Method of Data Collection

The sources of data that were used in this study are both primary and

secondary sources of data collection.

3.2.1 Primary sources

Primary source was the respondents to whom the questionnaire was

administered for the purpose of data collection. The data collected through the

primary sources ensured that only reliable and accurate data was used in the work.

Meanwhile the primary data were collected via questionnaire, direct observation and

interview. In the interview method, some of the Staffs of Unique Fm (103.1 Fm) were

interviewed on how media has promoted culture and tourism.

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3.2.2 Secondary sources

The secondary data was obtained through library research and documented

materials such as textbooks, journals, magazines, bulletins, newspapers, government

publications, unpublished works and internet materials.

3.3 Population of the Study

The population of the study from the record obtained in the course of this

work, shows that the population of the respondents from the three tourist sites under

study is as follows;

 National Museum, Ile-Ife (40 )

 Osun Oshogbo Grove(50)

 Olumirin waterfall, Ijebu-Ijesa (30)

3.3.1 Sample Size

The Sample size of the study was drawn from the three tourist sites in Osun

state. This had initially been determined to be 120, which was drawn from the three

tourist sites in Osun state that makes up the population as discussed below.

In the determination of the sample size, the researcher used simple percentage

formula. This formula, is stated as follows:

% = f x 100

N 1

Where F = frequency

N = the total population of the study

%= Percent

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3.3.2 Sampling Technique

Sample is the proportion of the total population of the universe to be studied as

representatives of that population forming the basis for generalization. The probability

sample approach is to be adopted for this study The researcher is adopting the simple

random sampling method because it gives every member of the population equal

chances of being selected.

3.3.2.0 Simple Random Sampling Method

In statistics, a simple random sampling is a subset of individuals (a sample)

chosen from a larger set (a population). Each individual is chosen randomly and

entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen

at any stage during the sampling process.

Tourist Sites Population Percentage (%)

National Museum, Ile-Ife 40 33

Osun Oshogbo Grove 50 42

Olumirin waterfall, Ijebu-Ijesa 30 25

TOTAL 120 100

Source: Researcher 2017

3.3.3 Validity of the Research Instrument

In order to ensure the content validity of the indications (measuring

instruments) the researcher consulted professionals on the significance of mass media

in the promotion of culture and tourism, who proved that it has content validity based

on their critical observation.

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3.3.4 Reliability

To achieve reliability in this study, the researcher make sure that indicators

(measuring instrument) where tied to the concepts and the theoretical assumption that

will be used in the study. In other words the questions were carefully formulated and

it embraced all variables in the research questions.

3.3.5 Method of Data Analysis

As there is no specific laboratory for scientific study in the social sciences, the

data assembled through questionnaire were presented in tables in chapter four; Simple

percentage method is used in analyzing different variables. Simple percentages and

frequencies and means were used to describe the data. The simple percentage method

was chosen for better understanding and Linear Regression shall be used in testing the

hypothesis using SPSS statistical package.

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 FINDINGS AND RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

The collection of data alone does not constitute the end of this research. The

presentation of data collected in frequency table is necessary because it enhances the

understanding of research work, and stating of findings is also important because the

main purpose of research is to identify variables which are affected or gives rise to a

given phenomenon that might have not been known. Data presentation and analysis

are also imperative because without it readers may not understand the major theme

that the research stresses on.

4.2 Data Analysis and Interpretation

In this section, data gathered are presented and analysed in order to give useful

result, the result also was interpreted and inference were made from the result of the

data. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) questionnaires were distributed out of

which One hundred and twenty (120) were correctly answered and returned.

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SECTION A

Table 1: Gender frequency

Gender Frequency Percentage (%)

Male 82 68

Female 38 32

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

From the table above, it shows that 68% of the respondents were male while 32% of

the respondents were female respectively. Therefore, the result in the table above

signifies that majority of the population were male.

Table 2: Age frequency

Age bracket Frequency Percentage (%)

18-25 49 41

26-32 35 29

33-40 26 22

41 & Above 10 8

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows 41% of the respondents were between the age of 18-25 years,

29% of the respondents falls between the age of 26-32 years, 22% of the respondents

were between the 33-40 years old while 8% of the respondents were between the age

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of 41 and above respectively. Therefore, it can now be concluded that majority of the

respondents were between the age of 18 and 25 years old.

Table 3: Religion

Religion Frequency Percentage (%)

Islam 59 49

Christianity 54 45

Traditional 7 6

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 49% of the respondents were Muslims, 45% of the respondents

were Christians and 6% of the respondents were traditionalist. The above result

signifies that more than half of the populations were Muslims.

Table 4: Educational Qualification

Qualification Frequency Percentage (%)

SSCE 40 33

OND/NCE 57 48

HND/BSC 21 17.5

OTHERS 2 1.5

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

From the table above, it shows that 33% of the respondents were SSCE holder, 48%

of the respondents have OND/NCE certificate, 17.5% of the respondents were

HND/BSC holder while 1.5% of the respondents falls in the category of OTHERS.

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With this result it can be concluded that majority of the respondents were OND/NCE

holders.

Table 5: Marital Status

Status Frequency Percentage (%)

Single 64 53

Married 52 44

Divorced 4 3

OTHERS - -

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 53% of the respondents were single, 44% of the

respondents were married, 3% of the respondents were divorcee while none of the

respondents falls in the category of Others. The above result signifies that most of the

respondents were not married.

Table 6: Nationality

Nationality Frequency Percentage (%)

Nigerian 119 99

OTHERS 1 1

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 99% of the respondents were Nigerian while 1% of the

respondents is a foreigner; this signifies that most of the respondents were Nigerian.

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Table 7: Employment Status

Status Frequency Percentage (%)

Employed 30 25

Unemployed 62 52

Self-employed 28 23

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 25% of the respondents were fully employed, 52% of the

respondents were unemployed and 23% of the respondents were self employed

respectively. The above result indicates that most of the respondents were

unemployed.

Table 8: Ethnicity

Ethnic Frequency Percentage (%)

Yoruba 108 90

Hausa 7 6

Igbo 5 4

Others - -

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 90% of the respondents were Yoruba, 6% of the

respondents were Hausas and 6% of the respondents were Igbo respectively. The

above result indicates that most of the respondents belong to Yoruba tribe.

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SECTION B

Table 9: Do you listen to Unique Fm (103.1) regularly?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 107 89

No 13 11

No idea - -

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 89% of the respondents affirmed that they listened to

Unique FM(103.1) regularly, 11% of the respondents do not listen to Unique

FM(103.1) at all. The result above signifies that majority of the respondents often

listen to Unique FM (103.1).

Table 10: Do you listen to tourism and cultural programme like “Asa” on Unique

Fm(103.1)?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 73 61

No 39 32

No idea 8 7

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 61% of the respondents affirmed that they listened to cultural

programme tagged “Asa” on Unique FM(103.1), 32% of the respondents do not have

82
passion for the programme called “Asa” while 7% of the respondents have no idea of

the programme on Unique FM(103.1). This signifies that majority of the population

do listen to the programme tagged “Asa” on Unique FM(103.1)

Table 11: Do you stand to benefit from cultural programme in Unique Fm(103.1)?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 93 78

No 23 19

No idea 4 3

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that, 78% of the respondents affirmed that in one way or the

other they have benefited from cultural programme broadcasted on Unique Fm

(103.1), 19% of the respondents do not stand to derive any benefits from cultural

programme broadcasted through this media channel while 3% of the respondents have

no idea of the benefits derivable from these cultural programme.

Table 12: Does cultural programme in Unique Fm(103.1) influence your behaviour

positively?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 89 74

No 21 18

No idea 10 8

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

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The table above shows that, 74% of the respondents testified that cultural programme

in Unique Fm (103.1) have positively influenced their behaviour, 18% of the

respondents said cultural programme in Unique Fm (103.1) have not positively

influenced their behaviour in any way while 8% of the respondents have no idea of

the influence of cultural programme on their behaviour. The result presented in the

table above signifies that majority of the population affirmed that cultural programme

on Unique Fm (103.1) have positively influenced their behaviour.

Table 13: Will you support the transmission of more cultural programmes on

radio?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 93 78

No 17 14

No idea 10 8

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that, 78% of the respondents agreed to support more cultural

programmes through the radio media, 14% of the respondents wished no to support

the transmission of more cultural programmes through radio channel while 8% of the

respondents stay neutral on whether to support the transmission of more cultural

programmes on radio or not. The above result implies that majority of the population

accepted to support the transmission of more cultural programmes on radio.

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Table 14: Does transmission of cultural programmes through media (radio)

contribute to nation building?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 90 75

No 13 11

No idea 17 14

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that, 75% of the respondents affirmed that transmission of

cultural programmes through radio has really helped in the development of the nation,

11% of the respondents are of the view that transmission of cultural programmes

through radio has no impact on the development of a nation while 14% of the

population have no idea on whether the transmission of cultural programmes through

radio has any impact on national development or not. Therefore, with the above result

it could be concluded that more than half of the population accepted the fact that

transmission of cultural programmes has positive impact on nation building.

Table 15: Do you think mass media (Unique Fm-103.1) has really promoted tourist

sites in Osun State?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 91 76

No 13 11

No idea 16 13

85
Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that, 76% of the respondents are of the view that mass media

has really promoted tourist sites in Osun state, 11% of the population do not see mass

media as a yardstick for promoting tourist sites in Osun State while 13% of the

respondents have no idea on whether the mass media has helped in promoting tourist

sites in Osun state or not. Therefore, based on the above results conclusion can be

drawn that majority of the population sees mass media as a tool for promoting tourist

sites in Osun State.

Table 16: Does mass media improve people’s way of life through cultural

programmes?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 70 58

No 25 21

No idea 25 21

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 58% of the population affirmed that people’s way of life have been

improved through cultural programmes on mass media, 21% of the respondents

believed that mass media has not really improve people’s way of life through cultural

programmes while 21% of the respondents have no idea on whether mass media has

really improve people’s way of life or not. Based on the above result, it can be

86
concluded that most of the respondents attests that mass media has really improve

people’s way of life.

Table 17: Do you think our society can be made a better place if the tourist sites are

promoted through mass media?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 97 81

No 5 4

No idea 18 15

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 81% of the population agreed that society can be made a

better place if the tourist sites are promoted through mass media, 4% of the

respondents disagreed while 15% of the populations have no idea on whether the

society can be made a better place if our tourist sites are promoted through the media.

Therefore, based on the above result, it can be argued that through the mass media,

our society can be made a better place if the tourist sites are promoted.

Table 18: Do you think mass media can facilitate culture and tourism awareness?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 93 78

No 14 12

No idea 13 10

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

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The table above implies that 78% of the population affirmed that culture and tourism

awareness can be facilitated through the mass media, 12% believed that the media

cannot facilitate culture and tourism awareness while 10% of the population stay

neutral on whether mass media has really facilitate culture and tourism awareness or

not. Therefore, from the above result, we can conclude that larger number of the

population agreed that media can facilitate culture and tourism awareness in our

society and Nigeria at large.

Table 19: Does mass media create awareness about preservation of indigenous

Nigerian Culture?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 85 71

No 15 13

No idea 20 16

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 71% of the respondents affirmed to the fact that mass

media create awareness about preservation of indigenous Nigerian culture, 13% of the

population disagreed while 16% of the respondents do not know whether mass media

has created awareness about preservation of indigenous Nigerian culture or not.

Therefore, we can conclude that majority of the population attests that awareness

about preservation of indigenous Nigerian culture has been fuelled by mass media.

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Table 20: Do you think culture and tourist sites in Nigeria can become extinct if

mass media does not play their role effectively?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 80 67

No 18 15

No idea 22 18

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 67% of the respondents affirmed that if mass media refused to play

it role, culture and tourist sites in Nigeria will become extinct, 15% of the respondents

are of the view that even if the media does not play it role effectively, culture and

tourists sites can never become extinct in Nigeria while 18% of the population have

no idea on whether if mass media refuses to play it role culture and tourist sites in

Nigeria will become extinct or not. Therefore, we can conclude that if the media

refuses to play their role effectively, Nigerian culture and tourist sites will definitely

become extinct.

Table 21: Do you agree that mass media communicate new facts and skills in

programmes involving promotion of the fight against cultural inequalities?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 59 49

89
No 28 23

No idea 33 28

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 49% of the population agreed that the media communicate new

facts and skills in programmes involving promotion of the fight against cultural

imperialism, 23% of the respondents disagreed while 28% of the respondents have no

idea of it. The result above signifies that mass media communicate new facts and

skills in programmes involving promotion of the fight against cultural inequalities.

Table 22: Do you agree that level of practice and transmission of culture in the

society is highly influenced by mass media?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 93 78

No 12 10

No idea 15 12

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 78% of the population agreed that mass media really

influenced the level of practice and transmission of culture in the society, 10% of the

respondents disagreed while 12% of the respondents have no idea on whether the

level of practice and transmission of culture in the society is highly influenced by

mass media or not . Therefore, based on the result above, we can conclude that mass

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media has highly influenced the level of practice and transmission of culture in our

society.

Table 23: Do you think lack of equipments and logistics can make mass media

(radio) to be ineffective in promoting indigenous culture?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 102 85

No 9 7.5

No idea 9 7.5

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 85% of the respondents affirmed that lack of equipments and

logistics can make mass media to be ineffective in promoting indigenous culture,

7.5% of the respondents disagreed while 7.5% of the respondents also said they have

no idea on whether mass media could be ineffective if they lack necessary logistics

and equipment or not. Therefore, we can conclude that majority of the population

agreed that mass media would be ineffective in promoting indigenous culture if

necessary equipments are not provided.

Table 24: Do you think norms, values and beliefs in some society make it difficult

for mass media to promote the culture of people?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 106 88

No 8 7

91
No idea 6 5

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

In the table above, 88% of the respondents affirmed that mass media do face some

challenges when trying to promote the culture of people due to their norms, values

and beliefs, 7% of the respondents disagreed while 5% of the population have no idea

of whether mass media do face some difficulties while trying to promote the culture

of people or not. With the result above, we can conclude that values and beliefs in

some society make it difficult for mass media to promote the culture of people.

Table 25: Do you think learning of indigenous culture can be achieved through

mass media?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 84 70

No 25 21

No idea 11 9

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 70% of the respondents affirmed that the best way to learn

indigenous culture is through mass media, 21% of the population are of the view that

indigenous culture cannot be learnt through mass media while 9% of the respondents

have no idea on whether indigenous culture can be learnt through the media or not.

Therefore, we can draw conclusion that learning of indigenous culture can only be

achieved through mass media.

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Table 26: Does mass media influence the level of patronage of tourist to

destinations in Osun State?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 80 67

No 27 23

No idea 13 10

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 67% attests that the level of patronage of tourist to

destinations in Osun state is highly influenced by mass media, 23% of the population

disagreed while 10% of the respondents have no knowledge of the level of patronage

of tourist to destinations in Osun state. Therefore, the result above signifies that mass

media has really influenced the level of patronage of tourist to destinations in Osun

State.

Table 27: Does mass media have a significant effect in introducing tourism

destinations and attractions to potential tourists?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 103 86

No 8 6.5

No idea 9 7.5

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

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The table above shows that 86% affirmed that the media have a significant effect in

introducing tourism destinations and attractions to potential tourists, 6.5% of the

respondents disagreed while 7.5% of the populations have no idea of the significance.

Therefore, we can conclude that mass media have a significant effect in introducing

tourism destinations and attractions to potential tourists in Osun state and Nigeria at

large.

Table 28: Does marketing and advertisement play any significant role in the

promotion of culture and tourist sites in Osun State?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 100 83

No 13 11

No idea 7 6

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above shows that 83% of the population affirmed that marketing and

advertisement play significant role in the promotion of culture and tourist sites in

Osun State, 11% of the respondents disagreed while 6% of the population have no

idea on whether marketing and advertisement has really contributed to the promotion

of tourist site in Osun state or not. Therefore, the above result indicates that marketing

and advertisement played a significant role in the promotion of culture and tourist

sites in Osun State.

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Table 29: Does media have a tremendous potential and responsibility to maintain

the positive values and practices of a culture?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 98 82

No 13 10

No idea 9 8

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above implies that 82% of the respondents affirmed that media have a

tremendous potential and responsibility to maintain the positive values and practices

of a culture, 10% of the population disagreed while 8% of the respondents have no

idea on whether the media has really maintained the positive values and practices of a

culture. Therefore we can conclude that media have a tremendous potential and

responsibility to maintain the positive values and practices of a culture.

Table 30: Mass media has no significant impact on culture and tourism industry?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 16 13

No 90 75

No idea 14 12

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above implies that 13% agreed that media has no significant impact on

culture and tourism industry, 75% of the population affirmed that mass media have

95
significant impact on culture and tourism industry while 12% of the populations have

no idea. Therefore, we can conclude from the result above that mass media has a

significant impact on culture and tourism industry in Osun state and Nigeria at large.

Table 31: Does mass media keeps cultures alive and flourishing?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 91 76

No 14 11.5

No idea 15 12.5

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

The table above implies that 76% of the respondents agreed to the fact that mass

media keeps cultures alive and flourishing, 11.5% of the population disagreed while

12.5% of the respondents have no idea. Therefore, we can conclude that the media has

really keeps cultures alive and flourishing.

Table 32: Do you agree that mass media have a social responsibility to enhance the

blending of cultural values in the society?

Responses Frequency Percentage (%)

Yes 92 77

No 11 9

No idea 17 14

Total 120 100

Source: Field survey, 2017

96
The table above shows that 77% of the respondents affirmed that mass media have a

social responsibility to enhance the blending of cultural values in the society, 9% of

the population disagreed while 14% of the respondents have no idea of whether the

media have social responsibility to enhance the blending of cultural values in the

society or not. Therefore, based on the result above, we may conclude that mass

media really have a social responsibility to enhance the blending of cultural values in

our society.

4.3 Testing of Hypothesis

H0: Mass media has no significant impact on culture and tourism industry.

Decision Rule: If H0 > 0.05 we accept the null hypothesis and reject H1 but if

H0 < 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and accept H1

Table 33

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

97
9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

98
20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

99
28

29

30

31

Level of Significance – 0.05

Results from table 33 above indicate that item 15, 22 and 29 have the

significant value of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.02 respectively, significant differences in the

responses of people on mass media has no significant impact on culture and tourism

industry (i.e .03<0.05, .02<0.05 and .02<0.05) respectively all other Items in the

result table above have significant values which are greater than 0.05 level of

significance.

The cluster significant value of 0.2(item 29) is lesser than 0.05 which

indicates that there is significant difference in the mean responses of people on mass

media has significant impact on culture and tourism industry.

Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and H1 (Mass media has a significant

impact on culture and tourism industry) is accepted and upheld.

100
CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary of findings

71% of the respondents affirmed to the fact that mass media create awareness

about preservation of indigenous Nigerian cultures, this is in line with Dominick, R. et

al.(2002) who opined that the culture of any society is important because that is what

differentiates one society from another and media has the power to affect our

relationship with the world and have a transformative impact on culture and the

society at large. However, one needs to ensure that efforts are centered around

bridging the gap between ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture, between elite and pop culture;

creating a transparent media strategy for the public rather than closing in to narrow

specialist groups; creating a strategy of improved criteria and raised standards in

promoting cultural content in high-circulation media and news broadcasts which

include culture reports; supporting cultural projects which have no recognizable

commercial value; refusing to engage in futile competitions with the commercial

market; promoting a dimension of the new in culture in relation to existing culture and

lastly preserving, promoting the nation’s rich heritage.

67 % of the respondents attests that mass media has influenced the level of

patronage of tourist to destinations like Osun Oshogbo grove, Olumirin Water fall and

National Museum, Ile-ife in Osun state. This is in line with Boyer, M. (2014) who

stated that tourism is an opportunity for cultural exchange and more, creating an

interaction within people of different lifestyles, aspirations and needs. Putting

economic benefits aside, experiencing outside contact within various communities

101
draws attention to the host community. People will always want to interact with other

cultures and communities in the hope of learning of their traditions or possibly be

confronted by new challenges and perspectives on life. It has been said that travel is a

means to "discover that things unknown or forgotten within ourselves".

88% of the population agreed that norms, values and beliefs in some society

make it difficult for mass media to promote the culture of people and this is in line

with Watson, J. (2002) who opined that Nigerian social system is rapidly undergoing

social and cultural changes. Social institutions, like political institutions, religious

institutions and communal institutions are increasingly losing significance. Islamic

republic has been replaced by democratic republic, “muftis” in mosques have been

replaced by “aalims” on-line and activities of the communal youth have been reduced

to texting on mobile phones. There is no denying the fact that mass media has

constantly been changing the traditional agencies of socialisation and public order,

like family and schools. It has played a central role in weakening the family system.

The level of informal social control has drastically declined and there has been

increasing need for formal tools of social control. This means that stringent laws have

replaced folkways and mores which are losing their significance in the face of rapid

mass media globalization.

83% of the respondents affirmed that marketing and advertisement play a

significant role in the promotion of culture and tourist sites in Osun State and this is in

line with Behnam(2010) who states that Before discussing the role of the media as an

instrument in tourism policy, it should be noted that, broadly speaking, the

relationship between tourism and the media is one of inclusion. When speaking of

102
tourism policy that focuses on specific areas of tourism, the media become a mediator

between tourism and society, meaning that they mediate in a process of conveying

tourism products from the producers to the consumers.

75% of the respondents agreed that mass media has significant impact on

culture and tourism industry and this is in line with Straubhaar, J. (2006) who opined

that mass media generates greater economic benefits for local people, enhances the

well-being of host communities and makes positive contributions to the conservation

of natural and cultural heritage and promotes the world’s diversity.

5.2 Conclusion

The journey of the Nigerian media in the transformation of indigenous

cultures is currently nothing to write home about. They have resorted to promoting,

developing and emphasizing western culture, in its entirety, relegating and dabbing

ours, theirs too. It is until they change orientation and do the right thing, promoting,

developing and emphasizing our indigenous cultures that they can be duly

transformed to deserved standard with their supposed prospects and potentials

harnessed. The researcher discovered that mass media (radio) has played a significant

role in promoting and propagating culture among people in Osun state.

Also people in Osun State identify with their Yoruba cultural beliefs, hence

they suggested that there should be continuous transmission of culture based

programmes on Unique Fm-103.1. It is against this backdrop that the researcher draw

concludes that mass media (radio) in Nigeria should continue to serve as the custodian

of people’s indigenous culture.

103
5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the research, it is therefore appropriate to suggest

the following as recommendations;

 More cultural based programme should be supported in other to create awareness

about preservation of indigenous Nigerian culture. Radio stations across the

country should create more cultural programmes in order to boost cultural

promotion and transformation.

 Societies should allow transmission of their culture heritage through the radio

medium in other to increase the level of patronage of tourist to destinations in their

respective community.

 The host communities should swallow their beliefs and allow the media to develop

and promote our cultures for economic development and socio-cultural liberation.

 Producers should seek to enrich culture based programmes on Nigeria radio

stations as tourism marketing is crucial to the promotion of culture and tourist sites

in Osun State.

 The government too should rise to this trend by correcting the media and putting

them on right paths. Programmes on indigenous cultures should be sponsored by

the government without majority/minority sentiments. More indigenous cultural

studies should be evolved and practically studied at schools from primary to

tertiary levels.

104
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APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE

DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY, LEISURE AND

TOURISM MANAGEMENT,

SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC EDE,

OSUN STATE.

TOPIC: EVALUATING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MASS MEDIA IN


PROMOTING CULTURE AND TOURISM INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF
NATIONAL MUSEUM ILE-IFE, OSUN OSOGBO GROVE, OLUMIRIN WATER
FALL, IJEBU-IJESA, OSUN STATE.
Dear respondent,

We are National Diploma student of the Department of Hospitality, Leisure and

Tourism Management, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

We are conducting a research on ‘‘Evaluating the Significance of Mass Media in

Promoting Culture and Tourism Industry’’ using National Museum Ile-Ife, Osun

Osogbo grove, Olumirin Water fall, Ijebu-ijesa, Osun State as case study. This is

in partial fulfilment for the award of National Diploma in Leisure and Tourism

Management and you have been selected to participate in the survey. We hereby

assure you that any information given in this questionnaire will be confidential and

only used for academic purpose.

We shall be grateful if your response to these questions is appropriate and nothing but

the truth.

Thanks.

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INSTRUCTION: Please read the questions below and tick (√) where appropriate.

SECTION A

1. Gender: Male [ ] Female [ ]

2. Age: 18-25 [ ] 26-32 [ ] 33-40 [ ] 41 & Above [ ]

3. Religion: Islam [ ] Christianity [ ] Traditional [ ]

4. Qualification: SSCE [ ] OND/NCE [ ] HND/BSC [ ]

Others (Specify).................

5. Marital Status: Single [ ] Married [ ] Divorce [ ]

Others (Specify).................

6. Nationality: Nigerian [ ] Others (Specify).................

7. Employment Status: Employed [ ] Unemployed [ ] Self-employed [ ]

8. Ethnicity: Yoruba [ ] Hausa [ ] Igbo [ ] Others (Specify).................

SECTION B

9. Do you listen to Unique Fm (103.1) regularly?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

10. Do you listen to tourism and cultural programme like “Asa” on Unique Fm

(103.1)? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

11. Do you stand to benefit from cultural programme in Unique Fm(103.1)?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

12. Does cultural programme in Unique Fm (103.1) influence your behavior

positively? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

13. Will you support the transmission of more cultural programmes on radio?

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Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

14. Does transmission of cultural programmes through media (radio) contribute to

nation building? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

15. Do you think mass media (Unique Fm-103.1) has really promoted tourist sites

in Osun State? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

16. Does mass media improve people’s way of life through cultural programmes?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

17. Do you think our society can be made a better place if the tourist sites are

promoted through mass media? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

18. Do you think mass media can facilitate culture and tourism awareness?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

19. Does mass media create awareness about preservation of indigenous Nigerian

culture? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

20. Do you think Culture and Tourist sites in Nigeria can become extinct if mass

media does not play their role effectively? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

21. Do you agree that mass media communicate new facts and skills in

programmes involving promotion of the fight against cultural inequalities?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

22. Do you agree that level of practice and transmission of culture in the society is

highly influenced by mass media? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

23. Do you think lack of equipments and logistics can make mass media (radio) to

be ineffective in promoting indigenous culture? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

24. Do you think norms, values and beliefs in some society make it difficult for

mass media to promote the culture of people? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

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25. Do you think learning of indigenous culture can be achieved through mass

media (radio)? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

26. Does mass media influence the level of patronage of tourist to destinations in

Osun State? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

27. Does mass media have a significant effect in introducing tourism destinations

and attractions to potential tourists? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

28. Does marketing and advertisement play any significant role in the promotion

of culture and tourist sites in Osun State? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

29. Does media have a tremendous potential and responsibility to maintain the

positive values and practices of a culture? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

30. Mass media has no significant impact on culture and tourism industry.

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

31. Does mass media keeps cultures alive and flourishing?

Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

32. Do you agree that mass media have a social responsibility to enhance the

blending of cultural values in the society? Yes [ ] No [ ] No idea [ ]

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