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Educational Media International

ISSN: 0952-3987 (Print) 1469-5790 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/remi20

Origin and decline of the first university radio web


in France

Sebastián Mariano Giorgi

To cite this article: Sebastián Mariano Giorgi (2017) Origin and decline of the first
university radio web in France, Educational Media International, 54:3, 185-198, DOI:
10.1080/09523987.2017.1384152

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2017.1384152

Published online: 26 Oct 2017.

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Educational Media International, 2017
VOL. 54, NO. 3, 185–198
https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2017.1384152

Origin and decline of the first university radio web in


France
Sebastián Mariano Giorgi
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires,
Argentina

ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY


Résonances was the first university radio web in France. It was Received 10 April 2017
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founded at the University of Limoges, in 2010. This article is Accepted 23 August 2017
about the origin and decline of this transmedia project. Two KEYWORDS
strategies are here unfolded: historical the first one, ranging University radio web;
from the conception of the idea, the vicissitudes experienced transmedia; historical and
by the team for implementing the radio and keeping it alive; semiotical approaches;
the second one, a short semiotical approach. Following the convergence culture; digital
principle according to which is sometimes necessary to move communication; academic
to a higher level of analysis to understand the lower one, the journalism; Semiotic Spiral
thesis of this article is that the suppression of Résonances Dynamics
cannot be understood either historically or semiotically
without adding a higher level of analysis.

Historical dimension
The origin
It all began in Mendoza, in 2005, after a conference given by Professor Ivan
Darrault-Harris about the semiotics of human behaviour. His visit to Argentina
took place in the framework of a scientific collaboration agreement between the
University of Limoges and the National University of Cuyo. During an interview
on a Radio Universidad’s programme, the semiotician proposed to the radio host
to do a Ph.D. in Limoges. Once in France, the idea of creating the university radio
station emerged naturally.1

The project

At first the intention was to create an improved analogue radio, which had already
existed for the 90s at the University of Limoges. It had been a radio made only by
students whose auditors were they themselves. It did not last long due to the lack
of continuity in the availability of human resources. In order not to repeat past

CONTACT  Sebastián Mariano Giorgi  transcomunicador@yahoo.com


Personal address: Gurruchaga 447, 7C; CP: 1414, CABA; University Address: Puán 480, 1420 CABA.
© 2017 International Council for Educational Media
186   S. M. GIORGI

mistakes, it was decided to create a web radio. Not only because of the low costs
of infrastructure, but also because of the small number of staff required for its
operation. Another reason was that the integration of the radio into the University
website would help to build the identity searched with the project. But above all
we were interested in the planetary reach, thanks to its presence on the Internet.

Hypothesis and objectives

We started from the hypothesis that the territorial fragmentation of the campus
would have an impact over the communication and the identity construction of
the university community. It was not about the creation of a student radio – as the
case for the vast majority of French universities. Instead of sectorial and unprofes-
sional radio, we intended to found a medium of expression and communication
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for students and teachers, for administrative staff and the rest of workers from the
twelve academic units within the University. The first objective was to create and
improve internal communication between institutions at all levels in order to clarify
the representations they had of each other and to arouse the sense of belonging.
The second objective was to build the representation of a nearby and familiar
university in the local area; original and specialized for the national and interna-
tional levels. This global audio-visibility of the University would be possible through
its presence in the cyberspace. This would help to strengthen ties between the
University and the public, the city of Limoges, the Limousin region, other zones
of France and all this world. We still did not know that it was actually a transmedia
project as well as other platforms of expression would be available for the netizens’
participation (i.e., through their contribution of news, interviews, programmes
and testimonials).

Institutional framework

Résonances required a readable and robust institutional framework. Therefore, we


asked to the University for being integrated into its Communication Service. We
believed that the radio needed a drafting committee composed of representatives
of the Central Services and other components of the institution.
The Committee would ensure the editorial line of the radio station with the deci-
sions taken at monthly meetings concerning the definition of the programming grid,
selection of programme types and themes, choosing proposals, etc. On the other
hand, we believed essential to create a team of production of five students. Their
task would be to do interviews, to host radio shows, to record them and edit them.

Infrastructure, human resources and technical device

The existence of a recording studio located on the second floor of the Faculty of
Arts and Humanities allowed us to make significant savings. The studio was used
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   187

for learning languages and had a relative soundproofing. Therefore, it had a control
room and a soundboard. As it was planned to transform it into a video conferenc-
ing room to provide distance learning, it was not so difficult to seize the space
scheduled for recycling and adapting it also to the conditions of a radio studio. The
University bought an oval table with chairs, four microphones, some headphones,
two computers (one as server, another one for production), five Dictaphones and
sound editing software.
In collaboration with the Central Information Service (CIS), it was created, the
radio station, just like other bases and facilities needed to house, reproduce and
publish sound file interfaces. The University approved the creation of five jobs
based on the SMIC (Salaire minimum interprofessionnel de croissance). Until now,
French law is very strict regarding the regulation of student job: it establishes a
maximum of hours. Two reasons exist for such a requirement, the first one is to
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provide students with a little money for paying their education; the second one
is to prevent them from being overworked.

Challenges

Ivan Darrault-Harris established strategic public relationships using diplomatic


formulas and respecting hierarchies. Thanks to this, the project could be realized.

Figure 1. The web of radio Résonances.


188   S. M. GIORGI

No doubt that his friend and Rector of the University, Professor Jacques Fontanille,
was a powerful ally.
Unlike the relatively specific features found in the professional job of analogue
radios, the professionals who work in digital radio must be versatile. Hence, we
faced the challenge of syncretism of functions: speaker, programmer, editor, direc-
tor, producer, reporter, soundman and musician in the same person. We even had
to compose the institutional radio jingle. Further, we had to teach the basics of
the profession to students chosen to join the team, which was renewed every year
because most of them ended their education in other regions. This forced us to
start each year from the beginning.

Technical difficulties
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What differentiates a digital radio of a web page, is the permanent broadcast infor-
mation which discursive genre, certainly, turns out to be less and less identifiable.
In our epoch of “media wars” already it is not so easy to distinguish between jour-
nalistic, political, advertising and propaganda speech. Certainly there is a Podcast
style, increasingly used in the digital double of the analogue “augmented” radio
stations.
In the same way, there exist numerous hybrid both, analogical and digital, sono-
rous, visual, audio-visual forms, whose indefinite borders impede the identification
of media gender. The “technological convergence” is also a “convergence of genres”.
A screen is at the same time a cinema, TV, telephone, mail, etc. Even new genders
have appeared. The examples are a legion.
We decided to reproduce this feature of permanent broadcast. To do so, we
needed software to automate the transmission. At that time, the most widely used
by professional radios was called Radio-Assist. When we asked the company for a
price adapted to our public university, we had the generous offer of 9.958 euros.
To avoid the failure of our project asking such money, we desperately looked for
another solution. And so it was that we discovered ZaraRadio Free Edition, a free
software application.
Another difficulty we had to solve was the systematic disruption of the radio
server computer. It had to do with both the power outages in the Faculty of Arts
and Humanities and with the Computer Service interventions in the system.
Although an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) was purchased, this was not
enough to restore the transmission.
We decided to instal one of the free versions of LogMeIn software on the server,
in our computer and iPhone. It allowed us not only restoring the service from
anywhere, but also remotely updating of programmes and music. That solution
certainly meant to great advantage to finish at home the work begun in the studio,
but also implied a way of slavery to the imponderables of the broadcast.
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   189

Legal difficulties

One of the intentions of Résonances was the broadcasting of music composed


by artists of the university community and those from the region. After several
interviews, the musicians expressed the same problem: none had the right to
authorize the free use of the music because it was protected at the same time by
the Society of Composers Authors, the Music Publishers (SACEM) and the Civil
Society of Phonographic Producers (SCPP).
So we discovered that we could not broadcast any music with copyright, unless
the University paid to those institutions every year. When we asked about the
annual amount, they proposed the sum of 2870.4 Euro. We should also have sub-
mitted monthly the record of all titles released, as proof of purchase corresponding
to the CD and digital albums. Not enough with that, the contract stipulated the
ban on providing to our auditors the possibility of downloading the podcast with
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copyrighted music, despite it was used only for the edition. Thus, our radio would
be reduced to streaming. The problem was discussed by the team, and someone
mentioned the name of Jamendo.2
Jamendo was a community made around the free music where artists could
upload their compositions for free, and their auditors could download it as well.
There it was created a space of Résonances to the netizens be able to silten and
download the playlist broadcasted automatically. This music was used for both
the sound edition of some jingles and programmes, and to promote the unknown
musicians during the breaks between the radio programmes.

Inauguration

The inauguration of the first university radio web in France took place in the central
hall of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities on 28 September 2010. The event was
public and conducted by Véronique Henry: a journalist from the local radio France
Bleu Limousin. In addition to the project leaders, there were also Louis Dandrel
(journalist, musician, sound designer and former director of France Musique), Jean-
Paul Sourisseau (director of France Bleu Limousin), Christophe Bonnotte (vice pres-
ident of the University) and Samia Derrer (student and member of the Résonances’
team).
We presented the current content and the future of the radio and thanked all
people who had contributed to Résonances become a reality. We also took this
opportunity to ask for the participation of the auditors, either with programme
proposals, recording conferences and so on. While Ivan Darrault was evoking the
origin, originality and ambition of the project – a participatory university radio
web, addressed not only to students but the entire international community –
said: “I think that sometimes the ideas germinate in foreign lands”, and “I think
that diversity is a value that must be defended today more than ever” (we were in
190   S. M. GIORGI

the Sarkozy era). During the pauses, guest musicians played some compositions
of Astor Piazzolla.

Conflicts

There were numerous conflicts that the radio had to face. One of the first was
the choice of name. We had decided that it should get into the paradigm of the
University represented, for obvious reasons of easy interpretive association.
However, the director of the Communication Service used her political influence
to reject our proposal. When we asked the theoretical foundations of this decision,
the only argument was a personal liking.
The University of Limoges is one of the few universities that have a device
aimed to the reception and administrative integration of foreign students. One day,
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one of the employees went to the radio to denounce the system of giving shifts.
According to her, it was demeaning. The method consisted in appearing suddenly
with a very limited numbered tickets bunch, for the crowd had to jump over them
as if they were the prey of game animals. The strongest used to win, because the
method itself created the conditions for the emergence of the tension due to the
lack of respect for the order of arrival.
The radio decided to speak about the subject. We interviewed the employee of
the Office of International Reception (Bureau d’Accueil International), the respon-
sible for this unit and those who had had the experience. The programme was
balanced in terms of time and space given to guests for expressing their different
points of views. However, we received strong criticism from the managers of the
BAI, and the Communication Service. It was then when we understood that the
model of communication from the radio team clashed against the one had the
senior staff of the University.

Balance
The Communication Service proposed a balance of the first year of the radio in
order to know if it was “known and heard by the majority and whether responding
to the expectation of auditors”, but above all to know if it was necessary “keep-
ing the radio web alive”. The job was carried out by two students of Master 2
of Management of innovation. The target chosen for the survey was limited to
students.
The results were predictable: the radio was known only by a few of the students
from the University. In addition, the music was “unknown”. The volunteers who
made the research ended their “satisfaction survey” with some brilliant sugges-
tions, many of which had been raised by our team from the beginning and then
discarded by their inapplicability. It should be noted that these volunteers ignored
the programming grid. They had not even been in the studio for having any idea
about the conditions of production.
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   191

Diagnosis

After the law 2007–1199, French universities accelerated their trend towards a
commercial logic of business competitiveness. Also called “law related to freedoms
and responsibilities of universities “(LRU law), it was one of the achievements of the
neoliberal leadership of Nicolas Sarkozy. As expected, this law favours the retreat
of the regulatory role of the State in regard to the management of universities.
The communication agencies saw there a succulent business and began offering
diagnostic services of brand image. Their goal was to instal the idea about the
need of adapting the communication to market laws strategies. Also, they prom-
ised a reduction of the institutional budget as a result of better management of
resources.
The University of Limoges fell into the trap and bought the services offered by
the Campus Communication agency. As expected the diagnosis was lapidary not
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only about the radio, but also about the overall communication strategy. In its sec-
ond year of existence (2012), the radio web was seen as “an action without added
value”. According to the diagnosis, the radio required “significant investments” (6%
of total budget). Consequently, the agency recommended redirect the resources
invested in it to “more strategic and effective operations”.

Suppression

Professor Hélène Pauliat became Rector of the University of Limoges, in 2012. The
team could interview her during the inauguration of her new position. She then
declared that the radio had to have a central role, and took the opportunity to deny
the rumours about possible deletions of jobs. The following year, she abolished
the radio. The decision was announced in July 2013. The only argument was the
need of a “financial discipline”.
Professor Darrault asked the Rector not to take such a decision in a light way
and out of the institutional instances. The request was accepted and a meeting was
organized by the Board of Directors of the University. During the meeting, there
were new arguments. One was that the radio broadcasted the same news pub-
lished by other means of the University. Thence the conclusion according to which
the radio was in a conflictual relationship because of its competition against them.
Such a statement revealed complete ignorance about the logic of transmedia
and its narrative expansion through interviews, hyperlinks, multiplication of plat-
forms and participation of Internet auditors. There were two votes against the
continuation of the radio: one, from the semiotician Didier Tsala (responsible for
communication) and the other one, from Christophe Bonnotte, who had defended
the radio so enthusiastically during its inauguration.
192   S. M. GIORGI

Semiotical approach
Theoretical framework
The subject of this brief analysis is the vicissitudes (difficulties, conflicts, suppres-
sion) of the web radio Résonances. The object of study is the semiotic “hierarchy
of the manifestation planes” (Fontanille, 2008). The reference theories are placed
inside and outside of the semiotical Weltanschauung (Giorgi, 2015). The integration
of them gives us an experimental model we could call provisionally as Semiotic
Dynamic Spiral. The question that guides our research is: Why the radio lasted only
four years? In terms of methodology, we will identify the most relevant levels in
the hierarchy of manifestation from our object. Then we will analyse each one and
the relationship between them.
The model of “semiotic hierarchy levels” is a theoretical construct developed
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by Fontanille (2008) that distinguishes six levels of semiotic manifestations. In a


progression from lower to a higher integration order, the hierarchy begins with the
level of (i) Figures-signs (pre-textual), then follows the level of (ii) Texts-discourses,
then the level of (iii) Objects (as physical supports), then the level of (iv) Practical
scenes (as spaces of Semiotic Practices expression), then the level of (v) Strategies
(as the preceding spatial organization) until the level of (vi) Forms of life (i.e., polit-
ical, digital, military, etc.).
We postulate the need of adding a higher level, which we call (vii) Levels of
existence (and the values system associated with them). This notion comes from
the Spiral Dynamic theoretical framework (Beck & Cowan, 1996) and is represent-
ative of the type of research that has been so valuable in understanding people’s
worldviews and values. This addition is justified because it is more encompassing
than the others, and because their values system allows us to understand all the
previous levels. Indeed, it follows one of the principles of the hierarchy according
to which for understanding a level, it is often necessary to go to the next one. That
is, to understand the meaning of some icons or figures-signs, it is necessary to go
to the texts-discourses level, and so on.
Similarly, for understanding some forms of life, such as politics, we must know
the value systems associated with the level of existence that animates it. If, for
example, we did not know the value system neoliberal, we would not under-
stand the forms of life, nor the strategies and neither the semiotic practices or
the texts-discourses from Nicolas Sarkozy. Paradoxically, neither from the Hollande
administration (supposedly socialist) could be understood without the knowledge
of the value system belonging to the same level of existence.
The Spiral Dynamics model seeks a cultural transformation from the so-called
“theories of complexity” and tackles the development of mankind. The latter is
analysed through different value systems, while emerging basic configurations (or
attractors) repeated throughout history and world views associated with each one
of them. Thus, they are structures of thought or cognitive matrices by which we
make the world. There is not a type of subjects, but types of matrices inside “empirical
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   193

subjects” (Eco, 1979) that are “potential” (Greimas & Fontanille, 1991), sometimes
virtual, sometimes they could be actualized or even realized.
The matrices mentioned before are called v-memes or value memes. According
to Beck and Cowan (1996, p. 4), “A vMEME reflects a world view, a valuing system,
a level of psychological existence, a belief structure, an organising principle, a
way of thinking or a mode of adjustment”. This is about “strange attractors” which
organize and hold, as a “dissipative structures” (Prigogine & Stengers, 1990), human
life, both individually and collectively and are expressed in both dimensions at
different levels of incidence. Semiotically speaking, every world view is a form that
organizes the universe of meaning in a specific way.
These attractors are the principles governing the mechanisms of human exist-
ence and are commonly described as an analogy of DNA, but at the psychosocial
level. We can also add at a semiotical level. Although we keep the colour coding
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used by the authors to refer to “vMEMEs”, from now on we will call them “levels of
existence” (LE). Not to leave the limits of this article, we will describe only three
levels (the fourth, fifth and sixth of the Spiral) we consider relevant to understand
our subject.
We will start with the blue LE. Its semiotic attractor is the order, stability. At this
level, the environment is experienced as controlled by a Higher Authority that
punishes evil and rewards good works and righteous living. Pathological expres-
sion of this level is destructive sectarianism and authoritarianism.
Following the ascending trajectory of the Spiral, the next level is the Orange.
Its semiotic attractor is the success. At this level, the environment is experienced
like filled with resources to develop and opportunities to make things better and
achieve prosperity. Its goal is very oriented to material benefits. Therefore, Orange
LE is the precursor of materialism and capitalism; both colonialism and imperialism
are its pathological manifestation.
Following the same ascending trajectory, the next LE is green. Its semiotic
attractor is the social belonging. At this level, the environment is experienced
like a place where the Humanity can live in peace as a whole, reaching common
goals through partnerships and shared experiences. Its pathological expression is
a radical pluralism that considers all fundamentalisms, racism, anti-Semitism and
Islamophobia as valid and respectable as any other ideological positions.
As we have seen, there is a hierarchy of semiotic integration planes at different
levels. In the words of Fontanille (2008), “the hierarchy of planes of immanence
supports trajectories and transformations that put all levels together with each
other and, therefore, contains a syntagmatic dimension that we will describe as a
path towards the integration”.
Such integration can follow both an ascending trajectory and descending trajec-
tory, although not always successively; thus, a syncopation between levels can be
checked. The icon of a swastika Nazi is a striking example of syncopation because
the “interpretant” jumps from the plane of immanence located at the level of fig-
ures-signs to the plane at the forms of life level, or even to the levels of existence.
194   S. M. GIORGI

On the other hand, we rescue two of the four metaphors that Scolari (2004) uses
to account for digital interfaces. We refer to the metaphors of the “conversation”
and “space”. The first one, interface/conversation (or interface/dialogue), refers to
a design of the interactive experience whose dynamics consists in exchanging of
messages between user and system, recalling the development of a conversation
(Bettetini, 1984).
The second one, the interface/space for analysing the websites including the
user practices in their potential and virtual modes of existence. Because “we visit a
museum in CD-ROM, we walk the mortals corridors of Doom, we surf on the World
Wide Web or we choose to live in a virtual world playing an imaginary character”
(Scolari, 2004). We are also inspired by the works made by Umberto Eco (1974,
1979) and Peter Stockinger (2004).
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Analysis

Level of figures-signs

As shown in Figure 1, the banner (or fixed region) consisted of two visual rep-
resentations of sound. According to traditional (sub) codification levels proposed
by Eco (1974) for analysis of advertising communication, the iconic level, the first
one to the left, was the graphic representation of a digital audio signal. The second
one, on the right, was the figurative representation of a console and a microphone.
The ensemble of these last two items configured, in turn, what at the iconographic
level would give the meaning of analog radio studio.
At the tropological level, we had a metonymy (cause for effect) of digital radio
in the left image; a synecdoche (the whole for the part) of the radio studio, in the
right image. Between the two images, it was located, the Imagotype of Résonances,
which in topical level, authorized the signification of a University radio which articu-
lated analog and virtual domains. Finally, the enthymemic level headed our interpre-
tation towards the following meaning: University integrated into the Digital Culture.
The position of the Isotype of the University confirmed that, as it was located
on the left image which represents the “digitality”. Therefore, we made a mistake:
the arrow of sense should have been from left to right. Being a Western culture,
the directionality of reading and writing is from left to right. This determines the
directionality of sense: before (left), after (right).

Level of texts-discourses

The verbal record of the central region of the home page (or Page d’accueil) pre-
sented the radio as a medium of expression of the all University Community. It
also described its content (interviews, programmes, reports, conferences, music,
etc.). Underneath, there was a text about the site on Facebook and a link to it. It
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   195

resembled a News press on-line (almost without images). There were many regions
spread across three columns.
In the left column were showed the titles and summary content of the latest
news in chronological order. In the middle column, the information was hierar-
chized from the academic journalism criteria. The right column was headed by an
icon and a statement that referred to the Play function (Écouter le direct). Actually, it
was the automated transmission of previously recorded and edited programmes.
Below, a hypertext allowed having access to the programming grid. At the end
of the column, a text interpellated the user to download a guide and regulations
necessary for proposing a radio programme.
The programme guide had some changes over the years, but many radio
programmes persisted. Academic news existed from the beginning. Some pro-
grammes were about the Ph.D. researchers (Echos des experts). There were some
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about the student life (Paroles de vie), where foreign students talked about their
social integration in France, cultural differences and tensions experienced in their
everyday life.
There were programmes about profiles of leading figures of the University
(Unilife), about authors of recent academic publications (Universitaires à l’œuvre),
about student associations (Kaléidoscope) and about a mix of all mentioned before
(La foire du tout). Also, there was a selection of conferences (Labyrinthes de la
connaissance).
It is noteworthy the collaboration of some student volunteers. Such was the
case of Florine Lemaire and her programme about famous processes in the jurid-
ical history (Hic et nunc), as well as the broadcast in English conducted by James
Arnoldi and Erika Lett (The weekly speakeasy), about cultural entertainment. The
programme guide also had podcasts made by Naturoprod, a provider that offers
free content about the environment and sustainable development in France. We
must also highlight the partnership between the University of Limoges and France
Culture radio station, made possible thanks to Résonances.
For all that just mentioned at this level, we can infer that the speeches that
circulated on the radio belonged to the journalistic, ecological, academic genres,
among others. All of them were crossed by a policy of inclusion of all sectors
belonged to the university community.

Level of objects/practical scenes

There are two ways of understanding the object: either as a virtual medium, or as a
physical support. The first case would be the coherent ensemble called Résonances
website. The second case would be the screens and computing devices through
which having access to all functions of the web radio. In this regard, we had pro-
posed the creation of applications for smartphones. But we never had a reply to
our request. We also had proposed that the radio were listened in the restaurants
of the Campus, but the answer was negative. As a result, there were not enough
196   S. M. GIORGI

objects for making the radio more known both within and outside the university
community.
With regard to the virtual media, we must analyse if its ergonomics made possi-
ble the realization of the promises announced in the presentation: the expression
and communication of the entire university community. That is, whether there
were the potential and virtual modes of existence necessaries to actualize and
realize the semiotic practices of listening and participating in a transmedia way.
Admittedly, the content of some of the menu categories such as “events”, “com-
ponents” (faculties, institutes, schools) or “ceremonies” was poor. So that could be
subsumed in other categories. Perhaps we should question both the structure of
navigation and interaction design, because they configure the scene of the radio
website where the semiotic practices of the “Model User” (adaptation of “Model
Reader” proposed by Eco, 1979) is already foreshadowed. In other words: where
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the practical scenes in the potential and virtual modes are.


As mentioned before, the first scene from the website’s home page represented
the most interactive scene, because the user was invited to listen, have access to
the grid and download both the guide for proposing a radio programme and its
rules. We should add that under each summary of news, there were three exe-
cutable plastic signs: one to listen to the audio file online, one for subscribing
to RSS flow (to users who wanted to receive timely updates from their favourite
broadcastings) and another for free downloads.
As we have also said there was a hyperlink to Facebook in the central region,
where users could generate content and having access to other contents not avail-
able on the institutional site (such as photos, comments from the team itself and
so on). The scene unfolded from the “media center” category was a hyperlink to
the website Jamendo: another territory of the same Résonances universe, where
was the list of bands and songs (downloadable) listened during the streaming.
The menu displayed on the “emissions” scene was a wide range of categories and
subcategories. We could even consider the radio studio as one of the components
of the practical scenes, because it was expected that the Model User be active
through his involvement with the radio productions.
In this sense, the place was virtual and potentially accessible to everyone.
However, we verified a tendency to the actualization and realization of the empir-
ical user participation from the Faculty of Arts and Humanities (where the studio
was located). It follows that the conversation between the radio and users was
poor, not only because there was no live programmes, but because the interface/
dialogue was only through the Facebook platform.

Level of strategies/forms of life/levels of existence

The organization of the space for expression semiotic practices related to radio
followed a transmedia logic. Indeed, the access to it was complex because the
Universe Résonances covered numerous complementary territories to each other
EDUCATIONAL MEDIA INTERNATIONAL   197

(www.resonances.unilim.fr; Facebook; Jamendo; France Culture Plus) and practical


scenarios and scenes.
All of it required from the Model User a generative trajectory of meaning on
multiple platforms, reaching even to the production studio. Therefore, it required
“transmedia narrativity” (as an organizing principle of human behaviour). However,
the University did not cooperate enough to ensure such trajectory.
It is worth mentioning here a suggestion made by the Campus Communication
agency. According to the diagnosis, there was anarchy in the graphic style of the
University’s websites. Thus, it was necessary to unify them by using the same
graphic identity.
This confirmed the hypothesis that we had from the beginning: the fragmenta-
tion of graphic semiotic style was nothing but an index of identity fragmentation
due to a communication gap. In other words, a virtual correlate of territorial frag-
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mentation of the University Campus (Vanteaux, La Borie, Turgot, Forum, Marcland,


ESTER, Gueret, Ahun, La Souterraine, Tulle, Brive, Neuvic Égletons, Meymac).
Regarding this level, the academical form of life had a structuring role in the
operation of Résonances. However, pathological expressions of two levels of exist-
ence coming from political form of life ended up destroying it, on the one hand,
due to sectarianism and authoritarianism Blue LE, on the other hand, because of
the neoliberalism Orange LE.

Conclusions
At first, we have made a long historical path of the establishment, operation and
suppression of Résonances. After, we have made a brief semiotic analysis of seven
levels of the hierarchy of its manifestation planes. This allows us to draw some
conclusions.
The Model User of Résonances was active, until the point of embracing the chal-
lenge of exploring various platforms to access and collaborate on the construction
of a university as a member of it. Obviously, the Model User did not correspond
with the empirical user. Also, the radio was not as efficient as to interpellate the
levels of existence necessaries to achieve its self-organization and adaptation to
the environment, thereby ensuring its continuity. In other words, Résonances did
not have enough resources to embody its Model User.
Political participation and inclusion of all sectors of the university community
was typical of a Green LE. According to Spiral Dynamics, there is a hierarchy of
existential depth. The Green LE transcends and includes the Orange LE, which, in
turn, transcends and includes the Blue LE. The evolutionary path of consciousness
is not always expansive, inclusive and with ascendant trajectory, but parallel, there
may be an opposite, exclusive and descendant movement. It seems to be what
happened here.
There was resistance from the LE of lower existential density to transcend into
a LE with higher existential density, so there was a constant tension between the
198   S. M. GIORGI

radio and the University authorities. The result was the suppression. The inclusion
policy called for the active participation of the sectors that had never expressed
their voice in the university community.
Finally, the suppression of the radio web had several causes: internal boycott
expressed by some of the aforementioned difficulties and conflicts, including the
lack of publicity for an adequate knowledge of its existence; the prevalence of
pathological expressions of Blue (privileging vertical decisions) and Orange LE
(privileging commercial profit); and some deficiencies at the level of objects.

Notes
The programme on Radio Universidad was called Laberintos del Alma (Labyrinths of the
1. 
Soul). The relationship between semiotics and psychoanalysis was the subject we were
talking about with Ivan Darrault-Harris, the first time he was interviewed by the author
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of this article. On that occasion he invited him to Limoges to do a Ph.D. in Language


Sciences at the Semiotic Researches Centre (CeReS).
The official site of Jamendo is available at https://www.jamendo.com/es/welcome.
2. 

Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.

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