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iiqedia du nimhui~asanrz

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ihiiqeuaamu7 dnhu ~du4nAi (agent) uja ~nq:iinisi i :msini@'

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iin'uii (wordorder))~?uin~daiqqr~~uu$ulBiha~ivhQn~~uulu~~u~d~iu

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master

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put

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order

soon

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shirt while you wore a green dress."~d?%bnumain clause #a "Iwore a blue shirt." 61 subordinate clause Wd finite verb ~J'UWU& verb d!

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~$u'I don't like you wearing that.'

vu wearing that?~3%phrasehid clause

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aim LW~~H~Jv$aUd~nfi

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singular dizu dailuni~aiu~~a~~dduufl~nulwiindjnqaiiadru'

~?iua case &u#a genitive tlfa possessive (had% du n1t~8uIS 6u nit\% Aidi of ~dauarr~naiurBu~4in~~urifiinit~ddu@) nominative uuz hccusative (rdund%l/rnbl hdhim,we/us Uuzau1)\unmd~wimn~nua::uz nz3uCu preposition nYy verb L~JUC~~IUUVIcase 994 noun daulwiwhu

~ufi~in1nldduufiii~dau90fi~case

J

C

,

iilrnddid 7 dlfiuIa~intd~~~8u~~d~ndiau7idjmmmajnqa

16 ~dasz~~diuu~~uu~fl~flueia~d~iilnvh~idiirbnniuul~dw1w1nud7Bdid Idha uuz3naiuuu1uaciiLh

2i

C

unuu~udsandou&a~w'oqrlw1sjLs'un~il21'~nbwb adiaun3euCaknr

C

aquz ?'n'w39 fiu7a dnuiuGauti ~nnu'ld I4~fluun~#uaii'u Q BjjlZmI#

Y

0 J

IlqTuunhflfiuna iirianaid&Lwun c o?ad?~Irqn iiiuihd nku aruz yp tn5lii nin uanlrnynrmw:: nm c nqmIIfiqQurflu

rdaaiiirwiaisurrienia qmmm ua~~fl~4un&ianq1iluei~n~flu

r

4-

ndiakua@?iiia buintrG~iCu~aeen~fluc ni. &a

(c) Knaa iirhiu6n'nat in~flub go fiu'ryry7n'fi7u unmda#nd~flu

anunznGq.j~lut.nhu$a9iunml uar mP ioo'nlnClsj~di%u1G~doa~du6u rm'uan'ld

(b)9Gfi7r, u~aiignaemllu5 dauiia u7u KwoaJwnra~7nrTnL a7ao7m uuz nqm (a)nn~~k'$uBii&~u nwn unrnitqnii4n~udal~ua~?'ninI4~~i ~flud~fu~~u~#uafiu (4 ~unKnnaduana?~ud~~u~~~inin~~u~~~~~ndu~

nqd

J

L.

niuuuulauindm'a~3un'ul~aintdu~aaawmldc~inni0~mianimlnauuu

4d-

.r

~riinrjaraaninauduudiu~~iQu

A

4

u4fiifiuikd w.PI. bbo t (n.fl. ~b bb)8hmn aqxu (Louis ~aneau)!,&udn

nif hfi~aqihA Grammar of The Thai na4 ho~~nLWdhj (Capt.

James LOW)dda~n'arfnni3u~ZclLn~nnunlmr~#anna.~v~q#aLdudLduCu, urii~iqz~3~ialnalu~~ani~~ildk.j~~u~~oa6u'l~uinmZn~'110.~n9u *

' uknjiudni~~ialltrmfi~tu~an~m'ln~m~~uu~~mmr?'u~1n~ilunf'~um

~lnnga$u Dictionarium linguae thai sive siamensis interpretatione latina,

gallica et anglica illustratum via muiyndnu-aziiu-dh~fia-8'~nq~~uda

rin

India Office Library

NOUN or Substantive ~~lhgrammarflfl

LLfl18aWIW

h.i~ud.tsanrfl2lrcnouns, adjectives, verbs yay fl~~sh.irflumn?u~d$r Z~iibfirnmlia~d

YL

Simple nouns: Cn~z~fluAiknrauaiduui I*( au iia aau

I

Compound nouns: dznauhu flasiji#fendirduudui #is ~n~Lie

1m grammatically avfi nouns WG genus W;

number lu

noun f shs'l441wurnnunu ua~sliiuaurnnu4aus~a\junnmilis

49~~duuywr~flu~4ifiasKmziifl

&aasriLrhr Jan k & qn k h rdu hhu riau utiu Ju dm yar

VIr

rlu

rllu~lu'ry~uiinuhtliuhh-,

ADJECTIVES I~~I~#IuII~~nouns Ldu8ums comparative

degree tbm.thaa6q

rii ndi rdu

hrbin?'iexpression'l#cn 4

PRONOUNS Personal: of the first person Aa bu n'h

h Q

wu 4hrt~Y.rmbin~evriauiinzqnar47 ainlmirr m of qe second

person #a ~6srh fls g Ur#i .lay of the third person 8a L~I $u rm

\ vdau

Demonstrative pronouns: dtfu I&, Interrogative pronouns: lrpls a::b 1, VERBSIGf conjugation, mood, tense, person

ria~drfiunidhiiiiu riii~unim4nqa

Presenttense:

iiuiiu

iuiiuai

iiu61Ctjjn4~

-

I eat

~&~?iu

-

- thou eat

u'u?iu

-

- he eats

 

-

we eat

~niiiu

-

-

you eat - they eat

-

'

Past tense: nai$

Pluperfect tense: Liie$iiu~fiuLhI had eaten Future tense: s'uq::iiu I will eat Future perfect: <%sd%uuiiaI will have eaten Conditional: 6uq:Sufi I will eat if Conditional Perfect: s'~q::!fi~b6a61 I will have eaten if

Imperative mood: ~8oiiuma:Eat Infinitive mood: ?iuto eat Present Participle: n'i64iiuEating VERB OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

4

uiaurariuiiuiiu I ate

Verbs fiaflfis passive voip &~'~:IvuH~~I~~L%&.A~I%'I&B~ biu

Yd

1

I 6.~6oth1QI am beaten. r4tUatiiaQthou are beaten.

PRINCIPLE ADVERBS, ' ~HU~du(IIM~~HUwhere are you?

~IHUL~Y*i.kd3~4~3ik4fli~Ddd1~~where do his father and

L

mother live? udhu: dai~ld~ufrom where do you know it?

qinlrru: ~aieih~rruinnluufrom where do you bring this

cow?

rr: J ~ueddI am here.

PRlNClPLE PREPOSITIONS

1 04: until, towards, about umrieu:before, formerly

idu~u~4jtiuiii4~~~ifle0fl~rieu~

WYW

Y

du auu oul&qmurieumii4uiiau

CuC~'la.iiau~Gurn~

H&, dev61: in front, in the presence of

J

rdu riaunafjatii~a

PRINCIPLE CONJLINCTIONS

I

L

I

i

I

UA, 6%: and ~duflu8unZnu~a fi: and, also rdu~~z~flu~(ijr=:~mh~f~3n~uwF~m?n%

ria':even, as

rdu ~?unacfiiiud~ilu~e4ilq~Y'u~qq~ia

kki:not that L~U'M~~~=:JWLQUU~~L?~ aqczi: on account of this ~duLrrrqczi:Ln~iaa

4

nal4dj~nniina9ayoruuiuwwi~a~&~ar~n$nim&nqd$uqn'u

buindbailk rwnmimlnuluror&j ~o';I~iil~uinsdadiadk4w

ilmaanid 1~un~4hui~ia4~ukueifi~'uwsY"yinauc~qw9=:i4Ln6i

L~ID~ITQ ~da~udbd quniird W.H. bad.

aaur3uqqj vliol'mGiurnus ArBiiitaniao~wni~amimau~~utiiuriwszuin

norzdsiqlii ha

rdaaldin

la

au~~sn9=:~aumh~4iaaHII~anwCudzho~~finmai~~ifiuaznttvin

arn69ws:qaurnh~

~noaaamimui8nimlnu uarmqiu$u

IJirflunis

uanrdduu ilnraarilda~lu~iaalnu~du~~aiuiu5i~MC i!uXqiaM~.'uniann'y

ld%ndauS)dkrfla lug W.H. badd lu~isz~~u'nioi~uw'wa~~ub riaa $a 8wr wrsrua w-ts-tb~dlhd1~~4lrj~~ia"q~w"~51, v.d'J8aflu~nnisr5un14ui

J

~iaalnsqaDescriptionde Royaurne Thai ou Siam ~mss~ui~a~~aa~n~~uu~

yudip 1&ds:~~ia~~f~~511ia.frjlluam limn~iu~duaI/na~dszaiau vszuninwmsu maafi~ursa~nimhu

Y -c

J

w

I.

~ilunimnl(?u'Ivsl$~~wa"ikmvs'anui4fi~~uuaziiriiauyn

la

la

~i"nu~nwui~~ii6u~~r~~ui~innimeii;1~i~~n';13unimhu rfluvda

id o

3

la

4

luiiuquniunimnuairlu~nwsnan~ilunpnnuluGnwuna nim

iu

rfluaiull?zrnn

4"

J

rlwv

u

mmg~uuaznia~lnucnqqzndi~WiinimlneQuulii.raan

n~mmainvl~an~wai?Y"iu(langue vulgaire)

la

nimguq~as(langue relevge) uazmmr~n6anb(langue sac&)

iiii

uaiuiii~mn~r~au~iu~La"iuidnimlilaimvdBnim'~~i~Giudm n~m~ugi.r~mm~~~ndtu&~u~~na~~~un~~~u

'~118~8~1~1kdiiu~a~&~unitku~~aauaz~rn~d.~'~r;r"rvu~zaun'~~q~~fl

+r

ila~aofiiqnimllazii bo daudasen~~uannw (diphthongues) cu

A nafio: (derni-voyelles) &ail

a::

a:

iuuin

daumlTrysur iimonrCiomk~ nmrri~nQsuz cc rilkqmund

w 3.

(classitication)nau.

s'7wf~nnmr.rrfhd~gz(guttural)

A

.d

n.n

a

FIPI~Q

ko

kt16 kt16 kho kho kho ngo

s'nnnh8.rrlc)a,-(palatal)

Q

tlaacu~

cho xOA

xo

SO

xo

jo

.I

s'qvwnnrnuymaz (lingual)

3

do

nwm

to

tho th6 tho

no

s'7wmndd fiflaz (dental)

mmnnsu

do

to

tho th6 tho

no

h~nn"t~"7~DJ%,V(labial)

(demi-voyelles, sifflantes, aspiree:)

fiGua' ndi?tsd%lu~n'ud?ud%nauna.~dzftl~dud <unfiwd ndi&

~nw~=:iiid%w'u6d%wneii.j1

I

I

i

&!.la

~IUY~~LU?117A (Mary Haas)

(phonemic transcription) ~?u97nun~aiu~?BQ"Types of Reduplication in Thai" k "The Use of Numeral Classifiers in Thai' U% ~c44oBeginning Thai

luil n.a. cs~buk~in~u~~w~~iu~~n~i?1'nocii~uin~ialun~1~t~Q~=O ua:: ~otaoei~qzii@.i~udianuaaaarlaudaiur~6i&~ltzauAaiu~iL~~lu

I 4

v

44

ph

wwn

ch

Q4CU

S

(nrfl'lfa

kh

anw

f

dvl

b

Y

h

VEl

k~

nfi

PI

da

,

kw

na

phr

~s ws

khr

as ns

phl

wfi wn

,

khl

aa an

tr

6ls

1

khw

a? na

thr

ns (\uYI~/~I)

 

Y04

uanqinunu flr~ufl~floj18fldfi~owfl~dn~(syllable-final diphthong) fi

A

fi~~~twfi?u18rrj(triphthong) ~narjisuinuian~aifi~~oiz$~idozneuK?n

qooorynliii a riua da~Irn%aruiunjd~a

A

ru4

9~6~nn14(mid level) ~~r~h4rrnu

d

(falling and _allottalized)

~iuaq~uaziurilu~iua

(high and glottalized)

4'

I rlu4ru (rising)

I# A

14

14

0

V

I

i

I

I

1

i

I

1

4

I

1

n'~r~u,rrtu~nkjM:~utilu~(g~otta~i~tone) aisllI~fio~~~rnd~#'u

rilw (final a~otta~

d4moarTur1ua a Iuaiuaihuon uririaui~~~nM“tutuiic

41rfluXnaorza'mtWaa~anorqn6

nu\#

ae unu E Y~Y~i~nun'rilldji~iiqz'lI p t k ~flu~luaK~slznnunub

iY

u7e k~~uiau2iu~ei~qz~!u~~~~u=:$1~u~nu~1~~~11a~eieldn'l~(iiqedia du

r

iiii 'minpu" fiiPiiu41 "min/wu" ~~S:~BRL!U "taglom" 6iildiuii "ni/nnu" n' qmem~ilu"taklom" (ill4 k~~vijauniuum!aiqqz6inq~1l&)~unTtiiduianu~

iuii qr&usioweu~(syllable juncture) ~LIIUV ~~or~ouuu~ziiaaii

i

LA^ ~~~1~10lIflnm"~~

n7trGu (stress) ufe ri~ue~ii7uJ(intonation) nmnauqinniqnq7a 7daairqz

4-

Y

(Q) ~I'MBBWIW

lk%dl\l~duBeginning Thai uwz Phonetic

Dictionary of the Thai Language olNi4UML;o~iwho

o%iluhfi uuudn

$mildlu YAY ~duThai Reader, Thai Vocabulary, ua:: The Thai System of Writing

lug n.fl. Q~C&ZIia fqun'Y

Heng R. Subhanka lw"ra'ou61mSpoken

Y

Thai ~~uuidaiiuniilwhumrilullRiimae~~w'IIeanea~weiniflfiu~%[Y'

ufiiieisui Foreign Service Institute neans~n~1~nidiadoz~~flfivs'%[~kwz

i

'Types of Reduplication in Thai' ~i]u~t~~L~~?~~L~~~~~~~IW

i

"The Use of Numeral Classifiers in Thai"

Lfl~ni~ifnWL#~dnidfi n'l

"InterlingualWord Taboos" rflursaaayn1muqfiuhbanqm~u'h rruiuiurdualril~r~mzr$ua~diuiiim"oafiiul~~i'~lnuuialuninlmkuh

4.

I.

.I

3

"Techniques of Intensifying in Thai" ?i~ur%iuknww=:ksaa&aniw

rcl

lnu b il~znirdaiignwwzlquinodviianir uriruiiaufiicnxrdiiafiLfiuLBoa A~IUUUI~ Kn~mzusnfii%iii~~w~drfiu~~i~u~iunlQ~1iu~Kaiiin?uiuia iii (nukiiini~ijlu~~ui~inii~w~~~'naani'~~an~w~~duniq .to be white' niqkn 'to be pure white' knrrmzdaaafiiio niAinula6ufnnaaiii aaanuia6 kurdduur$uaq~twqnflfi~d$u~nis~druuduurnnir~d~~u niwajnqalfighqu he Tones of Four Tai Dialects" rd~eur$uudsaq??wqnflwiwlnu

4I

nu

.I

r'

(QI) rrquiI#n?uULn' Thai-English Student's Dictionary rarraiuffuiu

A

do

deaknmznoaniwhul?"~u~~ou~iu&~usi~ulrr~rfluwnaiud~hu~wuuw+ui

riaudq idu PIJIJ~~~~iiiwau iiid UA~1iendirnir8

de~i;r~uaiunaalinniw~iaw~nudu1n 9rrSiclu 19. mmua

r

I.

-#

(William J. Gedney) !hndiqll&lekrnd wiu~i~~~nifii;

uwiinui6urun uoa Indic Loanwords in Spoken Thai" ra~uunnisAnwiii8u

A

A

r.I

lu?Jn.fl.

.deb

dGl

-d

rrroird *Iib~~Oi(Murray Fowler) 6u nllua

u

~~~MUI~h~fkL!fl~ha'Total Distribution of the Sounds of Siamese: a

Topographical ~na~yJis~flunimn~~auitaiad~auldlbihauunnn~q4iii

auiafincii~ddnng~'~~iw~'ia1

~uai$bifu1nn School of Odental and African Studies uui?nui&u

aaunau nimaflLi~~dldd9ln'11~4~7fi,uamiman~iwuuudu7 aa4c~rinfir

t

daulu~a(/dnq?~#anl1#~&nwddauniti~nnt$&~iu~u~u~aun'u?nu1

5vu~uada3ufi~inaeunauu'n~z61a6~aiunaaran n7nuysdlu.nai

hudfl~~cylhn.fl. ~oMb&P

"Syllable Junctures within Stms Groups